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  • 1. The American Revolution
  • 2. Declaration of Independence
    • Has three parts
    • Natural Rights :
      • purpose of government is to protect inalienable rights
      • rights that all people have
    • List of wrongs :
      • by the British that led to the Colonies to break away
    • Independence :
      • announces that colonies are a free and independent nation, The United States of America
  • 3. Celebrating the signing
  • 4. 1783-Treaty of Paris
    • Granted independence
    • Ended the War
    • Set boundaries of new nation
  • 5. THE EARLY REPUBLIC 1781-1801
  • 6.
    • Colonists came to America with concepts of :
    • limited government
      • not all powerful, not Absolute
    • Representative government
    • Ordered government
      • no government official is above the law
  • 7. Rights of Englishmen
    • Magna Carta-1215
      • King cannot tax or declare war without permission of the Nobles
      • cannot imprison without a jury trial/due process
    • The Petition of Right-1628
      • protection of civil liberties
      • no taxation without consent of Parliament
    • The Habeas Corpus Act-1679
      • prevent arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
    • English Bill of Rights-1689
      • prevents abuse by monarchs and guarantees citizens rights
  • 8.
    • The idea of guaranteeing individual rights developed over time, 1215 – 1689
    • Not just with the Bill of Rights
  • 9. Articles of Confederation
    • Ran 1781-88
    • First constitution of the United States
      • Provided for a weak central government
      • Could tax but could not enforce
      • Could declare War
      • States held most power
    • 13 separate governments
    • Mainly a defensive pact
    Articles of Confederation
  • 10.
    • 1783-1789 known as “The Critical Period”
      • Nation nearly failed
      • New constitution was needed
  • 11. Shay’s Rebellion
    • Daniel Shays
      • led a rebellion by farmers against unfair economic conditions and laws.
  • 12.
    • Showed that the Government was ineffective
    • US political leadership realized something had to be done
  • 13. Constitutional Convention-1787 Philadelphia 12/13 States attend (Rhode Island did not)
  • 14. Convened to Strengthen The Articles of Confederation
    • Realized early that a new system of government was needed
    • Decided to meet in secret sessions
    • George Washington-President of the convention
  • 15. “ Father of the Constitution”
    • James Madison
      • considered best prepared delegate,
      • led many discussions
      • made many proposals
      • Made daily notes
  • 16. 3 Key conflicts to resolve
    • led to concepts of:
    • Separation of powers
      • Created 3 branches of government
        • Legislative, Executive, Judicial Branch
        • each Branch has its own power and responsibility
    • Checks and Balances
      • Maintains the separation of powers
      • Each Branch has some control over other two
      • No Branch in total control
        • President can veto laws, Congress can over-ride veto
    #1 - Strong Central Government vs. Weak Central Government
  • 17. #2 - How to decide representation
    • Large States vs. Small States
    • New Jersey Plan
      • each State represented equally, unicameral congress
    • Virginia Plan
      • Representation by population, bicameral congress
    • Resulted in the Great Compromise
      • bicameral congress/lower house based on population/upper house equal representation
      • Both houses had to agree before something is done.
  • 18. #3 - North vs. South
    • The 3/5’s Compromise
      • three out of five slaves would be counted for representation and taxation
    • Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
      • congress could regulate trade
      • slave trade to be outlawed in 20 years (1808)
  • 19. Ratification Process
    • Acceptance needed for new constitution to be enforced
    • Approval by 9 of 13 States needed
    • 1 st political parties formed
      • Federalist – For
      • Anti-Federalist – Opposed, wanted rights guaranteed
    • 1791 – Bill Of rights Added, protection of individual rights
  • 20. Federalist Papers
    • Series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison, John Jay
      • Reasons why Constitution should be approved
    • Collected and published in book form in New York
      • to convince people of New York to support new constitution
  • 21. Signing the Constitution
  • 22. The Constitution
    • The Supreme Law of the Land
      • establish legitimacy, right to rule
      • Establishes “Popular Sovereignty”
        • the people have the final authority in government
  • 23. Structure
    • Preamble
      • introduction/purpose of Constitution
    • Articles (7)
      • rules/powers
    • Amendments - 27
      • 1-10 are the Bill of Rights
      • 13-15 are the Civil War Amendments
      • 16-27 are the 20th century amendments
  • 24.
        • protects our individual rights
        • Added to appease the Anti-Federalists
  • 25. Launching the New Nation
    • George elected first President, 1789-1796
    • New York City first capital city
    • Built the Executive Branch
    • C reated the first cabinet
      • Assist, advise the President
  • 26.
    • served two terms (8 years) and stepped down
      • every President after followed his example
    • Farewell Address:
      • advises U.S. to stay out foreign affairs, stay neutral.
  • 27. John Adams elected 2nd President, 1797-1800
    • very blunt, impatient
      • not very popular
    • Fought a Quasi (partial) naval war with France
      • lasted two years
  • 28.
    • Alien-Sedition Acts, 1798
    • allowed President to deport or jail any alien considered to be undesirable or
    • expressing “false, scandalous, malicious statements against the Government
    • Resulted in two States nullifying the Act as unconstitutional