FishFish is an excellent source of protein, and it isinterchangeable with meat in both quantity andquality. Fish is rich in fat and provides energy forwork. It is interesting to note that fish fat is easyto digest. Marine fishes are good source ofiodine and phosphorus but low in iron andcalcium.
Classification of Fish• Fish (vertebrate) – covered with scales.• Shellfish (invertebrate) – covered with some type of shell.
Determination of Fish QualityThe criteria of freshness are:• the odor that is not objectionable;• The eyes are clear and full, not sunken;• The skin is shiny and tight;• The gills are bright red; and• The flesh is firm.
Composition and Nutritive Value• Protein – has some percentage of protein content as with meat.• Fish Protein Concentrate – also known as fish flour produced from dehydrated and defatted whole fish; used to supplement bread and cereal products consumed by man.• Fat – lower fat content than beef exceptions are salmon, turbot, butterfish, and catfish which range from 11 to 20% fat and therefore resemble beef, and shellfish are notably low in fat.• Water and Extractives – has higher water content than beef and lower in extractives.
• Carbohydrate – have some carbohydrate in the form of glycogen the sweet taste of various shellfish is due to the glucose formed by enzyme action from the glycogen.• Mineral Content – edible os flesh of all meats is slightly higher in percentage of mineral matter than meat; shellfish has twice as much mineral as other kinds of fish.• Vitamins – fat fish contain more Vitamin A than lean varieties.
Classification of Fish on the Basis of Their Fat Content• Lean Fish – have less than 2% fat in their edible flesh; while flesh-fish fat is normally found in the liver.• Medium Fat Fish – have from 2to 5% fat, white- fleshed fish, fat content is normally found in liver.• Fat Fish – with more than 5% fat in the edible flesh, the flesh is usually highly pigmented (either yellow, pink or grayish) than that of the low-fat varieties, e.g. salmon, mackerel, etc.
Market Forms of Finfish
This is the form in which most fresh fish is distributed in localmarket fish stalls. Whole or round fish is the form of fish as it comes from the water but it is no longer alive.
This is the whole fish with only the entrails removed. Preparation for cooking is the same as that for whole orround fish except evisceration. Most frozen fish in modern supermarkets are also available in this form.
This is the fish, whish has been scaled ad eviscerated. Sometimes the head, tail and fins are also removed.
These are the two meaty sides of the fish cut lengthwise away from the backbone and held together by the uncut flesh and skin of the belly.
Fillet is the boneless side of the fish cut lengthwise from the backbone.
Steaks are cross section slices cut from the large, dressed fish; the cross section of the backbone generally included
• Live Fish – these are fishes which can be marketed alive because they live long after catch.• Deboned – this is the form most convenient in the cause of bangus, where the bones of the fish are removed.• Sticks – these are fillets or steaks cut further into portion in uniform width and length like sticks hence the name. they are usually frozen and breaded and ready to cook.• Flaked – fish meats separated from the whole fish is called flaked fish. Labahita is commonly made into flaked fish. Flaked fish may be sold in the form of fish balls, kekiyam and fish lumpia.
Preservation of Finfishes• Drying – finfishes are commonly preserved in drying. This consists simply of sun drying the whole fish or butterfly filleted fish.• Smoking – it is another preservation method of fish but its shelf – like is only a few days at room temperature since the fish is not extensively dried. Smoked fish are locally called tinapa, tamban, silintasi, tunsoy, lapad, salinas, bangus and alumahan are examples of fish that maybe made into tinapa.
• Freezing – this does not improve the quality of the fish but preserves only as nearly as possible the quality the fish in freezing.• Canning – canned fish are kept at room temperature and have shelf life of several years. Canned fish is a common food item to stock as it serves as a very convenient food to serve in unexpected situations.
Ideal Characteristics of Fish GOOD FISH BAD FISHFull, clear eyes Cloudy, wrinkled and sunken eyesBright skin Dull, slimy, pale colored skinTight scales Looses scalesBright red gills Yellowish, gray or brown gillsFirm and elastic fresh Soft and flabby flesh andDoes not keep a dent when fingerprint remainspressed with the fingerFresh, smell both inside and at Stale smellgillsStiffy body Whole fish, floats in water