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Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s
 

Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s

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Politics of the Roaring 20s

Politics of the Roaring 20s

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    Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12 Politics of the Roaring 20s
    • The Roaring 20’s 1920-29
      • Post War Issues
        • Economy – had to adjust from making guns to making butter again
          • Cost of living had doubled
        • Labor troubles
          • Jobs taken away from women and African Americans – given back to returning GIs
    • Isolationism
      • Did not want to get involved in another war like WWI – pulled away from world affairs
        • Feelings of nativism (prejudice against foreign born people) increased
    • Communism
      • Russian revolution – Lenin’s Bolsheviks overthrew tsar
        • established communist government in Russia
    • Red Scare
      • Fear of Communism led to the Red Scare
        • Palmer Raids – suspected communists were hunted down
          • Rights were taken away
          • Not one single credible threat was found
    •  
    • Sacco and Vanzetti
      • Italian anarchists
      • Charged with robbery and murder – convicted even though evidence was circumstantial
      • Executed
    • Sacco and Vanzetti
      • Symbolic example of discrimination against radical beliefs during the Red Scare
    •  
    • Great Migration
      • African Americans moved north to look for better job opportunities
    • Ku Klux Klan
      • Grows over Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings
      • By 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members
    •  
    •  
    • "It is like writing history with Lightning. And my only regret is that it is all so terribly true." -- President Woodrow Wilson
      • "...the President was entirely unaware of the nature of the play before it was presented and at no time has expressed his approbation of it."--Letter from J. M. Tumulty, secretary to President Wilson, to the Boston branch of the NAACP, which protested against the film's blackface villains and heroic Ku Klux Klanners.
    • Congress Limits Immigration
      • nativist pressure led to decision to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe
      • The Emergency Quota Act of 1921
        • set up a quota system to control
        • and restrict immigration
    •  
    •  
    • Labor unrest
      • Strikes were outlawed during WWI
      • 1919 there were more than 3,000 strikes involving 4 million workers – low wages
    • Labor Unions
      • Membership began dropping
      • Accused of being communists
      African Americans were excluded from many unions
    • Warren G. Harding Administration
        • Kellogg-Briand Pact - renounced war as a means of national policy (signed by 15 nations, but difficult to enforce)
        • Fordney McCumber Tariff – raised taxes on U.S. imports – made it hard for foreign countries to sell goods in U.S.
        • Dawes Plan - solved problem of post-war debt - provided loans to Germany to pay France/Britain who then paid the U.S
    •  
    • Political Scandal
        • “ Ohio gang” - Harding’s poker buddies who he set up in cabinet
        • Many in “gang” became corrupt through use of graft ( political favors)
          • Some were caught illegally selling government supplies to private companies
    • TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL
      • government set aside oil-rich public land in Teapot, WY
      • Secretary of Interior Albert Fall secretly leased the land to two oil companies
      • Fall received $400,000 from the oil companies and a felony conviction from the courts
    •  
    • THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA
      • Calvin Coolidge - pro-business
      • His famous quote : “The chief business of the American people is business . . .the man who builds a factory builds a temple – the man who works there worships there”
      President Calvin Coolidge 1924-1928
    • Life in the 1920s
      • Age of consumption
    • Automobile
      • altered the American landscape and society
      • 80% of all registered motor vehicles in the world were in the U.S.
      • Urban sprawl – people could live farther from work
    • IMPACT OF THE AUTO
      • Among the many changes were:
      • Paved roads, traffic lights
      • Motels, billboards
      • Home design
      • Gas stations, repair shops
      • Shopping centers
      • Freedom for rural families
      • Independence for women and young people
      • Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron grew
      • By 1920 80% of world’s vehicles in U.S.
    • AIRLINE TRANSPORT BECOMES COMMON
      • The airline industry began as a mail carrying service and quickly “took off”
      • By 1927, Pan American Airways was making the transatlantic passenger flights
      When commercial flights began, all flight attendants were female and white
    • AMERICAN STANDARD OF LIVING SOARS
      • The years 1920-1929 were prosperous ones for the U.S.
      • Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth
      • The average annual income rose 35% during the 1920s ($522 to $705)
      • Discretionary income increased
    • MODERN ADVERTISING EMERGES
      • Ad agencies no longer sought to merely “inform” the public about their products
      • They hired psychologists to study how best to appeal to Americans’ desire for youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth
      • “ Say it with Flowers” slogan actually doubled sales between 1912-1924
    • A SUPERFICIAL PROSPERITY
      • Many during the 1920s believed the prosperity would go on forever
      • Wages, production, GNP, and the stock market all rose significantly
      • But. . . .
    • PROBLEMS ON THE HORIZON?
      • Businesses expanded recklessly
      • Iron & railroad industries faded
      • Farms nationwide suffered losses due to overproduction
      • Too much was bought on credit (installment plans) including stocks