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V:\Ch20 Powerpoint\New Frontierandthe20 Great Society

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  • David Hasslehoff
  • Zapruder Film
  • Walter Cronkite
  • LBJ Video

Transcript

  • 1. The New Frontier and the Great Society Chapter 20
  • 2. 1960
    • Cold War – Space race between U.S and Soviet Union
    • Presidential Election year – Kennedy vs. Nixon
    • Soviet Union begins stockpiling nuclear weapons
    • Americans begin calling for greater civil rights
  • 3. Election of 1960
    • Democrat – John F. Kennedy
    • Republican – Richard Nixon
  • 4.
    • Televised Debate – 1 st ever – Kennedy appears confident, at ease – appeals to public
      • Nixon seemed tense, nervous
      • Big help to Kennedy’s campaign in a close election
  • 5.  
  • 6. Kennedy wins by less that 119,000 votes
    • Televised debate helped campaign in a close election
      • Helped him overcome his age, 43, and religion (Catholic)
    • Civil Rights – Kennedy and brother Robert help MLK out of jail – Gain votes from African Americans
  • 7. Kennedy wins election
  • 8.
    • John F. Kennedy is sworn in as president, Lyndon B. Johnson Vice President on January 20 th , 1961
  • 9. Camelot
    • New era in White House – public becomes very interested in President and his family
  • 10.  
  • 11. Military Strategy
    • Flexible Response – Strengthen non-nuclear military forces, fight limited war, non-nuclear response
    • Created Special forces – Green Berets
    • Tripled Nuclear capabilities – balanced pwr with USSR
  • 12. Gary Powers and the U-2 Incident
    • Shot down over Russia, May 1, 1960
    • Held for 2 years in Russian prison
    • Exchanged for Russian spy on Feb 10, 1962
  • 13. Cuba
    • Fidel Castro – leads a revolution – gains control of Cuba – with U.S. support
    • Castro declares himself a communist and allied Cuba with the Soviet Union
  • 14. Bay of Pigs
    • CIA trains Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro’s government, start a revolution
    • JFK authorized invasion
  • 15.
    • 1961 – land at Bay of Pigs on Cuba’s southern coast
    • Castro’s army was waiting
      • Invasion failed
      • 1200 taken prisoner
  • 16. Huge Failure
    • U.S. accepts blame, big embarrassment
    • Castro relies more on the USSR
  • 17. Cuban Missile Crisis
    • 1962 USSR begins stockpiling nuclear weapons in Cuba – U.S. spy plane discovers missiles
  • 18.
    • Kennedy warns public of weapons – threatens attack on USSR if they are not removed
    • Imposes naval blockade of Cuba
  • 19. Closest we ever came to nuclear war
    • Soviet ships stopped or turned back
    • Kruschev agrees to remove missiles from Cuba if:
      • 1.U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba
      • 2.Remove our missiles from Turkey
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Hot Line
    • Created a “Hot Line”
      • Phone line between White House and Kremlin
    • Nikita Krushchev vows to build a stronger military
      • Soviets begin massive military build-up and U.S. does the same
    • Starts the “arms race” again
  • 24.  
  • 25. Crisis in Berlin
    • Many begin fleeing from Communist Eastern Germany
    • Krushchev tries to close off access to West Berlin – air and land
    • U.S. refuses to allow this
    • In response the Berlin wall is built
  • 26. Berlin Wall
    • Becomes symbol of Cold war division of Europe
  • 27. "Ich bin ein Berliner" = “I am a jelly doughnut”
  • 28. Lasted 28 years
  • 29. 200 people died attempting to escape
  • 30. 5000 succeeded
  • 31.  
  • 32. David Hasslehoff – German Superstar
  • 33. New Frontier
    • Kennedy’s domestic program - wanted Americans to move towards progress
      • Tried to push reform measures through Congress
      • Lacked a mandate – clear indication of votes to approve a plan
      • Kennedy had to play it safe
  • 34. Economy
    • Deficit spending – increased spending and reduced taxes
    • Increased spending on defense
    • Increased minimum wage to $1.25/hr, extended unemployment insurance, provided assistance to cities with high unemployment
  • 35. International Policy
    • Created Peace Corps – volunteer assistance to developing nations – many recent college graduates joined
    • Alliance for Progress – economic and technical assistance to Latin American Countries
  • 36. Space Race
    • USSR sends first man to space
    • Kennedy vows to send first man to the moon
    • NASA constructs new launch facilities in Cape Canaveral and Houston
    • U.S. believed reputation depended on supremacy in Space
    • As a result Science and Technology expanded greatly during this time
  • 37.
    • First Man Into Space – Yuri Gagarin (1934 – 1968)
  • 38.
    • First American in Space – Alan Shepard (1923 – 1998)
  • 39.
    • John Glenn, 1 st American to orbit the earth, 1962
  • 40. Gemini Project – 2 men in ship
    • Ed White, 1 st American to walk in Space
  • 41.
    • Apollo Project – 3 men actual moon project
  • 42. Fire in Spacecraft!
    • January 1967, Apollo 1 fire, Astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee died
  • 43. Apollo 11
    • Neil Armstrong, 1 st man on the moon, July 20, 1969
    • Buzz Aldron, 2 nd man on the moon
  • 44. Cape Canaveral, FL
  • 45. Houston, we have a problem….
  • 46. International Space Station
  • 47. We spend….
    • $25 Billion in space race
  • 48. Beginning of Vietnam War
    • By 1961, 9000 Americans had been sent to S. Vietnam as military advisors
    • By 1963 that number had grown to 17,000 American advisors
      • Most of these advisors were the Green Berets
  • 49. Dallas, TX - 1963
    • Kennedy is allegedly assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53. Oswald later killed by Jack Ruby in Dallas Police station
  • 54.  
  • 55. Conspiracy?
    • Warren Commission investigated
      • Found no conspiracy
      • Oswald acted alone
  • 56. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President
  • 57.  
  • 58. LBJ Years 1963-1968
  • 59. “ War on Poverty”
    • Very popular at first
      • Continued Kennedy’s programs
    • 1964 Congress passed the Economic Opportunity Act
      • $1 billions for:
        • Youth programs
        • Anti-poverty measures
        • Job training
        • Small business loans
  • 60.  
  • 61. Election of 1964
    • LBJ vs. Republican candidate Barry Goldwater
      • Welfare State vs. Nuclear War
      • Goldwater called for nuclear weapons against Cuba
  • 62. Landslide win for…
    • LBJ
      • 61% of popular votes
      • 486 electoral votes
  • 63.  
  • 64. Warren Court
    • Chief Justice Earl Warren
    • Brown vs. Board of Education- segregation unconstitutional
    • State sanctioned prayer in schools and state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional
    • Limited power of government censorship
  • 65. Rights of the Accused
    • Evidence seized illegally could not be used in court
    • Free legal counsel to those who could not afford and right to lawyer present during questioning
    • Miranda v. Arizona – all suspects must be read rights before questioning
  • 66. Tet Offensive
    • Vietnam War destroyed LBJ’s popularity and presidency
      • 1968 Tet Offensive
        • Convinced LBJ not to run for re-election
        • 60% of Americans disapproved of his handling of the War
  • 67. March 31 st 1968
    • LBJ announces on TV that he will not run for reelection
  • 68. The Great Society LBJ’s Vision to create an equal society
  • 69. The Great Society
    • LBJ’s vision of a more perfect, equitable society
    • -intended to benefit minorities and the urban poor
    • - rebuild decaying inner cities
    • - air-water pollution bills
    • Goal – eliminate hunger, disease, discrimination
    • Number of poor dropped from 21% to 11% in 10 years
  • 70. War on Poverty
    • Wanted to stop the cycle of poverty
    • Created programs that would solve the root of the problem
    • Economic Opportunity Act
      • $1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small business loans and on the job training
  • 71. Education
    • Provided federal aid to help schools purchase textbooks and library materials
    • Scholarships and low interest loans for college students
    • Corporation for Public Broadcasting – educational TV and radio broadcasting
  • 72. Healthcare
    • Medicare – provided hospital insurance and low cost medical insurance to Americans 65 and older
    • Medicaid – extended health insurance to welfare recipients
  • 73.  
  • 74. Housing
    • Built affordable, public housing
    • Established HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • 75. Immigration
    • Immigration Act of 1965 – ended quotas based on nationality
      • Increased the number of non-European immigrants entering the country
  • 76. Environmental
    • Wilderness Preservation Act – set aside land that could not be developed
    • Clean air and water acts
      • Standards put on vehicle emissions
      • Higher standards for air and water pollutions
  • 77. Consumer Protection
    • Truth in Packaging Act – standards set for labeling consumer goods
    • Standards set for auto and tire industries
    • Highway safety and transportation safety programs created
    • Created Department of Transportation
  • 78. Impact of the Great Society
    • Extended the power of the federal government
    • War on poverty – did lower poverty rates but did not accomplish all
    • Government budget deficit increased