Traditional Connectivity [From Gartner Consulting]
What is VPN? Virtual Private Network is a type of private network that uses public telecommunication, such as the Internet, instead of leased lines to communicate. Became popular as more employees worked in remote locations. Terminologies to understand how VPNs work.
Private Networks vs. Virtual Private NetworksEmployees can access the network (Intranet) from remote locations.Secured networks.The Internet is used as the backbone for VPNsSaves cost tremendously from reduction of equipment and maintenance costs.Scalability
Brief Overview of How it WorksTwo connections – one is made to the Internet and the second is made to the VPN.Datagrams – contains data, destination and source information.Firewalls – VPNs allow authorized users to pass through the firewalls.Protocols – protocols create the VPN tunnels.
Four Critical FunctionsAuthentication – validates that the data was sent from the sender.Access control – limiting unauthorized users from accessing the network.Confidentiality – preventing the data to be read or copied as the data is being transported.Data Integrity – ensuring that the data has not been altered
EncryptionEncryption -- is a method of “scrambling” data before transmitting it onto the Internet.Public Key Encryption TechniqueDigital signature – for authentication
TunnelingA virtual point-to-point connectionmade through a public network. It transportsencapsulated datagrams. Original Datagram Encrypted Inner Datagram Datagram Header Outer Datagram Data Area Data Encapsulation [From Comer]Two types of end points: Remote Access Site-to-Site
Four Protocols used in VPNPPTP -- Point-to-Point Tunneling ProtocolL2TP -- Layer 2 Tunneling ProtocolIPsec -- Internet Protocol SecuritySOCKS – is not used as much as the ones above
VPN Encapsulation of Packets
Types of ImplementationsWhat does “implementation” mean in VPNs?3 types Intranet – Within an organization Extranet – Outside an organization Remote Access – Employee to Business
Virtual Private Networks (VPN) Basic Architecture
Device Types What it means 3 types Hardware Firewall Software
Device Types: Hardware Usually a VPN type of routerPros Cons• Highest network throughput • Cost• Plug and Play • Lack of flexibility• Dual-purpose
Device Types: Firewall More security?Pros Cons• “Harden” Operating System • Still relatively costly• Tri-purpose• Cost-effective
Device Types: Software Ideal for 2 end points not in same org. Great when different firewalls implementedPros Cons• Flexible • Lack of efficiency• Low relative cost • More labor training required • Lower productivity; higher labor costs
Advantages: Cost Savings Eliminating the need for expensive long-distance leased lines Reducing the long-distance telephone charges for remote access. Transferring the support burden to the service providers Operational costs Cisco VPN Savings Calculator
Advantages: ScalabilityFlexibility of growthEfficiency with broadband technology
DisadvantagesVPNs require an in-depth understanding ofpublic network security issues and properdeployment of precautionsAvailability and performance depends on factorslargely outside of their controlImmature standardsVPNs need to accommodate protocols otherthan IP and existing internal network technology
Applications: Site-to-Site VPNsLarge-scale encryption between multiplefixed sites such as remote offices andcentral officesNetwork traffic is sent over the branchoffice Internet connectionThis saves the company hardware andmanagement expenses
Applications: Remote AccessEncrypted connections between mobile or remote users and their corporate networksRemote user can make a local call to an ISP, as opposed to a long distance call to the corporate remote access server.Ideal for a telecommuter or mobile sales people.VPN allows mobile workers & telecommuters to take advantage of broadband connectivity. i.e. DSL, Cable
Industries That May Use a VPN Healthcare: enables the transferring of confidential patient information within the medical facilities & health care provider Manufacturing: allow suppliers to view inventory & allow clients to purchase online safely Retail: able to securely transfer sales data or customer info between stores & the headquarters Banking/Financial: enables account information to be transferred safely within departments & branches General Business: communication between remote employees can be securely exchanged
Statistics From Gartner- Consulting* Remote access for employees working out 90% of homes Remote access for employees while 79% traveling Percentages Site-to-site connectivity between offices 63% Access to network for business 50% partners/customers 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % of Respondents*Source: www.cisco.com
Some Businesses using a VPNCVS Pharmaceutical Corporation upgraded theirframe relay network to an IP VPNITW Foilmark secured remote location orders,running reports, & internet/intranetcommunications w/ a 168-bit encryption byswitching to OpenReach VPNBacardi & Co. Implemented a 21-country, 44-location VPN
Where Do We See VPNs Going in the Future?VPNs are continually being enhanced. Example: Equant NVAs the VPN market becomes larger, moreapplications will be created along withmore VPN providers and new VPN types.Networks are expected to converge tocreate an integrated VPNImproved protocols are expected, whichwill also improve VPNs.
Pop Quiz!Q.1VPN stands for…a) Virtual Public Network b) Virtual Private Network d)c) Virtual Protocol Network Virtual Perimeter Network
Pop Quiz!A.1VPN stands for…b) Virtual Private NetworkVPN stands for "Virtual Private Network" or "Virtual Private Networking." A VPN is aprivate network in the sense that it carries controlled information, protected by varioussecurity mechanisms, between known parties. VPNs are only "virtually" private,however, because this data actually travels over shared public networks instead of fullydedicated private connections.
Pop Quiz!Q.2What are the acronyms for the 3 most common VPNprotocols?
Pop Quiz!A.23 most common VPN protocols are…• PPTP• L2TP• IPsecPPTP, IPsec, and L2TP are three of todays most popular VPN tunneling protocols. Eachone of these is capable of supporting a secure VPN connection.
Pop Quiz!Q.3What does PPTP stand for?
Pop Quiz! A.3PPTP = Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol !
Pop Quiz!Q.4What is the main benefit of VPNs compared todedicated networks utilizing frame relay, leasedlines, and traditional dial-up?a) better network performance b) less downtime on averagec) reduced cost d) improved security
Pop Quiz! A.4 The main benefit of VPNs is…c) reduced cost The main benefit of a VPN is the potential for significant cost savings compared to traditional leased lines or dial up networking. These savings come with a certain amount of risk, however, particularly when using the public Internet as the delivery mechanism for VPN data.
Pop Quiz!Q.5In VPNs, the term "tunneling" refers toa) an optional feature b) the encapsulation of packets insidethat increases network packets of a different protocol toperformance if it is create and maintain the virtual circuitturned onc) the method a system d) a marketing strategy that involvesadministrator uses to selling VPN products for very lowdetect hackers on the prices in return for expensive servicenetwork contracts
Pop Quiz!A.5In VPNs, the term "tunneling" refers to… b) the encapsulation of packets inside packets of a different protocol to create and maintain the virtual circuit