Chapter 16-17 World War II (1939-44) 50 Countries, 6 Years,  40-60 Million  Deaths
 
World War II Looms <ul><li>European conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwid...
Dictators
Dictators rise to power <ul><li>Rise of dictators one of the major causes of the war </li></ul><ul><li>took advantage of e...
Italy <ul><li>Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism – state placed above individual </...
“ Blackshirts ” <ul><li>private “army” of supporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strict military discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Francisco Franco Spain - Fascism <ul><li>Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thought to be 1 st  battlegrou...
Soviet Union <ul><li>Joseph Stalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictator, total control of government, people </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Germany 1920-1945 <ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalized on feelings...
 
Brown Shirts <ul><li>Hitler’s militaristic supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidated, beat-up opponents and Jews </li></ul>
Hitler develops industries/military <ul><li>Massive rearmament </li></ul><ul><li>Began military build up in 1935 </li></ul...
built autobahn (1st freeway)
 
 
“Master-Race” Propaganda <ul><li>Germans were the status of perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Gave Germans sense of prestige, s...
1940 – Axis Powers <ul><li>Germany and Italy create the Axis Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Japan joins later </li></ul>
Hitler wants to regain territory lost after WWI <ul><li>1936 – sent troops into the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No res...
Africa <ul><li>wanted to build German Empire </li></ul><ul><li>invades Ethiopia, 1935 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopia asks ...
Hitler begins demanding the Sudentenland (Czecholovakia) <ul><li>Home to 3 million German speaking citizens – says they ar...
Appeasement <ul><li>The world remembered WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted to Hitler’s demands in order to avoid war  </li><...
U.S. maintain neutral status <ul><li>Neutrality Acts – 1935, 1936, 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Banned loans or arms sales to na...
The Non-Aggression Pact <ul><li>Germany signs “Non-Aggression Pact” with Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement to divide ...
War in Europe <ul><li>September 1, 1939, Nazis invade Poland from the west </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 weeks later Russia inva...
1940 – Hitler invades Western Europe <ul><li>April – attacks Denmark and Norway </li></ul><ul><li>May – Netherlands, Belgi...
 
 
Phillipe Petain Vichy France France Charles De Gaulle France
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain  1937-1940 Winston Churchill  1940-1945 & 1951-1955
Battle of Britain <ul><li>Battle of Britain – air war, Germany fails to defeat the UK air force </li></ul><ul><li>New Tech...
London Blitz
Royal Air Force <ul><li>“ Never in the field of human conflict, was so much owed by so  many to so few.” – Winston Churchi...
Germany invades Russia, June 1941 <ul><li>With France defeated and England chased off the continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Atlantic Charter <ul><li>Britain/U.S. pledge to commit to each other </li></ul><ul><li>A set of goals for which the war wa...
Lend-Lease Program <ul><li>Lend or lease war materials, food to the Allies </li></ul>
 
FDR orders Navy to attack German submarines on sight <ul><li>Nation prepares for war </li></ul><ul><li>1940, Selective Ser...
U.S. enters war <ul><li>Pearl Harbor is attacked </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. declares war on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. decla...
U.S. enters war in North Africa <ul><li>Battle of Kasserine Pass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>huge U.S. victory  </li></ul></ul><...
Invasion of Italy, July 1943
Mussolini’s govern. defeated Mussolini and mistress killed by Italians
President  Roosevelt Admiral Nimitz General MacArthur General Eisenhower Europe Pacific
Hitler unleashes “bliztkrieg”  <ul><li>“ lightening war” use of planes, tanks, infantry </li></ul><ul><li>massive force su...
Europe invaded, June 6, 1944 <ul><li>Operation Overlord, D-Day Normandy invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invasion of Normand...
 
 
 
 
within a few months France is liberated
 
Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 1944 <ul><li>Huge Nazi counterattack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort to win the war or at least gai...
The Holocaust Genocide – deliberate and systemic killing of an entire population
Final Solution <ul><li>Aryan race must be preserved and pure </li></ul>
Nuremburg Laws <ul><li>Stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property </li></ul><ul><li>Jews had to wear St...
Kristallnacht <ul><li>“ Night of Broken Glass” </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis attacked Jewish homes and businesses </li></ul><ul>...
Refugees <ul><li>Many Jews to flee to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. only let 100,000 refugees in </li></ul><ul><l...
St. Louis
&quot;We are going to Poland to strike at the Jews.&quot;
Forced Relocation <ul><li>Jews ordered to Ghettos – segregated areas in Polish cities </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed off with ba...
 
 
 
Concentration Camps <ul><li>Jews shipped by trains or trucks to “work camps” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Work makes one free” </li...
Auschwitz <ul><li>Largest Death Camp </li></ul>
Himmler <ul><li>Head of the camps </li></ul>
Jews would be sent to camps by train
Most not killed right away <ul><li>upon arrival, sorted into groups by  age, gender, health </li></ul><ul><li>after sortin...
<ul><li>Left, meant death, sent to the “showers”  for “cleaning” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children and their mothers always w...
<ul><li>Right, meant you lived (for now) </li></ul><ul><li>harsh treatment </li></ul>
<ul><li>Forced to work  </li></ul><ul><li>Little food, water </li></ul><ul><li>Many died of starvation, exhaustion </li></ul>
 
Fences were electrically charged
Learned to become more “efficient” by using gas <ul><li>used gas in shower rooms </li></ul><ul><li>“ assembly line” proces...
They began to cremate the bodies
Six Million died in the death camps
 
Liberation <ul><li>Allies discovered death camps as they headed towards Germany </li></ul><ul><li>This is what they saw </...
 
 
 
Made German people view the work of their guards
 
<ul><li>http://www.cnn.com/video/?/video/world/2010/01/27/riddell.auschwitz.liberation.cnn </li></ul>
Allies capture Berlin April, 1945
Hitler commits suicide
Americans link with Russians at the Elbe River
May, 8 1945, Germany surrenders <ul><li>V-E Day (Victory in Europe) </li></ul>
Allied leaders meet at Yalta to discuss peace terms <ul><li>Unconditional surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Germany into ...
Nuremburg War Trials <ul><li>Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time lead...
The Pacific War
<ul><li>MacArthur FDR Nimitz </li></ul>
Hideki Tojo militarists disliked democracy restore the  bushido Code  (samurai Warrior Code) terrorized/murdered oppositio...
<ul><li>Japan takes advantage of the Axis victories in Europe by invading China </li></ul>
China Chiang Kai Shek Leader of China 1928-1949
<ul><li>U.S. begins an embargo on Japan which angers them. </li></ul>
Japan prepares to attack U.S. <ul><li>Only threat to Japanese expansion </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. knew attack was coming, not...
Pearl Harbor, HI <ul><li>Dec. 7, 1941 – Sunday morning, 7:55, Japan attacks U.S. fleet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A date that...
 
USS Arizona
 
America abandons neutrality and joins the war
Philippines <ul><li>Douglas MacArthur commands troops </li></ul><ul><li>Allied troops evacuate as Japanese take over </li>...
Leyte Gulf….MacArthur fulfills his promise and returns…
Bataan Death March <ul><li>Transfer of Filipino and American POWS </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to march 60 miles in tropical h...
 
 
 
 
2 pronged attack <ul><li>Admiral Nimitz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy and marines, move through the central Pacific </li></ul...
 
Pacific strategy was “Island hopping” <ul><li>Capture a few islands by passing many others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Island ch...
June, 1942, Battle of Midway <ul><li>Invading force stopped by Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Turning point of the war in the Paci...
 
 
 
Chester Nimitz
 
Bushido Code <ul><li>Warrior code of the Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty, devotion, honor to the death </li></ul><ul><li...
Kamikaze <ul><li>Suicide pilots  </li></ul>
 
 
1944, Saipan <ul><li>many Japanese women and children committed suicide rather than fall into U.S. hands </li></ul><ul><li...
Iwo Jima, February 1945 <ul><li>Close to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily guarded </li></ul><ul><li>Allies capture Island <...
 
 
 
April 1945, Okinawa Captured <ul><li>Next stop: Japan </li></ul>
 
Manhattan Project <ul><li>Building of the atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by J. Robert Openheimer </li></ul>
July 16, 1945 <ul><li>Successful test of Atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Alamogordo, NM </li></ul>
I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.  J. Robert Oppenheimer
1945, FDR Dies <ul><li>Truman becomes president </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Truman wanted to avoid invasion of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to end the war and save American and Japanese li...
 
 
Potsdam Ultimatum <ul><li>Issued by United States, England, China </li></ul><ul><li>Asked Japan to surrender unconditional...
Aug. 6 1945, Hiroshima, Japan <ul><li>Destroyed by one bomb </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 killed immediately </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Enola Gay, PLANE THAT DROPPED THE BOMB
Three Days later – drops bomb on Nagasawki
 
Sept. 2, 1945 Japan surrenders on deck of the U.S. warship USS Missouri
VJ DAY, AUGUST 14, 1945  WORLD WAR II ENDS
Occupied Japan <ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur in command </li></ul><ul><li>Tojo and other Japanese leaders sentenced to...
WWII and the Homefront
The Homefront <ul><li>Similar to WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Economic boom </li></ul><ul><li>Government actively planned economy...
Government takes control of economy <ul><li>Office of Price Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Froze prices on most good...
<ul><li>Automobile factories – tanks, planes, boats </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Pencil Factory – bomb parts </li></ul><ul...
 
Rationing <ul><li>Fixed allotment of goods deemed necessary for the military </li></ul><ul><li>Households received ration ...
Greatest Generation <ul><li>People willingly made and accepted sacrifices in their lives in support of the war </li></ul>
<ul><li>George Marshall-Army Chief of Staff-wanted to form a Women’s Auxillary Army Corps (WAAC)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wo...
Once again women take the jobs of men <ul><li>Hired by factories and defense plants to produce war goods </li></ul>
 
 
1944 - Congress passes the G.I. Bill of Rights <ul><li>provides education, job training, low interest loans for veterans <...
Great Migration, part II  (1940-1950)
Japanese Internment <ul><li>After Pearl Harbor over 112,000 Japanese Americans lost their homes and businesses </li></ul>
Japanese Internment <ul><li>Sent to 26 camps in 16 states </li></ul><ul><li>Strong anti-Japanese sentiment due to Pearl Ha...
<ul><li>Executive Order 9066 </li></ul><ul><li>Upheld by Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for national security <...
 
 
Not allowed to take major possessions
 
 
 
WW II Memorial in Washington DC Dedicated on April 29, ______
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Chapter 16 17

  1. 1. Chapter 16-17 World War II (1939-44) 50 Countries, 6 Years, 40-60 Million Deaths
  2. 3. World War II Looms <ul><li>European conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcry for strong leadership </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Dictators
  4. 5. Dictators rise to power <ul><li>Rise of dictators one of the major causes of the war </li></ul><ul><li>took advantage of economic, social crisis </li></ul><ul><li>promised to restore countries to greatness </li></ul><ul><li>blamed problems on current government and on specific groups </li></ul>
  5. 6. Italy <ul><li>Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism – state placed above individual </li></ul>
  6. 7. “ Blackshirts ” <ul><li>private “army” of supporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strict military discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beat-up, killed political opponents </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Francisco Franco Spain - Fascism <ul><li>Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thought to be 1 st battleground of WW II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Italy, Russia help Franco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Franco becomes dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Remained neutral during WW II </li></ul>
  8. 9. Soviet Union <ul><li>Joseph Stalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictator, total control of government, people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admired U.S. productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformed the USSR from a rural nation into an industrial power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murdered 8-13 million of his people </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Germany 1920-1945 <ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalized on feelings of humiliation/resentment after WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised to build a new German empire (Third Reich) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed problems on current government </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Brown Shirts <ul><li>Hitler’s militaristic supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidated, beat-up opponents and Jews </li></ul>
  11. 13. Hitler develops industries/military <ul><li>Massive rearmament </li></ul><ul><li>Began military build up in 1935 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockpiling weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against Treaty of Versailles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing happened which only encourage Hitler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminated unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Rationed food, made Germans self-sufficient </li></ul>
  12. 14. built autobahn (1st freeway)
  13. 17. “Master-Race” Propaganda <ul><li>Germans were the status of perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Gave Germans sense of prestige, strength, and importance </li></ul><ul><li>Restored pride to German people </li></ul>
  14. 18. 1940 – Axis Powers <ul><li>Germany and Italy create the Axis Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Japan joins later </li></ul>
  15. 19. Hitler wants to regain territory lost after WWI <ul><li>1936 – sent troops into the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No response from League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1938 – Invaded/annexed Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Again no response </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Africa <ul><li>wanted to build German Empire </li></ul><ul><li>invades Ethiopia, 1935 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopia asks League of Nations for help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>none given </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Hitler begins demanding the Sudentenland (Czecholovakia) <ul><li>Home to 3 million German speaking citizens – says they are being abused and need protection </li></ul><ul><li>Germans needed more living space </li></ul><ul><li>States this will be his last demand </li></ul>
  18. 22. Appeasement <ul><li>The world remembered WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted to Hitler’s demands in order to avoid war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped he would stop demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler had valid objections to WWI treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of communism – Nazis could help defeat communism </li></ul>
  19. 23. U.S. maintain neutral status <ul><li>Neutrality Acts – 1935, 1936, 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Banned loans or arms sales to nations at war </li></ul><ul><li>This limited the options of the President in a crisis </li></ul>
  20. 24. The Non-Aggression Pact <ul><li>Germany signs “Non-Aggression Pact” with Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement to divide Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But not to attack each other </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. War in Europe <ul><li>September 1, 1939, Nazis invade Poland from the west </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 weeks later Russia invades from the east </li></ul></ul><ul><li>England/France declare war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Poland is defeated in 30 days – blitzkrieg – lightening war </li></ul>
  22. 26. 1940 – Hitler invades Western Europe <ul><li>April – attacks Denmark and Norway </li></ul><ul><li>May – Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>June – France falls to the Nazis </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler prepares to invade Great Britain </li></ul>
  23. 29. Phillipe Petain Vichy France France Charles De Gaulle France
  24. 30. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain 1937-1940 Winston Churchill 1940-1945 & 1951-1955
  25. 31. Battle of Britain <ul><li>Battle of Britain – air war, Germany fails to defeat the UK air force </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology – Radar – plays a big part in victory </li></ul>
  26. 32. London Blitz
  27. 33. Royal Air Force <ul><li>“ Never in the field of human conflict, was so much owed by so many to so few.” – Winston Churchill </li></ul>
  28. 34. Germany invades Russia, June 1941 <ul><li>With France defeated and England chased off the continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler opens two front war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>retreating Russians use “ Scorched Earth policy ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destroy everything they leave behind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia bore brunt of fighting </li></ul>
  29. 35. Atlantic Charter <ul><li>Britain/U.S. pledge to commit to each other </li></ul><ul><li>A set of goals for which the war was being fought (U.S. not yet in the war) </li></ul>
  30. 36. Lend-Lease Program <ul><li>Lend or lease war materials, food to the Allies </li></ul>
  31. 38. FDR orders Navy to attack German submarines on sight <ul><li>Nation prepares for war </li></ul><ul><li>1940, Selective Service Act (draft) passed </li></ul><ul><li>Army triples in size </li></ul>
  32. 39. U.S. enters war <ul><li>Pearl Harbor is attacked </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. declares war on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. declares war on Germany </li></ul>
  33. 40. U.S. enters war in North Africa <ul><li>Battle of Kasserine Pass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>huge U.S. victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by May, Nazis driven out of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Russia demands that the US and England open a second front </li></ul>
  34. 41. Invasion of Italy, July 1943
  35. 42. Mussolini’s govern. defeated Mussolini and mistress killed by Italians
  36. 43. President Roosevelt Admiral Nimitz General MacArthur General Eisenhower Europe Pacific
  37. 44. Hitler unleashes “bliztkrieg” <ul><li>“ lightening war” use of planes, tanks, infantry </li></ul><ul><li>massive force surprised Allies </li></ul>
  38. 45. Europe invaded, June 6, 1944 <ul><li>Operation Overlord, D-Day Normandy invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invasion of Normandy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150,000 Allied soldiers land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opened a Second major front in Europe </li></ul>
  39. 50. within a few months France is liberated
  40. 52. Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 1944 <ul><li>Huge Nazi counterattack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort to win the war or at least gain an armistice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nazi’s were defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Last German offensive </li></ul>
  41. 53. The Holocaust Genocide – deliberate and systemic killing of an entire population
  42. 54. Final Solution <ul><li>Aryan race must be preserved and pure </li></ul>
  43. 55. Nuremburg Laws <ul><li>Stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property </li></ul><ul><li>Jews had to wear Star of David on their clothes to identify them </li></ul>
  44. 56. Kristallnacht <ul><li>“ Night of Broken Glass” </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis attacked Jewish homes and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds killed and injured </li></ul>
  45. 57. Refugees <ul><li>Many Jews to flee to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. only let 100,000 refugees in </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression and Anti-Semitism </li></ul>
  46. 58. St. Louis
  47. 59. &quot;We are going to Poland to strike at the Jews.&quot;
  48. 60. Forced Relocation <ul><li>Jews ordered to Ghettos – segregated areas in Polish cities </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed off with barbed wire and stone walls </li></ul><ul><li>Little food, water, poor living conditions </li></ul>
  49. 64. Concentration Camps <ul><li>Jews shipped by trains or trucks to “work camps” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Work makes one free” </li></ul>
  50. 65. Auschwitz <ul><li>Largest Death Camp </li></ul>
  51. 66. Himmler <ul><li>Head of the camps </li></ul>
  52. 67. Jews would be sent to camps by train
  53. 68. Most not killed right away <ul><li>upon arrival, sorted into groups by age, gender, health </li></ul><ul><li>after sorting you were either sent to the left side or right side of a Nazi officer </li></ul>
  54. 69. <ul><li>Left, meant death, sent to the “showers” for “cleaning” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children and their mothers always went left </li></ul></ul>
  55. 70. <ul><li>Right, meant you lived (for now) </li></ul><ul><li>harsh treatment </li></ul>
  56. 71. <ul><li>Forced to work </li></ul><ul><li>Little food, water </li></ul><ul><li>Many died of starvation, exhaustion </li></ul>
  57. 73. Fences were electrically charged
  58. 74. Learned to become more “efficient” by using gas <ul><li>used gas in shower rooms </li></ul><ul><li>“ assembly line” process, mass murder </li></ul>
  59. 75. They began to cremate the bodies
  60. 76. Six Million died in the death camps
  61. 78. Liberation <ul><li>Allies discovered death camps as they headed towards Germany </li></ul><ul><li>This is what they saw </li></ul>
  62. 82. Made German people view the work of their guards
  63. 84. <ul><li>http://www.cnn.com/video/?/video/world/2010/01/27/riddell.auschwitz.liberation.cnn </li></ul>
  64. 85. Allies capture Berlin April, 1945
  65. 86. Hitler commits suicide
  66. 87. Americans link with Russians at the Elbe River
  67. 88. May, 8 1945, Germany surrenders <ul><li>V-E Day (Victory in Europe) </li></ul>
  68. 89. Allied leaders meet at Yalta to discuss peace terms <ul><li>Unconditional surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Germany into 4 occupation zones </li></ul><ul><li>Create a United Nations </li></ul>
  69. 90. Nuremburg War Trials <ul><li>Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time leaders held accountable for actions in war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some found guilty and hanged </li></ul></ul>
  70. 91. The Pacific War
  71. 92. <ul><li>MacArthur FDR Nimitz </li></ul>
  72. 93. Hideki Tojo militarists disliked democracy restore the bushido Code (samurai Warrior Code) terrorized/murdered opposition Emperor Hirohito becomes a powerless figurehead Japan 1920-1945
  73. 94. <ul><li>Japan takes advantage of the Axis victories in Europe by invading China </li></ul>
  74. 95. China Chiang Kai Shek Leader of China 1928-1949
  75. 96. <ul><li>U.S. begins an embargo on Japan which angers them. </li></ul>
  76. 97. Japan prepares to attack U.S. <ul><li>Only threat to Japanese expansion </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. knew attack was coming, not sure when/where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“experts” predicted the Philippine Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii </li></ul>
  77. 98. Pearl Harbor, HI <ul><li>Dec. 7, 1941 – Sunday morning, 7:55, Japan attacks U.S. fleet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A date that will live in infamy” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2409 Americans killed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 ships destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150 planes destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan fails to destroy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry docks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submarines </li></ul></ul>
  78. 100. USS Arizona
  79. 102. America abandons neutrality and joins the war
  80. 103. Philippines <ul><li>Douglas MacArthur commands troops </li></ul><ul><li>Allied troops evacuate as Japanese take over </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur famously says: “I shall return.” </li></ul>
  81. 104. Leyte Gulf….MacArthur fulfills his promise and returns…
  82. 105. Bataan Death March <ul><li>Transfer of Filipino and American POWS </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to march 60 miles in tropical heat with no food or water </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners killed or attacked for various reasons (i.e. helping fellow prisoners) or for no reason at all </li></ul>
  83. 110. 2 pronged attack <ul><li>Admiral Nimitz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy and marines, move through the central Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General MacArthur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy and the army, move through the southern Pacific </li></ul></ul>
  84. 112. Pacific strategy was “Island hopping” <ul><li>Capture a few islands by passing many others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Island chains play a major role in military strategy </li></ul></ul>
  85. 113. June, 1942, Battle of Midway <ul><li>Invading force stopped by Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Turning point of the war in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended Japanese naval supremacy in the Pacific </li></ul></ul>
  86. 117. Chester Nimitz
  87. 119. Bushido Code <ul><li>Warrior code of the Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty, devotion, honor to the death </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese would commit seppuku rather than be captured </li></ul>
  88. 120. Kamikaze <ul><li>Suicide pilots </li></ul>
  89. 123. 1944, Saipan <ul><li>many Japanese women and children committed suicide rather than fall into U.S. hands </li></ul><ul><li>this would influence the decision to drop the bomb </li></ul>
  90. 124. Iwo Jima, February 1945 <ul><li>Close to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily guarded </li></ul><ul><li>Allies capture Island </li></ul>
  91. 128. April 1945, Okinawa Captured <ul><li>Next stop: Japan </li></ul>
  92. 130. Manhattan Project <ul><li>Building of the atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by J. Robert Openheimer </li></ul>
  93. 131. July 16, 1945 <ul><li>Successful test of Atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Alamogordo, NM </li></ul>
  94. 132. I am become death, the destroyer of worlds. J. Robert Oppenheimer
  95. 133. 1945, FDR Dies <ul><li>Truman becomes president </li></ul>
  96. 135. <ul><li>Truman wanted to avoid invasion of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to end the war and save American and Japanese lives </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Saipan civilians, Kamikaze planes, casualties at Iwo Jima and Okinawa </li></ul>
  97. 138. Potsdam Ultimatum <ul><li>Issued by United States, England, China </li></ul><ul><li>Asked Japan to surrender unconditionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Militarism in Japan must end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan would be occupied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese army would be completely disarmed and allowed to return home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War criminals would be punished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan refused </li></ul>
  98. 139. Aug. 6 1945, Hiroshima, Japan <ul><li>Destroyed by one bomb </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 killed immediately </li></ul><ul><li>140,000 more eventually died </li></ul><ul><li>Truman asked Japan to surrender again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No reply </li></ul></ul>
  99. 141. Enola Gay, PLANE THAT DROPPED THE BOMB
  100. 142. Three Days later – drops bomb on Nagasawki
  101. 144. Sept. 2, 1945 Japan surrenders on deck of the U.S. warship USS Missouri
  102. 145. VJ DAY, AUGUST 14, 1945 WORLD WAR II ENDS
  103. 146. Occupied Japan <ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur in command </li></ul><ul><li>Tojo and other Japanese leaders sentenced to death </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur changes Japan into a democratic country with a free market economy </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur Constitution still in place today </li></ul>
  104. 147. WWII and the Homefront
  105. 148. The Homefront <ul><li>Similar to WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Economic boom </li></ul><ul><li>Government actively planned economy </li></ul><ul><li>New jobs for minorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women take jobs formerly held by men again </li></ul></ul>
  106. 149. Government takes control of economy <ul><li>Office of Price Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Froze prices on most goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War Production Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided which companies would convert to wartime production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected goods for recycling into war goods </li></ul></ul>
  107. 150. <ul><li>Automobile factories – tanks, planes, boats </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Pencil Factory – bomb parts </li></ul><ul><li>Bedspread Manufacturer – mosquito nets </li></ul><ul><li>Soft Drink Company – filled shells with explosives </li></ul>
  108. 152. Rationing <ul><li>Fixed allotment of goods deemed necessary for the military </li></ul><ul><li>Households received ration books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could use to buy meat, sugar, coffee, gas </li></ul></ul>
  109. 153. Greatest Generation <ul><li>People willingly made and accepted sacrifices in their lives in support of the war </li></ul>
  110. 154. <ul><li>George Marshall-Army Chief of Staff-wanted to form a Women’s Auxillary Army Corps (WAAC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women volunteers serve non-combat positions </li></ul></ul>
  111. 155. Once again women take the jobs of men <ul><li>Hired by factories and defense plants to produce war goods </li></ul>
  112. 158. 1944 - Congress passes the G.I. Bill of Rights <ul><li>provides education, job training, low interest loans for veterans </li></ul><ul><li>Helped veterans adjust to civilian life </li></ul>
  113. 159. Great Migration, part II (1940-1950)
  114. 160. Japanese Internment <ul><li>After Pearl Harbor over 112,000 Japanese Americans lost their homes and businesses </li></ul>
  115. 161. Japanese Internment <ul><li>Sent to 26 camps in 16 states </li></ul><ul><li>Strong anti-Japanese sentiment due to Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans believed they could be spies even though 2/3 rd s were born in the U.S. – citizens that were denied their civil rights </li></ul>
  116. 162. <ul><li>Executive Order 9066 </li></ul><ul><li>Upheld by Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for national security </li></ul>
  117. 165. Not allowed to take major possessions
  118. 169. WW II Memorial in Washington DC Dedicated on April 29, ______
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