The New Frontier and the Great Society Chapter 20
1960 <ul><li>Cold War – Space race between U.S and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Election year – Kennedy vs....
Election of 1960 <ul><li>Democrat – John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Republican – Richard Nixon </li></ul>
<ul><li>Televised Debate – 1 st  ever – Kennedy appears confident, at ease – appeals to public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon...
 
Kennedy wins by less that 119,000 votes <ul><li>Televised debate helped campaign in a close election </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Kennedy wins election
<ul><li>John F. Kennedy is sworn in as president, Lyndon B. Johnson Vice President on January 20 th , 1961 </li></ul>
Camelot <ul><li>New era in White House – public becomes very interested in President and his family </li></ul>
 
Military Strategy <ul><li>Flexible Response  – Strengthen non-nuclear military forces, fight limited war, non-nuclear resp...
Gary Powers and the U-2 Incident <ul><li>Shot down over Russia, May 1, 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Held for 2 years in Russian ...
Cuba <ul><li>Fidel Castro – leads a revolution – gains control of Cuba – with U.S. support </li></ul><ul><li>Castro declar...
Bay of Pigs <ul><li>CIA trains Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro’s government, start a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>JFK aut...
<ul><li>1961 – land at Bay of Pigs on Cuba’s southern coast </li></ul><ul><li>Castro’s army was waiting </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Huge Failure <ul><li>U.S. accepts blame, big embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Castro relies more on the USSR </li></ul>
Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>1962 USSR begins stockpiling nuclear weapons in Cuba – U.S. spy plane discovers missiles </li...
<ul><li>Kennedy warns public of weapons – threatens attack on USSR if they are not removed </li></ul><ul><li>Imposes naval...
Closest we ever came to nuclear war <ul><li>Soviet ships stopped or turned back </li></ul><ul><li>Kruschev agrees to remov...
 
 
 
Hot Line <ul><li>Created a “Hot Line” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone line between White House and Kremlin </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
Crisis in Berlin <ul><li>Many begin fleeing from Communist Eastern Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Krushchev tries to close off ...
Berlin Wall <ul><li>Becomes symbol of Cold war division of Europe </li></ul>
&quot;Ich bin ein Berliner&quot; = “I am a jelly doughnut”
Lasted 28 years
200 people died attempting to escape
5000 succeeded
 
David Hasslehoff – German Superstar
New Frontier <ul><li>Kennedy’s domestic program - wanted Americans to move towards progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to...
Economy <ul><li>Deficit spending – increased spending and reduced taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased spending on defense </...
International Policy <ul><li>Created  Peace Corps  – volunteer assistance to developing nations – many recent college grad...
Space Race <ul><li>USSR sends first man to space </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy vows to send first man to the moon </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>First Man Into Space – Yuri Gagarin (1934 – 1968) </li></ul>
<ul><li>First American in Space – Alan Shepard (1923 – 1998)   </li></ul>
<ul><li>John Glenn, 1 st  American to orbit the earth, 1962 </li></ul>
Gemini Project – 2 men in ship <ul><li>Ed White, 1 st  American to walk in Space </li></ul>
<ul><li>Apollo Project – 3 men actual moon project </li></ul>
Fire in Spacecraft! <ul><li>January 1967, Apollo 1 fire, Astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee died </li></ul>
Apollo 11 <ul><li>Neil Armstrong, 1 st  man on the moon, July 20, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz Aldron, 2 nd  man on the moo...
Cape Canaveral, FL
Houston, we have a problem….
International Space Station
We spend…. <ul><li>$25 Billion in space race </li></ul>
Beginning of  Vietnam War <ul><li>By 1961, 9000 Americans had been sent to S. Vietnam as military advisors </li></ul><ul><...
Dallas, TX - 1963 <ul><li>Kennedy is allegedly assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul>
 
 
 
Oswald later killed by Jack Ruby in Dallas Police station
 
Conspiracy? <ul><li>Warren Commission investigated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found no conspiracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Os...
Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President
 
LBJ Years 1963-1968
“ War on Poverty” <ul><li>Very popular at first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued Kennedy’s programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
 
Election of 1964 <ul><li>LBJ vs. Republican candidate Barry Goldwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare State vs. Nuclear War ...
Landslide win for… <ul><li>LBJ  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>61% of popular votes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>486 electoral votes ...
 
Warren Court <ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren  </li></ul><ul><li>Brown vs. Board of Education- segregation unconstitution...
Rights of the Accused <ul><li>Evidence seized illegally could not be used in court </li></ul><ul><li>Free legal counsel to...
Tet Offensive <ul><li>Vietnam War destroyed LBJ’s popularity and presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1968 Tet Offensive </li>...
March 31 st  1968 <ul><li>LBJ announces on TV that he will not run for reelection </li></ul>
The Great Society LBJ’s Vision to create an equal society
The Great Society <ul><li>LBJ’s vision of a more perfect, equitable society </li></ul><ul><li>-intended to benefit minorit...
War on Poverty <ul><li>Wanted to stop the cycle of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Created programs that would solve the root of...
Education <ul><li>Provided federal aid to help schools purchase textbooks and library materials </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars...
Healthcare <ul><li>Medicare  – provided hospital insurance and low cost medical insurance to Americans 65 and older </li><...
 
Housing <ul><li>Built affordable, public housing </li></ul><ul><li>Established HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Develo...
Immigration <ul><li>Immigration Act of 1965  – ended quotas based on nationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased the numbe...
Environmental <ul><li>Wilderness Preservation Act – set aside land that could not be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Clean air...
Consumer Protection <ul><li>Truth in Packaging Act  – standards set for labeling consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Standard...
Impact of the Great Society <ul><li>Extended the power of the federal government </li></ul><ul><li>War on poverty – did lo...
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  • David Hasslehoff
  • Zapruder Film
  • Walter Cronkite
  • LBJ Video
  • Transcript of "V:\Ch20 Powerpoint\New Frontierandthe20 Great Society"

    1. 1. The New Frontier and the Great Society Chapter 20
    2. 2. 1960 <ul><li>Cold War – Space race between U.S and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Election year – Kennedy vs. Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union begins stockpiling nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Americans begin calling for greater civil rights </li></ul>
    3. 3. Election of 1960 <ul><li>Democrat – John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Republican – Richard Nixon </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Televised Debate – 1 st ever – Kennedy appears confident, at ease – appeals to public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon seemed tense, nervous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big help to Kennedy’s campaign in a close election </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Kennedy wins by less that 119,000 votes <ul><li>Televised debate helped campaign in a close election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped him overcome his age, 43, and religion (Catholic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights – Kennedy and brother Robert help MLK out of jail – Gain votes from African Americans </li></ul>
    6. 7. Kennedy wins election
    7. 8. <ul><li>John F. Kennedy is sworn in as president, Lyndon B. Johnson Vice President on January 20 th , 1961 </li></ul>
    8. 9. Camelot <ul><li>New era in White House – public becomes very interested in President and his family </li></ul>
    9. 11. Military Strategy <ul><li>Flexible Response – Strengthen non-nuclear military forces, fight limited war, non-nuclear response </li></ul><ul><li>Created Special forces – Green Berets </li></ul><ul><li>Tripled Nuclear capabilities – balanced pwr with USSR </li></ul>
    10. 12. Gary Powers and the U-2 Incident <ul><li>Shot down over Russia, May 1, 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Held for 2 years in Russian prison </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanged for Russian spy on Feb 10, 1962 </li></ul>
    11. 13. Cuba <ul><li>Fidel Castro – leads a revolution – gains control of Cuba – with U.S. support </li></ul><ul><li>Castro declares himself a communist and allied Cuba with the Soviet Union </li></ul>
    12. 14. Bay of Pigs <ul><li>CIA trains Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro’s government, start a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>JFK authorized invasion </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>1961 – land at Bay of Pigs on Cuba’s southern coast </li></ul><ul><li>Castro’s army was waiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1200 taken prisoner </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Huge Failure <ul><li>U.S. accepts blame, big embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Castro relies more on the USSR </li></ul>
    15. 17. Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>1962 USSR begins stockpiling nuclear weapons in Cuba – U.S. spy plane discovers missiles </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Kennedy warns public of weapons – threatens attack on USSR if they are not removed </li></ul><ul><li>Imposes naval blockade of Cuba </li></ul>
    17. 19. Closest we ever came to nuclear war <ul><li>Soviet ships stopped or turned back </li></ul><ul><li>Kruschev agrees to remove missiles from Cuba if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Remove our missiles from Turkey </li></ul></ul>
    18. 23. Hot Line <ul><li>Created a “Hot Line” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone line between White House and Kremlin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nikita Krushchev vows to build a stronger military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets begin massive military build-up and U.S. does the same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starts the “arms race” again </li></ul>
    19. 25. Crisis in Berlin <ul><li>Many begin fleeing from Communist Eastern Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Krushchev tries to close off access to West Berlin – air and land </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. refuses to allow this </li></ul><ul><li>In response the Berlin wall is built </li></ul>
    20. 26. Berlin Wall <ul><li>Becomes symbol of Cold war division of Europe </li></ul>
    21. 27. &quot;Ich bin ein Berliner&quot; = “I am a jelly doughnut”
    22. 28. Lasted 28 years
    23. 29. 200 people died attempting to escape
    24. 30. 5000 succeeded
    25. 32. David Hasslehoff – German Superstar
    26. 33. New Frontier <ul><li>Kennedy’s domestic program - wanted Americans to move towards progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to push reform measures through Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked a mandate – clear indication of votes to approve a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy had to play it safe </li></ul></ul>
    27. 34. Economy <ul><li>Deficit spending – increased spending and reduced taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased spending on defense </li></ul><ul><li>Increased minimum wage to $1.25/hr, extended unemployment insurance, provided assistance to cities with high unemployment </li></ul>
    28. 35. International Policy <ul><li>Created Peace Corps – volunteer assistance to developing nations – many recent college graduates joined </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance for Progress – economic and technical assistance to Latin American Countries </li></ul>
    29. 36. Space Race <ul><li>USSR sends first man to space </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy vows to send first man to the moon </li></ul><ul><li>NASA constructs new launch facilities in Cape Canaveral and Houston </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. believed reputation depended on supremacy in Space </li></ul><ul><li>As a result Science and Technology expanded greatly during this time </li></ul>
    30. 37. <ul><li>First Man Into Space – Yuri Gagarin (1934 – 1968) </li></ul>
    31. 38. <ul><li>First American in Space – Alan Shepard (1923 – 1998) </li></ul>
    32. 39. <ul><li>John Glenn, 1 st American to orbit the earth, 1962 </li></ul>
    33. 40. Gemini Project – 2 men in ship <ul><li>Ed White, 1 st American to walk in Space </li></ul>
    34. 41. <ul><li>Apollo Project – 3 men actual moon project </li></ul>
    35. 42. Fire in Spacecraft! <ul><li>January 1967, Apollo 1 fire, Astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee died </li></ul>
    36. 43. Apollo 11 <ul><li>Neil Armstrong, 1 st man on the moon, July 20, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz Aldron, 2 nd man on the moon </li></ul>
    37. 44. Cape Canaveral, FL
    38. 45. Houston, we have a problem….
    39. 46. International Space Station
    40. 47. We spend…. <ul><li>$25 Billion in space race </li></ul>
    41. 48. Beginning of Vietnam War <ul><li>By 1961, 9000 Americans had been sent to S. Vietnam as military advisors </li></ul><ul><li>By 1963 that number had grown to 17,000 American advisors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of these advisors were the Green Berets </li></ul></ul>
    42. 49. Dallas, TX - 1963 <ul><li>Kennedy is allegedly assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul>
    43. 53. Oswald later killed by Jack Ruby in Dallas Police station
    44. 55. Conspiracy? <ul><li>Warren Commission investigated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found no conspiracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oswald acted alone </li></ul></ul>
    45. 56. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President
    46. 58. LBJ Years 1963-1968
    47. 59. “ War on Poverty” <ul><li>Very popular at first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued Kennedy’s programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1964 Congress passed the Economic Opportunity Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1 billions for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youth programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-poverty measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small business loans </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 61. Election of 1964 <ul><li>LBJ vs. Republican candidate Barry Goldwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare State vs. Nuclear War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goldwater called for nuclear weapons against Cuba </li></ul></ul>
    49. 62. Landslide win for… <ul><li>LBJ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>61% of popular votes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>486 electoral votes </li></ul></ul>
    50. 64. Warren Court <ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren </li></ul><ul><li>Brown vs. Board of Education- segregation unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>State sanctioned prayer in schools and state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Limited power of government censorship </li></ul>
    51. 65. Rights of the Accused <ul><li>Evidence seized illegally could not be used in court </li></ul><ul><li>Free legal counsel to those who could not afford and right to lawyer present during questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Miranda v. Arizona – all suspects must be read rights before questioning </li></ul>
    52. 66. Tet Offensive <ul><li>Vietnam War destroyed LBJ’s popularity and presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1968 Tet Offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced LBJ not to run for re-election </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of Americans disapproved of his handling of the War </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 67. March 31 st 1968 <ul><li>LBJ announces on TV that he will not run for reelection </li></ul>
    54. 68. The Great Society LBJ’s Vision to create an equal society
    55. 69. The Great Society <ul><li>LBJ’s vision of a more perfect, equitable society </li></ul><ul><li>-intended to benefit minorities and the urban poor </li></ul><ul><li>- rebuild decaying inner cities </li></ul><ul><li>- air-water pollution bills </li></ul><ul><li>Goal – eliminate hunger, disease, discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Number of poor dropped from 21% to 11% in 10 years </li></ul>
    56. 70. War on Poverty <ul><li>Wanted to stop the cycle of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Created programs that would solve the root of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small business loans and on the job training </li></ul></ul>
    57. 71. Education <ul><li>Provided federal aid to help schools purchase textbooks and library materials </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships and low interest loans for college students </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation for Public Broadcasting – educational TV and radio broadcasting </li></ul>
    58. 72. Healthcare <ul><li>Medicare – provided hospital insurance and low cost medical insurance to Americans 65 and older </li></ul><ul><li>Medicaid – extended health insurance to welfare recipients </li></ul>
    59. 74. Housing <ul><li>Built affordable, public housing </li></ul><ul><li>Established HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development </li></ul>
    60. 75. Immigration <ul><li>Immigration Act of 1965 – ended quotas based on nationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased the number of non-European immigrants entering the country </li></ul></ul>
    61. 76. Environmental <ul><li>Wilderness Preservation Act – set aside land that could not be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Clean air and water acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards put on vehicle emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher standards for air and water pollutions </li></ul></ul>
    62. 77. Consumer Protection <ul><li>Truth in Packaging Act – standards set for labeling consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Standards set for auto and tire industries </li></ul><ul><li>Highway safety and transportation safety programs created </li></ul><ul><li>Created Department of Transportation </li></ul>
    63. 78. Impact of the Great Society <ul><li>Extended the power of the federal government </li></ul><ul><li>War on poverty – did lower poverty rates but did not accomplish all </li></ul><ul><li>Government budget deficit increased </li></ul>
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