Dr. Anita Lamichhane
Acute Flaccid Paralysis   Rapid onset of weakness, including weakness of    the muscles of respiration and swallowing,   ...
Acute Flaccid Paralysis   WHO:   Poliomyelitis   Gullain Barrie syndrome   Transverse myelitis   Traumatic Neuritis
Components of AFP Surveillance   The AFP surveillance network and case    notification   Case & laboratory investigation...
   Data management & case classification   Virologic classification scheme   Surveillance performance indications
Case and laboratory investigation   Immediate investigation into the case within 48 hrs    of notification   Stool speci...
Stool container
   Collected in a clean, dry, screwed capped container   No preservative or transport media should be used   The specim...
Poliomyelitis   Two Greek words: polios (gray) & myelios (spinal    cord..anterior horn cells )   In 1908, the polio vir...
   An enterovirus   3 serotypes-P1,P2,P3   P1 - causes outbreaks—is the most likely virus to    cause paralysis.   P2 ...
   The Virus is excreted in the stools for three to six    weeks.   It is more stable than most viruses ,can stay alive ...
Portal of entry                        multiplies in the cells of the mucousis the mouth                           membran...
   Cold chain- Maintenance of temperature from    vaccines synthesis to delivery to child.   Reverse cold chain- Mainten...
Yearly report                     Year-to-date    Year-to-dateTotal cases             2010            2009         Total i...
Yearly report …of Pakistan   In Pakistan, one new WPV3 case was reported on    the 17th February 2010, from Quetta, Baluc...
Number of confirmed cases ofpoliomyelitis in Pakistan, 1997–2008
Number of districts with confirmedpoliomyelitis cases in Pakistan,1997–2008
   Pakistan has recorded 76 cases in 2009 to date:   52 type 1   23 type 3   one type 1/3 mixture.
SNIDs in Afghanistan   the Provincial Government of Nangarhar, UN    agencies jointly launched sub-national    immunizati...
Disease Surveillance   The ongoing systematic collection & analysis of    data & the provision of information which leads...
Herd immunity   Immunity of a sufficient number of individuals in a    population such that infection of one individual w...
Wild polioviruses   Isolates known or believed to have circulated    persistently in the community & reference strains   ...
   In fatal infections, wild poliovirus may be present in   faeces   intestinal contents   lymph nodes   brain tissue...
Vaccination   1955 - Mr. Salk discovered IPV   1957 - Mr. Sabin discovered OPV   EPI- globally launched in 1974   In P...
Polio Eradication   In 1988 , World Health Assembly, in its resolution    41.28 – set goals of A global polio eradication...
   Global Eradication of polio program was    established in 1989.   Today only 4 countries are endemic to polio   Paki...
What is Eradication ???   The World Health Organization (WHO) defines    polio eradication essentially as ‘zero incidence...
Polio eradication requires                      +    Finding and                 Finding and  controlling wild            ...
Why was it launched ???   Humans are thought to be polioviruss only host   Virus survival in the environment is limited....
Objectives of the Global polio Eradicationinitiative   To interrupt transmission of the wild poliovirus as    soon as pos...
Strategies of achieving the goal   High routine infant immunization   Supplementary doses of OPV to all children under 5...
High routine infant immunization   All countries aim to immunize at least 90% of    infants with four OPV doses   These ...
National Immunization Days(NIDs)   It is the 2nd part of the four-pronged strategy and is also    known as mass immunizat...
   The aim of mass campaigns is to interrupt    circulation of poliovirus by immunizing every child    under 5 years of a...
   NIDs are normally conducted during the cool, dry    season    ( immunological response to OPV is improved and    the p...
Surveillance of new cases of polio   Countries to ensure that all cases of poliomyelitis    are detected   The goal of A...
       surveillance systems should be capable of        detecting at least one case of AFP per 100 000         populatio...
Mop-up Activities   AFP surveillance data are used to identify the final    chains of wild poliovirus transmission in eac...
   Improve coverage & ensure that the most difficult-to-    reach children are immunized, thereby interrupting the    las...
Summary of Proposed Milestones         Milestones for future                             Target year    1.   Establish com...
Polio Eradication in Pakistan   In Jan 2010, meeting covered the tribal leaders    and religious scholars   In South Waz...
   Special teams of women were mobilized & trained    to go house-to-house and address the recent rise    in refusal rate...
Recent advances of polio virus   Researches use crippled Polio Virus to attack    Brain Cancer   Polio virus has a natur...
   The genetically engineered altered poliovirus    when introduced in the body   Enters the normal motor neurons (it sh...
no cure for polio                     it can be                    prevented
Polio eradication program
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Polio eradication program

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Polio eradication program

  1. 1. Dr. Anita Lamichhane
  2. 2. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Rapid onset of weakness, including weakness of the muscles of respiration and swallowing, progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks
  3. 3. Acute Flaccid Paralysis WHO: Poliomyelitis Gullain Barrie syndrome Transverse myelitis Traumatic Neuritis
  4. 4. Components of AFP Surveillance The AFP surveillance network and case notification Case & laboratory investigation Outbreak response & active case search in the community 60 day follow up, cross notification & tracking of cases
  5. 5.  Data management & case classification Virologic classification scheme Surveillance performance indications
  6. 6. Case and laboratory investigation Immediate investigation into the case within 48 hrs of notification Stool specimen collection & transportation 2 stool specimen collected as soon as possible after the onset of paralysis (ideally within 14 days of onset of paralysis & at least 24 hrs apart) Each specimen should be 8 gms- each about the size of the adult thumb
  7. 7. Stool container
  8. 8.  Collected in a clean, dry, screwed capped container No preservative or transport media should be used The specimens collected, labeled ,transported in the cold chain-on frozen ice packs/ ice, in a stool specimen carrier or a vaccine carrier In Pakistan, the specimen is sent to NIHL( National Institute 0f Health Laboratories ) at Islamabad
  9. 9. Poliomyelitis Two Greek words: polios (gray) & myelios (spinal cord..anterior horn cells ) In 1908, the polio virus was discovered by Karl Landsteiner
  10. 10.  An enterovirus 3 serotypes-P1,P2,P3 P1 - causes outbreaks—is the most likely virus to cause paralysis. P2 - the easiest to eradicate followed by P3 Human are the only hosts without which the virus cannot survive
  11. 11.  The Virus is excreted in the stools for three to six weeks. It is more stable than most viruses ,can stay alive for several weeks in contaminated food or water. It is one of the most contagious viruses. If one family member is infected, nearly all the rest of the family becomes infected.
  12. 12. Portal of entry multiplies in the cells of the mucousis the mouth membranes in the pharynx and intestines Hematological Invades local lymphoid spread tissue • virus becomes neurotropic • produces destruction of the motor neurons in the anterior horn and brainstem
  13. 13.  Cold chain- Maintenance of temperature from vaccines synthesis to delivery to child. Reverse cold chain- Maintenance of cold chain from stool collection to delivery to the laboratories
  14. 14. Yearly report Year-to-date Year-to-dateTotal cases 2010 2009 Total in 2009Globally 39 110 1606in endemiccountries 32 80 1256in non-endemiccountries: 7 30 350
  15. 15. Yearly report …of Pakistan In Pakistan, one new WPV3 case was reported on the 17th February 2010, from Quetta, Baluchistan. Bivalent OPV was used for the first time in Pakistan in NIDs held from 15-17 Feb 2010 The next round will be held from 15-17 March 2010 in targeted high and medium risk districts, using bOPV
  16. 16. Number of confirmed cases ofpoliomyelitis in Pakistan, 1997–2008
  17. 17. Number of districts with confirmedpoliomyelitis cases in Pakistan,1997–2008
  18. 18.  Pakistan has recorded 76 cases in 2009 to date: 52 type 1 23 type 3 one type 1/3 mixture.
  19. 19. SNIDs in Afghanistan the Provincial Government of Nangarhar, UN agencies jointly launched sub-national immunization days (SNID) in Jalalabad on Sunday, 14 February 2010.
  20. 20. Disease Surveillance The ongoing systematic collection & analysis of data & the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent & control a disease, usually one of an infectious nature
  21. 21. Herd immunity Immunity of a sufficient number of individuals in a population such that infection of one individual will not result in an epidemic.
  22. 22. Wild polioviruses Isolates known or believed to have circulated persistently in the community & reference strains derived from these isolates. May be present in a variety of clinical materials faeces & throat specimens less commonly in blood rarely in CSF in non-paralytic & paralytic infections..
  23. 23.  In fatal infections, wild poliovirus may be present in faeces intestinal contents lymph nodes brain tissue spinal cord tissue
  24. 24. Vaccination 1955 - Mr. Salk discovered IPV 1957 - Mr. Sabin discovered OPV EPI- globally launched in 1974 In Pakistan in 1978 training was started and became apparent in 1979
  25. 25. Polio Eradication In 1988 , World Health Assembly, in its resolution 41.28 – set goals of A global polio eradication program OPV was recommended. In Pakistan started in 1993-94 Led by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and The Rotary Foundation
  26. 26.  Global Eradication of polio program was established in 1989. Today only 4 countries are endemic to polio Pakistan, Nigeria, India, Afghanistan
  27. 27. What is Eradication ??? The World Health Organization (WHO) defines polio eradication essentially as ‘zero incidence of wild poliovirus transmission anywhere in the world’.
  28. 28. Polio eradication requires + Finding and Finding and controlling wild controlling wildpoliovirus in human poliovirus in populations laboratories
  29. 29. Why was it launched ??? Humans are thought to be polioviruss only host Virus survival in the environment is limited. Immunization with vaccines interrupts virus transmission
  30. 30. Objectives of the Global polio Eradicationinitiative To interrupt transmission of the wild poliovirus as soon as possible To achieve certification of global polio eradication To contribute to health system ,development & strengthening routine immunization & surveillance for communicable disease in a synergistic way
  31. 31. Strategies of achieving the goal High routine infant immunization Supplementary doses of OPV to all children under 5 yrs of age during SIAS( Supplementary immunization activities) Active AFP Surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting & lab testing of all AFP cases among children under 15 yrs of age Targeted “Mop-up" campaigns once wild poliovirus transmission is limited to a specific focal area.
  32. 32. High routine infant immunization All countries aim to immunize at least 90% of infants with four OPV doses These doses are part of the basic (EPI) High routine immunization coverage decreases the incidence of polio & sets the stage for eradication
  33. 33. National Immunization Days(NIDs) It is the 2nd part of the four-pronged strategy and is also known as mass immunization campaign. Important activity for interrupting wild poliovirus circulation in endemic countries A supplementary immunization Intended to complement - not replace - routine immunization.
  34. 34.  The aim of mass campaigns is to interrupt circulation of poliovirus by immunizing every child under 5 years of age with two doses of OPV, regardless of previous immunization status. Three to five years of NIDs are usually required to eradicate polio NIDs are needed for at least 3 consecutive years to interrupt transmission
  35. 35.  NIDs are normally conducted during the cool, dry season ( immunological response to OPV is improved and the potential damage to heat-sensitive OPV is reduced.) SNIDs) target children for polio vaccination in specific high-risk regions of countries rather than the entire country.
  36. 36. Surveillance of new cases of polio Countries to ensure that all cases of poliomyelitis are detected The goal of AFP surveillance is to report and investigate “any case of acute flaccid (floppy) paralysis
  37. 37.  surveillance systems should be capable of  detecting at least one case of AFP per 100 000 population < 15 years;  collecting adequate stool specimens from at least 80% of AFP cases  testing all specimens at a WHO-accredited laboratory.
  38. 38. Mop-up Activities AFP surveillance data are used to identify the final chains of wild poliovirus transmission in each geographical area In these areas, two doses of OPV are administered to all children < 5 years, regardless of their prior immunization status, by immunization teams that go house-to-house.
  39. 39.  Improve coverage & ensure that the most difficult-to- reach children are immunized, thereby interrupting the last chains of wild poliovirus transmission In addition to delivering supplemental OPV doses, mop-up activities often include an active search for AFP cases
  40. 40. Summary of Proposed Milestones Milestones for future Target year 1. Establish comprehensive policy for future 2003 management. 2. Eliminate wild poliovirus transmission. 2003 3. Certification of ‘eradication’ of wild viruses. 2006 4. Introduction of IPV in routine immunization. 2006 5. Complete withdrawal of OPV. 2009 6. Certification of ‘true eradication’ of 2012 polioviruses. 7. Discontinue polio immunization. 2015
  41. 41. Polio Eradication in Pakistan In Jan 2010, meeting covered the tribal leaders and religious scholars In South Waziristan, Mufti Maulana Abdul Qayuum issued a fatwa supporting polio efforts, 15 mosques were made after the ceremony Women also played an important role in increasing the coverage
  42. 42.  Special teams of women were mobilized & trained to go house-to-house and address the recent rise in refusal rates The delivery teams equipped with appropriate messages, were able to cover 61% of all the refusal families in Larana.
  43. 43. Recent advances of polio virus Researches use crippled Polio Virus to attack Brain Cancer Polio virus has a natural affinity to invade the brain, by binding to the CD155 receptor on the surface of the motor neurons Brain tumors overproduce the CD155 receptors which makes the cell in the tumors more susceptible to poliovirus infection
  44. 44.  The genetically engineered altered poliovirus when introduced in the body Enters the normal motor neurons (it shares the same CD155 receptors as brain tumour cells )but cannot grow in normal neurons Kills the brain tumor cells
  45. 45. no cure for polio it can be prevented
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