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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION CHAPTER-1Attitude: The importance of attitude in understanding psychological phenomenon was givenformal recognition early in the history of social psychology. From the time of the concept‟s entryin to the language of psychology until now, interest in attitude has been strong and growing.However, over the years attitudes have been studied with differing emphasis and methods.Concept of Attitude: It is necessary to be precise in defining attitudes, because the variety of publisheddefinitions and descriptions is almost endless. Like any other concept, attitude may also bedefined in two ways, Conceptual and Operational. There is quite a difference in the conceptualdefinition of the term attitude, and divergent points of view regarding the concept of attitudehave developed.Major aspects: When the term first entered the field of social phenomenon, it was natural toconceive of attitude as a tendency, set or readiness to respond to some social object. For the firsttime, ALLPORT noted the definition of attitude, which he had observed contained the words„readiness‟, „set‟ or „disposition to act‟. Even ALLPORT has used these terms in definingattitude.He defines attitude as follows:“Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience,Exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual‟s response to allObjects and situations with which it is related” 1
  2. 2. Features of Attitude:  Attitudes affect behavior of an individual by putting him ready to respond favorably to things in his environment.  Attitudes are acquired through learning over a period of time. The process of learning attitudes starts right from the childhood and continues throughout the life of a person.  Attitudes are invisible as they constitute a psychologies phenomenon which cannot be observed directly. They can be observed by observing the behavior of an individual.  Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitude towards the objects in his environment. In fact, attitudes are forced in the socialization process and may relate to anything in the environment.Attitude, Opinion and Belief: An opinion is generally the expression of one‟s judgment of a particular set offacts, an evaluation of the circumstances presented to him. “Thurstone” defines opinion „as aresponse to a specifically limited stimulus, but the response is certainly influenced by thepredisposition with, with the individuals operating, that is, the attitude structure. A differencecan also be made between attitude and belief. A belief is an enduring organization of perceptionsand cognitions about some aspects of individual world. Thus, belief is a hypothesis concerningthe nature of objects, more particularly, concerning one‟s judgments of the probability regardingthe nature. In this sense, belief is the cognitive component of attitude which reflects the mannerin which an object is perceived. The difference between attitude, opinion, and belief exists onconceptual basis Most researchers believe that these three terms are so closely tied that it isdifficult to separate them except on a limited conceptual basis. 2
  3. 3. In the literature, often, there is a considerable amount of overlapping in these three terms.Most psychologists, however, believe that attitudes are more fundamental to human behaviorthan are he related aspects. For this reason, more attempts have been made to analyze attitudes ascompared to others. Obviously attitudes are an important consideration because of their centralposition in the process of transforming work requirements in to efforts. Attitude alone do not influence behavior but these acts with other factors in the individualinfluencing behavior, such as personality, perception, motivation, etc. Further, attitudes are alsoaffected by the individual dimension as well as the objects, persons, and ideas. Attitudes havebeen through as serving four functions and there by influencing the behavior. These areinstrumental, ego defensive, value orientation and knowledge. 1. Instrumental: Attitudes serve as a means to reach a desired goal or to avoid an undesired one. Instrumental attitude are aroused by the activation of a need or cues that are associated with the attitude object and arouse favorable or unfavorable feelings. 2. Ego-Defensive: The ego-defensive functions of attitude acknowledge their importance of psychological thought. Attitude may be acquired by facing threats in the external world or becoming aware of his own unacceptable impulses. 3. Value Orientation: The value-orientation function takes in to account attitudes that are held because they express a person‟s self-image, or by cues that engage the person‟s values and make them salient to him. 4. Knowledge: The knowledge function of attitude is based on a person‟s need to maintain a stable, organized and meaningful structure of the world. 5. Attitude that provides a standard against which a person evaluates the aspects of his world and serve as the knowledge function too. 3
  4. 4. These functions of attitudes affect the individual‟s way of interpreting the informationcoming to him. Since attitudes intervene between work requirements and work responses,information about how people feel about their jobs can be quite useful in the predication aboutwork response. Thus, these types of attitudes can portray areas of investigation for making theindividual and the organization more compatible.Factors in Attitude Formation: The attitudes are learned. Though there are different approaches as how learning worksand is acquired by an individual, generally it is held that individuals learn things from theenvironment in which they interact. Thus, for attitude formation, all these factors must be takenin to account from which people learn. Such factors may be analyzed in terms of groups startingfrom the family as a group, an individual moves in a close group, then to longer groups, andfinally to the society as a whole. A part from these groups, the individual‟s psychology whichmakes up particularly his personality, is also responsible for behavior and attitudes.Methods of Attitude Change: There are various methods through which a positive change in attitudes may be brought. Inthe social context, Cohen has suggested four methods for attitude change. They are:  Communication of additional information.  Approval and disapproval of a particular attitude.  Group influence, and  Inducing engagement in discrepant behavior. In some or the other, all these methods involve introducing discrepancies among theelements making up the individual‟s attitudes in the hope that the elements will be rebalancedthrough the effective component of the attitudes. From the organization point of view, a Managercan take following actions in brining change in attitudes of its organizational members. 4
  5. 5.  Group action  Persuasion through leadership  Persuasion through communication and  Influence of total situation.These actions involve the analysis of different variables affecting a particular action.Values and Attitudes: Some researchers see values as consisting of large sets of related attitudes. For example,“Fishbein” and “Ajzen” have included two components in attitudes-informational, emotional.Thus, they have taken values as a part of attitudes. However, some differences exist betweenvalues and attitudes. Attitudes are specific and related to distinct objects; people, or ideas. Valuesare more general than attitudes; values often contain statement of goodness or badness associatedwith the attitudes which people hold. Values are, then, beliefs about which attitudes we shouldhave or how we should behave.Values and Behaviour: Behaviour of people is influenced by the values which they hold, particularly in terms ofthose stimuli which have some value orientation in the organizational context, understanding theinfluence of individual value system on the behaviour of individuals in the following manner:  Values influence an individual perception about the problems he faces and consequently the decision he makes to overcome those problems.  Values influences the way in which an individual looks at the other individual and groups of individuals, that is, interpersonal relationship. Values become the basis of such interpersonal relationship interactions. 5
  6. 6.  Individuals judge organizational success as well as its achievement of the basis of their value system. Thus, for some individuals, organizational success may be in the form of high profit earning irrespective of the means adopted whereas, this may be a mean thing for other individuals.  Individuals set limit for the determination of what is ethical or unethical behaviour for themselves as well as for the others.  Values determine the extent to which individuals accept organizational pressures and goals. If these do not match with the value held by them, they thwart the organizational pressures and goals, and even leave the organization.Employees’ Attitudes towards the Organization: Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. You can see this bylooking at the three components of an attitude: cognition, affect and behavior. The belief that“discrimination is wrong” is a value statement.Cognitive Component of an Attitude: It sets the stage for the more critical part of an attitude and is reflected in the evaluativestatements concerning objects, people or events. The behavioral component of an attitude refersto an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something. In organizations,attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. If workers believe, for example, thatsuperiors, auditors, bosses, and time-and motion engineers are all in conspiracy to makeemployees work harder for the same or less money, and then it makes sense to try to understandhow these attitudes were formed, their relationship to actual job behaviour, and how they mightbe changed. 6
  7. 7. Types of Attitudes: A person can have thousands of attitudes, but Organizational Behaviour focuses ourattention on a very limited number of work-related attitudes. These work-related attitudes tappositive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment.Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, jobinvolvement, and organizational commitment.Job Satisfaction: The term job satisfaction to an individual‟s general attitude towards his or her job. Aperson with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about their job, while a personwho is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. When people speakof employee attitudes, more often mean job satisfaction.Job Involvement: The term job involvement is a more recent addition to the OB literature while there isn‟tcomplete agreement over what the tem means. A workable definition states that job involvementmeasures the degree to which a person identifies him with his or her job and considers his or herperceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of jobinvolvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do.Organizational Commitment: The third job attitude is organizational commitment, which is defined as a state in whichan employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintainmembership in the organization. So, high job involvement means identifying with one‟s specificjob, while high organizational commitment means identifying with one‟s employingorganization. 7
  8. 8. Attitudes and Consistency: Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes andbetween their attitudes and their behaviour. This means that individuals seek to reconciledivergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so that they appear rational andconsistent. When there is an in consistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to anequilibrium state.Cognitive Dissonance Theory: This theory sought to explain the linkage between attitudes and behaviour. Dissonancemeans an inconsistency. Cognitive dissonance refers to an incompatibility that an individualmight perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behaviour andattitudes.Moderating Variables: The most powerful moderates have been found to be the importance of the attitudespecially its accessibility, whether there must exist social pressures, and whether a person hasdirect experience with the attitude. Important attitudes are one‟s that reflect fundamental values,self-interest, or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. Attitude thatindividuals consider important tend to show a strong relationship to behavior.Attitude Survey: The preceding review indicates that knowledge of employee attitudes can be helpful tomanagers in attempting to predict employee behaviour. But, how does management getinformation about employee attitudes. The most popular methods are through the use of attitudesurveys. 8
  9. 9. Attitude and Workforce Diversity: Managers are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitude to reflect shiftingperspectives on racial, gender, and other diversity issues. A comment to a co-worker of theopposite sex, which 20 years ago might have been taken as a complaint, can today become acareer-limiting episode. The majority of large U.S. employees and a substantial proportion ofmedium sized and smaller ones sponsor some sort of diversity training. Some examples are,Police Officers in Escondido, California, receive 36 hours of diversity training for their 12,000employees. The Federal Aviation‟s Administration sponsors amendatory 8 hours diversityseminar for employees of its western pacific region.Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers inthe organization as well as academicians Various studies have been conducted to find out thefactors which determine job satisfaction and the way it influences productivity in theorganization. Though, there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivitydirectly because productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern formanagers. Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has abouthis job. “Dubrins” has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when hesays that.Determinants of Job Satisfaction: While analyzing various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind thatall individuals do not receive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job inthe same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature ofjob and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus allthose factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job and situationalvariables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are: 9
  10. 10. Individual Factors: Individuals have certain expectation from their jobs. If there expectations are met from thejobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual‟s level of education, age,and other factors.1. Level of Education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found the negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education and job satisfaction.2. Age: Individuals experience different degrees of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, get gradually reduced, starts rising up to certain stage and finally dips to a low degree.3. Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favorable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the work place. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. Effect of his Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. The effects may be seen in the context of anindividual‟s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. 10
  11. 11. Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual‟s physical and mental health. Since,job satisfaction is a typed of mental feeling, its favorableness or unfavourableness affects theindividual psychologically which for example, “Lawler” has pointed out that drug abuse,alcoholism, and mental and physical health results from psychologically harmful jobs.Improving Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction plays a significant role in the organization. Therefore, Managers shouldtake concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of jobre-designing to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life,linking rewards with performance, and improving overall organizational climate.Attitude Measurement: Attitudes are subjective attributes of people. They can be regarded as construct in thesense that they are conceptualizations of human qualities that are formed on the basis of eitherrational consideration or statistical evidence. Thus, people may vary along a number ofattitudinal dimensions.Keeping this measurement aspect in to consideration, the attitudes might be definedoperationally by describing the measurement systems that psychologists use to measure attitudes.Attitude measurement, developed largely by social psychologists is concerned with the efforts totap these attitudes as they are characteristics of individuals. There are many methods of attitudemeasurement. The Thurston type of scaling goes back to the early work of Thurston and Chive,which collected a large number of statements relating to the area in which attitudes were to bemeasured. This statement may be relating to any object about which attitudes were to bemeasured. The statements are both favorable and unfavorable and are placed in 11 piles, withmost favorable one being placed in pile 11. Other statements are placed in between their positiondepending on the degree of favorability or unfavorability. The scale is then presented to the 11
  12. 12. respondents. Each respondent checks the statement in pulling together numerous methodsdealings with attitude measurement. They are:  Self-Report  Indirect Tests  Direct Observation Techniques  Psychology Reaction TechniquesHowever attitude measurement of employees in an organization is most commonly carried outwith self-respect questionnaires uses several scaling methods. There are three types of attitudescaling which are commonly used in attitude measurement. They are Thurston type of scale,Liker scale, and semantic differential. With which he agrees his attitude score is then based onthe average or the median scale of the statements that he has checked. Soon after Thurston scale,Likert experimented with certain other varieties of attitude scales. Likert‟s attitude scale uses fivepoints. The statements relating to the measurement of attitude is given to the person concernedand he is asked to check one of the five points given for every statement. These points show thedegree of agreement or disagreement with the statement. The Likert scale is considered better ascompared to Thurston because of several positive facts.For example, in this scaling, there is no much problem in making numerous statements whichwill show both positive and negative degree. The semantic differential, an attitude scalingtechnique that lends itself to various applications, was developed by Orgood, Suci andTannenbaum. Therefore, an employee who has a high level of job satisfaction tends to bearattitudes, which are favorable to the organization. Balancing the positives with the negatives isimportant so that the employees will not be disappointed and become a problem that would havebeen avoided from the beginning. Attitudes cannot be changed drastically or quickly. There is areason why people have attitudes; it is a part of them. To change a person takes patience and lotsand lots of stalls, especially in a boss-employee relationship where it is more formal. Sometimes,all it takes is a warning in simple words which is to change an unfavorable attitude. 12
  13. 13. When an employee discloses a mental health problem, try to work out a reasonableaccommodation. Give him/her time off from work or a modified work schedule, make physicalchanges to the work place, or adjust supervisory instructions or training. Many mental healthproblems are highly treatable and cause only temporary disruptions at work. If an employee witha chronically negative attitude suddenly claims a mental disability, employers have the right toask for medical certification and/or, in some situations, a second opinion. However, credibletestimony from a family member may be enough, and asking for more may be an invasion ofprivacy. Check with an attorney before requesting these. Strike before the iron gets hot byincluding conduct problems in your employee hand book. Develop a policy that clearlydelineates the types of behavior which are not acceptable in your workplace. The abovementioned examples are some which can change unfavorable attitude to a favorable one. 13
  14. 14. PRISIDENCY KID LEATHER LIMITED COMPANY PROFILE This closely held leather company in existence since 1972 consists of a leather division, a shoe upper division and a full shoe division. The company derives enormous pride and satisfaction from the fact that the customer relationships are everlasting due to the consistency maintained in its very high quality standard of leathers, shoe uppers and shoes. Elegance and finesse is the hallmark of the glazed kid leathers. Beautifully crafted from a variety of leathers, the Shoe Uppers & Shoes are based on detailed information gathered from the clients. The companys policy is to understand the requirements of its customers accurately and come up with the right product, in the right leather at an attractive price. Customer profile of the company includes the best factories in Germany, Holland, England, Italy, France, U.S.A and the Far East. The companys management board consists of a chairman and 5 directors INFRASTRUCTURE The state-of-the-art manufacturing facility of PKL is located at a place that is wellconnected, and easily accessible. The area is renowned for leather and shoe manufacturing;hence skilled labour is available in abundance. Captive power and generating sets ensureuninterrupted production. Modern communication facilities like Internet, E-mail link to all themanufacturing facilities and Head Office 14
  15. 15. MANPOWER The tannery employs 300 workers and 100 trained technical staff with an annualproduction capacity of Fifteen million square feet of Kid, Sheep and Calf Leathers in a built uparea of 16,000 square meters. Renowned for its glazed kid leathers using the best Indian RawMaterial, the Tannery is equipped with a modern Effluent Treatment Plant. The shoe division ofthe company employs around 1200 workers, 40 technical personnel, executives and managers toensure that quality requirements and delivery schedules are met. The fully automated plant ismanaged by highly skilled staff, right from cutting to final production to meet the global demandof increasingly high standards with an annual manufacturing capacity of 1.2 million pairs of shoeuppers and 3,00,000 pairs of shoes.Shoe Upper Division: Customer satisfaction is extremely important to us. Hence, we place great emphasis onresearch, design and quality to ensure their total satisfaction. We use the best and mostappropriate leathers. Production Capacity: Two units with a total capacity of 12,00,000 pairs ayear making both Ladies and Gents uppers.Tannery & Finished Leather Division The tannery, with an annual production capacity of fifteen million square feet of kid,sheep and calf leathers in a buildup area of 16,000 square meters, employs 300 workers and100 trained technical personnel. Renowned for its glazed kid leathers, produced by using thebest Indian raw material, the tannery is equipped with a modern effluent treatment plant. 15
  16. 16. Finished Leather 1) Kid Leathers: Glazed and Polished Finishes Chrome and Vegetable Re-tanned 2) Sheep and Lamb Cabrettas 3) Calf Leathers: Glazed and Polished Leathers Full Shoes division With constant technical inputs and access to the latest technology our products are in aclass by themselves. Total commitment to quality, service and delivery schedule is to the totalsatisfaction of our valued clients. Our exotic collection of leather shoes reflects acontemporary trend in fashion worldwide. Each one is subtly handcrafted by skilled artisansand custom-made to impress the most fastidious buyers. Production capacity of 3, 00,000pairs a year. 16
  17. 17. PRODUCT PROFILE PKL Leather Industry The Presidency kid‟s Limited industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indianeconomy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has beenan increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilization of availableraw materials for maximizing the returns, particularly from exports. The exports of leather andleather products gained momentum during the past two decades. There has been a phenomenalgrowth in exports from Rs.320 million in the year 1965-66 to Rs.69558 million in 1996-97.Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international marketsbesides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of thecountry. The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter ofraw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. Policyinitiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such atransformation. In the wake of globalization of Indian economy supported with liberalizedeconomic and trade policies since 1991, the industry is poised for further growth to achievegreater share in the global trade. Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner, leather industry has tremendouspotential for employment generation. Direct and indirect employment of the industry is around 2million. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force. Theestimated employment in different sectors of leather industry is as follows: 17
  18. 18. Structure of the industry The leather industry is spread in different segments, namely, tanning & finishing,footwear & footwear components, leather garments, leather goods including saddler & harness,etc. The estimated production capacity in different segments is as under Product Capacity Leather Hides 64 million pieces Skins 166 million pieces Footwear & Footwear Components a) Shoes 100 million pairs b) Leather shoe uppers 78 million pairs c) Non-leather shoes/Chappals etc. 125 million pairsLeather Garments 6 million piecesLeather Products 70 million piecesIndustrial Gloves 40 million pairsSaddlery 6000 pieces The major production centers for leather and leather products are located at Chennai,Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Trichi, Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, Calcutta in West Bengal,Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in Punjab, Bangalore in Karnataka, Delhi and Hyderabad inAndhra Pradesh. 18
  19. 19. Raw material supplies There exists a large raw material base. This is on account of population of 194 millioncattle, 70 million buffaloes, and 95 million goats. According to the latest census, India ranks firstamong the major livestock holding countries in the world. In respect of sheep with 48 millionsheep‟s, it claims the sixth position. These four species provide the basic raw material for theleather industry. The annual availability of 166 million pieces of hides and skins is the main strength ofthe industry. This is expected to go up to 218 million pieces by the end of year 2000. Some of thegoat/calf/sheep skins available in India are regarded as specialty products commanding a goodmarket. Abundance of traditional skills in training, finishing and manufacturing downstreamproducts and relatively low wage rates are the two other factors of comparative advantage forIndia.Tanning and finishing capacity With tanning and finishing capacity for processing 1192 million pieces of hides and skinsper annum spread over different parts of the country, most of which is organized along modernlives, the capability of India to sustain a much larger industry with its raw material resource isevident. In order to augment the domestic raw material availability, the Government of India hasallowed duty free import of hides and skins from anywhere in the world. It is an attraction forany foreign manufacturer who intends to shift his production base from a high cost location tolow cost base.Export Potential The leather industry, one of the major foreign exchange earners of the country recordedsignificant growth since the beginning of the decade. Today the share of the value added finishedproducts in the total exports from leather sector are 80% as against 20% in 1970s. 19
  20. 20. Top ten Indian leather exportersTata International Ltd.Florind Shoes Ltd.Punihani InternationalFarida Shoes Ltd.Mirza Tanners Ltd.T. Abdul Wahid & CompanyHindustan Lever Ltd.Super House Leather Ltd.RSL Industries Ltd.Presidency Kid Leather Ltd.Pkl Leather Footwear Industry India is the worlds second largest producer of footwear; its production estimated over700 million pairs per annum. At about US $ 300 million per year, footwear accounts for 18percent share of total exports of leather exports. Various types of shoes produced and exported from India include dress shoes, casuals,moccasins, sports shoes, horacchis, sandals, ballerinas, and booties. Major production centers areChennai (Madras), Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai (Bombay), Calcutta and Jalandhar. Most of the modern footwear manufacturers in India are already supplying to wellestablish brands in Europe and USA. The large domestic market and the opportunity to cater toworld markets make India an attractive destination for technology and investments. Equallyrelevant is it for the footwear components industry, at this juncture, it is posed for real growthand diversification. 20
  21. 21. PKL Leather Goods Industry Items produced by this sector include, in addition to bags, handbags, hand gloves andindustrial gloves, wallets, ruck sacks, folios, brief cases, travel ware, belts, sports goods,upholstery and saddlery goods. A surfeit of modern units in Chennai, Kanpur and Calcutta employing skilled humanresources and equipped with modern and sophisticated machinery account for a diversified rangeof superlative small leather goods including bags, purses, wallets, industrial gloves etc. made ofquality leathers of cows, sheep, goats and buffaloes. The products meet the requirement of bulkbuyers and consumers in Europe, USA and Australia. The major market for Indian leather goodsis Germany, with an off take of about 25 per cent of the leather goods produced in India followedby USA, UK, France and Italy. With products ranging from designer collections to personalleather accessories, this sector has a share of 20.53 per cent in the leather industry, whilemaintaining an average growth rate of 11 per cent recorded in the last five years.PKL Leather Garments Industry The Leather Garment Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian leathersector. The product classification of leather garments comprise of jackets, long coats, waistcoats, shirts, pant/short, children garments, motorbike jackets, aprons and industrial leathergarments. Indian leather garments, which entered the world market only in the mid-eighties withexports of Rs. 15 crores in 1997-98, account for about Rs. 1530 crore in 1997-98. The majorexport destination of leather garments from India is Germany. In 1997, German imports ofleather garments aggregated DM 1786 million of which DM 304 million worth of imports wentfrom India. India, China and Turkey were the major suppliers of leather garments for theGerman market, as they accounted for about 78% of the market share. 21
  22. 22. Among the three major exporting nations of leather garments, India maintains a similarlevel of market share of about 20%, in both German and EU markets. Other markets for India include Italy, U.K., U.S.A. France, Spain and Netherlands.Recently, successful attempt had been made for exports to Denmark, Switzerland and Canada.PKL Leather Industry - Investment & Sales The ratio of investment: sales value is 1: 2.25, which is very low when compared toother industries. This is mainly due to low capacity utilization of the units. The capacityutilisation of units in respect of hides converting raw into unfinished leathers is estimated at49%, raw to finished 60% and unfinished to finished 70%. In the case of skin based tanneries, the respective percentages are 64, 67 and70. The main reasons reported for under utilisation of capacity are raw material shortage, highprice of raw materials, and lack of modernization, financial constraints, power constraints andstringent environmental regulations. Marketing of leather and leather products in Germany & the EU The leather sector offers a good potential which Indian entrepreneurs can exploit inGermany and other EU markets characterised by ever growing competitiveness in terms of priceand quality, on one hand, and the environmental considerations, on the other. With a strongfoothold that the Indian leather industry has had for long in these markets, and its advantage ofraw material and labour resources, Indian leather exporters can, and should, mount a concertedmarketing campaign to wrest a share consistent with their inherent strength and potential. Thishas to be done against the background of the well-known salient features of the German market: 22
  23. 23.  The worlds second largest import and export market A difficult buyers market with hyper competition and high expectations A dynamic multi-faceted market with rapid technological development and innovations A market where a considerable amount of buying power is devoted to satisfying individual needs A market influenced by the rising average age of the population and low birth rate A market where environment awareness and eco-friendly production becomes more and more a pre-requisite for successful marketing of productsMarketing channels The emerging trend in Germany has been towards direct imports. The other noteworthyfeature is the integration of retailing and manufacturing, particularly for the footwear sector. Thishas led to increased emphasis on distribution aspects of business. Other distributors, likedepartmental stores, mail order houses, super markets and non-leather shops have also gainedimportance. Many outlets get direct supplies either from the manufacturers and importers or fromwholesalers and buying associations (Einkaufs- Verband, e.V.). These developments necessitate the marketing strategies to be attuned to the specifics ofthe different channels, keeping in sharp focus the changes taking place in the distribution patternof chain stores, retailers, discounters, etc. The strategy should focus on a structural approach to the promotion of export of leatherproducts from India. This must include market information for exploring new markets,participation in different international trade fairs, organizing trade delegations, organizing buyer-seller meets, liaising with the representatives of the buying houses, etc. 23
  24. 24. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY• To know the employees‟ attitude towards the organization• To know the reasons for the employees‟ positive attitude• To know the reasons for the employees‟ negative attitude• To know the employees‟ expectations from the organization• To make suggestions to improve the attitude of the employees to the management. 24
  25. 25. SCOPE OF STUDY Monitor transition from a previously owned proprietorial business to a subsidiary business. Measure the effects of company management over the previous two years. Monitor the organization‟s current state of maturity. Monitor the effects of personnel, policy, and strategy changes. Monitor the effects of market changes. 25
  26. 26. LIMITATIONLIMITATION OF THE STUDY  Only 100sample size has been taken for this study. So, if this study is conducted to maximum persons, it may give accurate overall attitude of the employees.  It is done in PKL LEATHER LIMITED, so it cannot resemble the entire population working in the whole industry.  Time was a major limitation for our study.  Some people did not respond properly for the questionnaire clearly. 26
  27. 27. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEACH METHODOLOY Four types of studies can be called research namely reporting, description, explanationand prediction can be called research. Cooper and Emory (1995:21) define research as asystematic enquiry aimed at providing information to solve problems. Organization normallysupport business research for one research ie is to obtain competitive advantage.SAMPLE SIZE: Population : 500 Unit : Management Sample size : 100RESEARCH STUDY: In this study “EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE” the design chosen for the study is descriptive innature. As the study is find out the employees opinion about the training programs and theirviews and ideas to improve the training facilities.SAMPLING The technique adapted for the sample was disproportionate stratified sampling. From theuniverse, selected samples from various departments are chosen. Thus, samples were selected forstudy and hence the sampling technique used was disproportionate stratified technique. 27
  28. 28. SOURCES OF DATA:PRIMARY DATA The primary source include the actual information received directly concernedwith the problem of study. The researcher primarily collected the data about the employeeattitude towards the organization. The primary sources are mainly the general knowledge thatresearch knows about the topic and the respondents who provide sufficient information about thetopic.SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data are the information, which are attained indirectly. It‟s not attaineddirectly from the employees. The secondary sources of information include the publicized,unpublished documents and other such types of information. The public document such asbooks, manuscripts, reports, records, papers and magazines are for secondary data collection.DATA COLLECTION TOOLS: The tools needed for the data collection was questionnaire. The questionnairecontaining 20 questions was used to collect data from the employees. The resources for choosingthe questionnaire collection of data is the respondents will easy to answer the questions whichchoice rather than asking them to write own. Every lesser time is required for answering thequestions. The respondents express their views in a clear manner by the survey.PERIOD OF THE STUDY The study was conducted from 1 December to 30 December which altogether comprisesof one month.RESEARCH DESIGN The research carried out the study with the descriptive type of research. 28
  29. 29. TARGET STUDY The target study confined to the researcher is PRISIDENCY KID LEATHERLTD, GUDUVANCHERRY Works employees based on their evaluation of Employee attitudeThough EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE is given in almost all the organization, but only a feworganizations such as ltd takes its priority in organizing attitude programs & evaluating theprograms with continuous analysis for the development & upliftment of the employee‟s skills &attitudesSAMPLE DESIGN For this study two different types on non probability sample design were used. •CONVENIENCE SAMPLING This designs aims at the collection of information from any convenient group whoseviews are relevant to the subject of study. JUDGEMENT SAMPLING The second sampling used was the judgment technique, Where the group to beinterviewed was selected in advance by the judgment of the experts, within the organizationTOOLS USED FOR THE DATA ANALYSIS For the purpose of analysis and interpretation certain common methods were used throughdiagrammatic representation like pie diagram and data collected by the questionnaire method anddata analysis in percentage analysis. It is a descriptive type of study . 29
  30. 30. RESEARCH DESIGN It is the specification of the methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed to structure or to solve problems. It stands for advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting relevant date and the techniques to be used in their analysis, keeping in view the objectives of the research.Two types of research design were used for this study:-3.12.1 EXPLORATIVE STUDY First an explorative study was undertaken, with an aim at gaining familiarity, or with an aim at achieving insights into the study, which dealt with the formulation of a more precise research problem . it was basically a pilot study which was undertaken before actual research.The aims of this design was limited to1 Gathering the various secondary sources of information.2 Interview schedules with experts, to gather their insights and views about the study3 Analysis of the various causes related to their study 30
  31. 31. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY The second design used for this study was the descriptive study; the reason for using this design was to acquire knowledge in a detailed manner. This study basically aims at portraying the characteristics of the individuals and firms in a detailed manner, to find out the root cause analysis for the employee attitude evaluation and development in creating knowledge skills for the employees.ORGANISING AND CONSTRUCTING THE FIELD STUDY The next stage, was to carry out a field survey, for this the personal interview method was undertaken so the necessary information could be collected from the respondents. 31
  32. 32. TABLE - 8.1 SKILL DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Agree 74 74 2 Disagree 6 6 3 Partially agree 20 20 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above the 74% of the respondents are „Agree‟ that the job is enablesthem to develop their skills .20% of the respondents „Partially Agree‟ that the job enables themto develop their skills, but remaining 6% of respondents „Disagree‟ that the job is not helpful todevelop their skills. 32
  33. 33. CHART-8.1 SKILL DETAILS 748070605040 203020 610 0 AGREE DISAGREE PARTIALLY AGREE . 33
  34. 34. TABLE-8.2 LENGTH OF SERVICE S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 0-2 years 30 30 2 3-4 years 40 40 3 4-5 years 14 14 4 more than 10 16 16 years Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above it is clear that 40% of the Respondents says that they are workingaround „3-4 years‟ in the company .30% of Respondents are working between „0-2 years‟ inthe company.16% of the Respondents are senior of the company .14% of the respondents saysthat „5-10‟ years they are working in a company. 34
  35. 35. CHART-8.2 LENGTH OF SERVICE 4040 30353025 16 14201510 5 0 0-2 years 3-4 years 4-5 years more than 10 years 35
  36. 36. TABLE -8.3 FAMILY DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 1 20 20 2 2 40 40 3 3 24 24 4 Above 3 16 16 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 40% of the respondents says that „2 members‟ oftheir family depend on them .24% of the respondents says „3 members‟ of their family depend onthem . 20% of the respondents says „1 member‟ of their family depend on them. Only 16% ofmembers says above „4 members‟ of their family depend on them. 36
  37. 37. CHART-8.3 FAMILY DETAILS45 40403530 2425 2020 161510 5 0 1 2 3 Above 3 1 2 3 4 37
  38. 38. TABLE -8.4 ACCEPTANCE OF CHANGING CONDITION S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 80 80 2 No 20 20 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above that it is clear that 80% of the respondents have said „YES‟because they are able to adapt to themself to the changing conditions or unexpected obstaclesin the organization. But 20% of respondents said „NO‟ for that they are not able to adapt tothemself to the changing conditions or unexpected obstacles in the organization. 38
  40. 40. TABLE-8.5 STRESS DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Agree 30 30 2 Disagree 70 70 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 70% of the respondents „Disagree‟ that theydo not undergo stress when changes are preferred. 30% of the respondents agree that theyundergo stress when change are preferred . 40
  41. 41. CHART-8.5 STRESS DETAILS80 7070605040 30302010 0 Agree disagree 1 2 41
  42. 42. TABLE-8.6 OPTIMISTIC BEHAVIOUR S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 66 66 2 No 34 34 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 66% of respondents says „Yes‟ that they are able maintainintensity and remain optimistic and persistent even under adversity . 34% of respondents says„No‟ for they are not maintain intensity and remain optimistic and persistent under adversity. 42
  43. 43. CHART-8.6 OPTIMISTIC BEHAVIOUR 66706050 3440302010 0 Yes No 43
  44. 44. TABLE-8.7 ABILITY IS SET PRIORITIES AND ANTICIPATE PONTENTIAL THERATS OR OPPORTUNITIES S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 74 74 2 No 26 26 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 74% of respondents says „Yes‟ as they are ready to givepriorities and anticipate potential threats or opportunities in an organisation. But remaining 26%says „No‟ as they are not able to adapt set priorities and anticipate potential threats oropportunities. 44
  46. 46. TABLE-8.8 VISION SHARING DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 76 76 2 No 24 24 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 76% of respondents says „Yes‟ for they are sharevision with others influences other to translate vision into action but remaining 24% have rejectthe statement. 46
  48. 48. TABLE-8.9 ABILITY TO RESLOVE CONFLICT S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 10 10 2 disagree 20 20 3 Agree 40 40 4 Strongly agree 30 30 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 40% of respondents „Agree‟ to resolves Conflicts in apositive manner. Remaining 30% of respondents „Strongly agree‟ to resolves in positive manner.20% of respondents „Disagree‟ with this statement.10% respondents strongly disagree thatconflicts of positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impact. 48
  49. 49. CHART-8.9 ABILITY TO RESLOVE CONFLICT 4040 30353025 2020 101510 5 0 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree 49
  50. 50. TABLE-8.10 GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly Disagree 16 16 2 Disagree 14 14 3 Agree 20 20 4 Strongly agree 50 50 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 50% of respondents „Strongly agree‟. That the companyinspire/motivate & guide others towards goal. Remaining 20% „Agree‟ with this statement.16% have „Strongly Disagree‟ statement .Remaining14% of respondents „Disagree‟ with thisstatement. 50
  51. 51. CHART-8.10 GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT Strongly agree 50 Agree 20 disagree 14Strongly disagree 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 51
  52. 52. TABLE-8.11 DETAILS OF PERSON TO BE RELIED S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 60 60 2 No 40 40 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the table indicates that 60% respondents says „Yes‟ for they are person onwhom someone can rely to carry out tasks effectively . Remaining 40% respondents says „No‟for this statement 52
  53. 53. CHART-8.11 DETAILS OF PERSON TO BE RELIED 6060 405040302010 0 Yes No 53
  54. 54. TABLE-8.12 ABILITY TO TAKES UP RESPONSIBILITY S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 56 56 2 No 44 44 Total 100 100INFERENCE From the above table 56% of the respondents says „yes‟ for they are satisfied thatresponsibility are complete in a timely manner and within budget . Remaining 40% ofrespondents say „No‟. 54
  56. 56. TABLE-8.13 ABILITY TO SATISFY NEEDS OF CLIENTS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 82 82 2 No 18 18 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the table indicates that 82% of respondents are says „Yes‟ for they are able to theclient‟s needs to develop the business. Remaining 18% of respondents say that it is notnecessary 56
  58. 58. TABLE-8.14 ABILITY TO TAKE TIMELY DECISIONS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 8 8 2 disagree 12 12 3 Agree 56 56 4 Strongly agree 24 24 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table it is inferred that 56% of the respondents „Agree‟ that thecompany makes effective and timely decisions , even the data is limited the solutions produce unpleasant consequences. 24%of the respondents „Strongly agree‟ the company makes effectivesand timely decisions , even the data is limited the solutions produce un pleasantconsequences.12% of the respondents „Disagree‟ that the company does not make effective andtimely decision even data is limited or solutions produce un pleasant consequences. 8% of therespondents „Strongly disagree‟ that the company make effective and timely decision even datais limited or solutions produce un pleasant consequences. 58
  59. 59. CHART-8.14 ABILITY TO TAKE TIMELY DECISIONS 56605040 2430 1220 810 0 Strongly disagree Agree Strongly disagree agree 59
  60. 60. TABlE-8.15 ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANTS.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 16 16 2 disagree 12 12 3 Agree 48 48 4 Strongly agree 24 24 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 48% of the respondents „Agree‟ that theyare able to make logical decisions relevant & irrelevant information. 24% of the respondents„Strongly agree‟ that they are able to make logical decisions on relevant & irrelevantinformation. 16% of the respondents „Strongly disagree‟ that they are not able to make logicaldecisions and irrelevant.12% the respondents „Strongly disagree‟ that they are not able to makelogical decisions and irrelevant. 60
  62. 62. TABLE-8.16 REWARD FOR HARDWORK DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 70 70 2 No 30 30 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 70% of the respondents says „Yes‟ that they are rewarded for that hard work .Remaining 30% says „No‟ for this statement 62
  64. 64. TABLE- 8.17 PROMOTION DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 6 6 2 disagree 14 14 3 Agree 46 46 4 Strongly agree 34 34 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 46% of the respondents „Agree‟ that job promotions within the company fair and reasonable. 34% of the respondents „Strongly agree ‟ that jobpromotions with in the company is not fair and reasonable. 14% of the respondents „disagree‟that job promotions with in the company is not fair and reasonable. 6% of the respondents„Strongly disagree‟ that job promotions with in the company fair and reasonable. 64
  66. 66. TABLE- 8.18 DEMOTION /INCREMENT DETAILS S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 72 72 2 No 28 28 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 72% of the respondents says „Yes‟ for the increment onletter performance and demotion on job improper performance. Remaining 28% say „No‟ for thisstatement . 66
  67. 67. CHART-8.18 DEMOTION /INCREMENT DETAILS 728070605040 28302010 0 Yes No 67
  68. 68. TABLE -8.19 ABILITY TO DEVLOP NEW AND MAN EFFICIENCY S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 20 20 2 disagree 12 12 3 Agree 48 48 4 Strongly agree 20 20 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table 48% of people „Agree‟ that they are encouraged to developnew and more efficient ways to do their work 26% of respondent „Disagree‟ says that they arenot encouraged to develop new and More efficient ways to do their work .20% of people‟s„Strongly agree‟ that they are encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to do theirwork . 14% of respondent says „Strongly disagree‟ that they are not encouraged to develop newand More efficient ways to do their work. 68
  69. 69. CHART-8.19 ABILITY TO DEVLOP NEW AND MAN EFFICIENCY 48504540 20353025 20 1220151050 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree 69
  70. 70. TABLE-8.20 FLEXIBLITY OF MANAGEMENT IS BALANCING WORK S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly disagree 18 18 2 disagree 14 14 3 Agree 20 20 4 Strongly agree 48 48 Total 100 100INFERENCE: From the above table we understand that 48% of the respondents „Stronglyagree‟ that management is flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work andpersonal life.20% of respondents „Agree‟ that management is flexible and understands theimportance of balancing both work and personal life.18% of respondents „Strongly disagree‟that management is not flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work andpersonal life.14% of respondents „Disagree‟ that management is not flexible and understands theimportance of balancing both work and personal life. 70
  71. 71. CHART-8.20FLEXIBLITY OF MANAGEMENT IS BALANCING WORK 485045403530 20 1825 14201510 5 0 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree 71
  72. 72. FINDINGS The job enables the employees to develop their skills. The employees change themselves according to the changing conditions of the organization. The employees are ready adapt themselves to unexpected obstacles in the organization. The employees remain persistent even under adversity. The employees try to solve and manage conflict in a positive and constructive manner. The company inspires motivation and guides the employees towards the goal of the organization. The employees works with specific responsibility. The employees who work hard are reward by the company. The management is flexible and ready to understand the employees personal life. The employees are encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to work 72
  73. 73. SUGGESTIONS The job gives to their employees with full involvement. Efficient workers are encouraged with promotion and incentives. We train the adaptation of work should listen the employees. The management should listen the employee quaries The employee should be monitored properly 73
  74. 74. CONCLUSION Choosing the right type of person to the right type of job enables the employees todo the work with the efficiency and diligently. The organization motivates the employeeswith the good environment and remuneration. The employees working in the organizationis flexible and changes themselves according to the working conditions. The employee‟sconflicts are managed by the organization in a constructive manner. The efficient workersare encouraged with promotion and good remuneration. The objectives of theorganization it is clearly defined by the employees. The job given to the employees insuch that improves quality of the workers. The employees in a organization should not begiven any potential threats by employers. The company should inspire and guide theemployees for achievement of goal of the organization. The management guides and direct the employees to vital accomplishment of theenterprise goal . The introduces the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. Themanagement also stimulates to strive and willing to attend the organizational objectives 74
  75. 75.  BIBLOGRAPHY: This information is collected from books, and web resources. BOOKS: Organisation behavior - Philip kotlar Organisation behaviour - J.Jayasankar Marketing research - P.Ravilochanan WEB RESOURCES: www.pklindia.com Panther@pklindia.com www.google 75
  76. 76. ANNEXURE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE• This Questionnaire to be filled by the Employees of ____________________• Please indicate a Tick Mark on the preferred option for each aspect in the Questionnaire NAME : AGE : Designation : Sex : A. Male B. Female 1. This job enables me to develop my skills ? A) Agree B) Dis agree C) Partially agree 2. How long have you worked for this company? A. 0 – 2 Years B. 3 – 4 Years 76
  77. 77. C. 5 – 10 years D. More than 10 years3. No of Dependents in your family? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. Above 3. (Please specify)4. Do you adapt yourself to the changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles in the organisation? A) Yes B) No5. I undergo stress when change is preferred? A) Agree B) Dis agree6. Do you maintain focus and intensity and remain optimistic and persistent, even under adversity? A) Yes B) No7. Can you determine objectives, set priorities and anticipate potential threats or opportunities? A) Yes B) No8. Do you think that you can share vision with others; influences others to translate vision into action? 77
  78. 78. B) Yes B) No9. I can you manage and resolves conflicts in a positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impact? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) Strongly agree10. Does your company Inspire, motivate, and guide others toward goal accomplishments? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) strongly agree11. Do you feel that you are a person someone who can be relied upon to carry out your tasks effectively? A) Yes B) No12. You are a person who can be relied upon to ensure that projects within areas of specific responsibility are completed in a timely manner and within budget.? A) Yes B) No13. Do you meet the needs of your clients? 78
  79. 79. A) Yes B) No14. Does your company makes effective and timely decisions, even when data is limited or solutions produce unpleasant consequences.? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) Strongly agree15. Can you distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information to make logical decisions. A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) Strongly agree16. Did the hard work is usually rewarded by my Company? A) Yes B) No17. Job promotions within the company are fair and reasonable? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) Strongly agree18. Do you prefer this system of increment on better performance & demotion on improper performance? 79
  80. 80. A) Yes B) No 19. I am encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to do my work? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) strongly agree 20. Management is flexible and understands the importance of balancing my work and personal life? A) Strongly disagree B) Disagree C) Agree D) Strongly agree 21. What changes, if any, do you feel need to made in your department to improve working condition ? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 22. What changes, if any, do you feel need to be made in the company to improve working condition? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________*********************************************************************** THANKS FOR DEVOTING YOUR PRECIOUS TIME FOR FILLING THIS QUESTIONNAIRE 80
  81. 81. ***********************************************************************Date :Signature : 81