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Chapter 11 wwi



World War I

World War I



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Chapter 11 wwi Chapter 11 wwi Presentation Transcript

  • Warm-up
    • What do people do when someone insults their friends?
  • World War I beginnings
    • Dates: 1914 to 1918
    • Causes:
      • Nationalism
      • Imperialism
      • Militarism
      • Alliances
      • Nationalism
        • Devotion to the interests of one’s nation & culture
        • competition between nations
        • ethnic groups :independence
        • Smaller nations sought protection from larger nations
      • Imperialism
        • Competition among world powers for colonies that provided raw materials for industry
  • Militarism
        • Development of armed forces & use in diplomacy
        • Growth of imperialism & nationalism led to increased military spending
      • Alliances
        • Countries who vow to defend each other in event of attack
    • Immediate Cause:
      • Starts in Balkan Peninsula “powder keg of Europe”
      • Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist on June 1914
    • Chain Reaction
    • Austria  Serbia (July 28) and Russia
    • Germany  Russia (August 1)
    • Germany  France (august 3)
    • Germany invades Belgium
    • Britain  Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • The Fight
    • Schlieffen Plan (Germany’s plan to win)
      • Hold action against Russia
      • Quickly move through Belgium to Paris
      • After France fell, would move all troops to defeat Russia
    • Allies left Belgium & retreated to Marne River
    • Allies halted German advance on Sept 1914
    • Both sides created system of trenches which they fought from
    • Known as trench warfare
  • Trench Warfare
    • Two parallel systems of trenches face each other
    • “ No man’s land” in between
    • Soldiers fight back and forth for a few yards of land
    • Fighting is devastating and inconclusive
  • Crossing “No Man’s Land”
  • Trench Foot
  • Veteran’s Day Stars Rank Name Branch of Service Relation to you Brig. General (Ret.) Charles L. Bishop United States Air Force Grandfather of Austin Bishop
  • clip
  • Some super guns could fire up to 75 miles .
  • Effects of Mustard Gas
  • If the gas did not cause you to cough up your lungs it burned out your eyes .
  • Freezing Winters
    • Both sides thought war would be over in couple of months (by Christmas 1914)
    • Both sides would be dug in for nearly FOUR YEARS
  • America Joins War
    • America :neutral at start of war (isolationism)
    • “ European war”
      • Did not threaten our people or property
  • Who did we support (Allies or Central Powers)?
      • Support was divided
      • Immigrants were very outspoken about war because for many this was fought in their homeland
    • Most sided with Allies
      • We shared common ancestry & culture with England
      • Stories of German brutality
      • British propaganda helped to create this image of Germany as a “bully”
      • Our economic ties were stronger with Allies
        • We shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to Allies
        • Caused a labor shortage in this country
    • America prepared for war for two reasons
      • Ensure Allied repayment of debts
      • Prevent Germans from threatening US shipping
    • We still DID NOT WANT TO JOIN WAR but our interests needed protection
    • Incidents leading US to join the war:
      • British blockade of Germany
      • Germany responded with counter blockade using U-boats
    • Sinking of British passenger ship (Lusitania) of 1,198 deaths, 128 were Americans
      • Caused American public opinion to turn against Germany
  • Zimmerman note
    • 19 January, 1917: The Zimmerman Note to the German Minister to Mexico
    • Berlin, January 19, 1917
    • On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.
    • If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement....
    • You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.
    • Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.
    • Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
    • Election of 1916
      • Woodrow Wilson won close election for 2 nd term under slogan of “He Kept Us Out of War”
    • After election, Wilson met with warring countries in trying to end war
    • Wilson called for “a peace without victory……a peace between equals”
    • Warring countries response was
      • HA HA
      • YEA RIGHT!
    • Germans ignored Wilson’s call for peace & announced that they would now sink all ships (neutral or hostile) off Britain
    • Violation of Sussex Pledge
    • This action gave Wilson no choice but to declare war but held out until Germany committed an overt act against the US
      • Zimmerman Note was final act
    • Russia’s move from dictator to a democracy helped to support our entry into war
      • Could now claim this was a war of democracies vs brutal dictatorships
    • Wilson declared war on Central Powers on April 2, 1917 in order to make the world “safe for democracy”
    • Section 2
    • America tips the balance of power
  • US in the War
    • The US declared war on Germany and the Central Powers in April of 1917
    • Bolshevik Revolution caused Russia to leave the war
    • The Bolshevik revolution was a peasant rebellion.
  • Angry Peasants
  • America at War
    • American Mobilization
      • U.S. not prepared for war
        • Only 200,000 men in service
      • Selective Service Act passed in May 1917
        • Required men to register with government in order to be randomly selected into military
  • Propaganda
    • Mass production
      • Needed materials to fight & to be transported to Europe
      • Needed to Expand our fleet because of U-Boats
        • Took four steps to do this
    • Exempted shipyard workers from the Draft
    • Chamber of Commerce glorified ship building / special privileges to workers
    • Fabrication techniques
    • Took over commercial & private ships / converted them for war
    • Used convoy system to get ships to & from Europe
    • New weapons never used in war before were machine guns, planes, tanks, gas, etc
  • Other Hazards
    • Body Lice
    • Rats
    • Polluted water that caused dysentery
    • Shell Shock ( emotional collapse)
    • Trench foot
    • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was led by General John J Pershing
  • Alvin York
    • Conscientious objector
    • Known for: “ the greatest thing accomplished by any private soldier of all the armies of Europe”
      • Killed 25 Germans and captured 132 with the help of 6 other doughboys
  • End of the War
    • Both sides were fatigued & “shell shocked”
    • American troops (doughboys) provided freshness & enthusiasm
    • Fresh troops proved to be the difference in the war
    • Turning point of war was 2 nd Battle of the Marne (July-Aug 1918)
      • After victory, Allies steadily marched toward Germany
    • No truly decisive battle
    • Germans just got worn out
    • 11-3-1918  Austria-Hungary surrendered
    • On same day many German soldiers mutinied against government
    • People turned against Kaiser & established a German Republic
    • Republic signed armistice on 11-11-18
    • WWI was bloodiest war ever !!!!!!
    • Final Statistics:
      • 22 million dead (1/2 were civilians)
      • 20 million wounded
    • Belgium 45,550
    • British Empire 942,135
    • France 1,368,000
    • Greece 23,098
    • Italy 680,000
    • Japan 1,344
    • Montenegro 3,000
    • Germany 1,935,000
    • Ottoman Empire 725,000
    • Portugal 8,145
    • Romania 300,000
    • Russia 1,700,000
    • Serbia 45,000
    • United States 116,516
    • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000
    • Bulgaria 87,495
  • Peace
    • Wilson’s plan for world peace was called his 14 points
  • The points….
      • 1-5 were issues that he felt needed to be addressed to prevent another war
      • 6-13 dealt with boundary changes
      • 14 th point called for creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crisis
  • Unity?
    • Big Four (US, Britain, France, Italy) worked on treaty by themselves
    • Central Powers were left out of treaty process
    • Big Four wanted a treaty that got revenge on Central Powers, Wilson did not
    • Wilson gave up on most of 14 points in return for other three nations support for a League of Nations
    • 6-28-1918 Treaty of Versailles was signed which officially ended the war
  • Treaty of Versailles
      • Created nine new nations
      • Barred Germany from maintaining army
      • Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
      • Germany had to pay reparations up to 33 billion dollars
      • War-guilt clause forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for war
  • Weakness of Treaty
      • Humiliated Germany
      • Reparations were too much to pay
      • Took territory away from Russia & Germany
      • Ignored colonies pleas for self rule
  • League of Nations
      • Wilson spent months campaigning Congress to ratify entry into League
      • Congress never ratified entry & therefore the US never joined
      • Why didn’t Congress want to join?
        • Felt it threatened US policy of isolationism
        • We would be bound by treaty to Europe and forced to get involved
  • Planting the seeds for part II
    • Treaty & US return to isolationists created more anger than it did peace
    • We put a patch on problems in Europe instead of fixing them
    • War created political instability & violence that sometimes lasted decades
    • New boundaries of countries upset many ethnic groups
    • This created an atmosphere that lead to the establishment of dictatorships (Russia, Spain, Germany, Italy)
  • Legacy of War in US
    • Accelerated social changes for African-Americans & women
    • Strengthened the power of the military & government
    • Established the US as a world power
  • ???????????????
  • The War at Home
    • Entire economy focused on war effort
    • Shift from consumer goods to war supplies
  • War Industries Board
    • Congress gives Pres. Wilson power to fix prices, regulate certain war-related industries
      • Use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency
      • Standardize products to reduce waste
  • Rationing
    • Railroad/ fuel supplies monitored
      • Gasless Sundays/ lightless nights ( Daylight-saving time)
    • Wages : Food prices
    • Stockholders in large corp. saw $$$$$$
    • Union membership boomed to control working conditions
      • Nation War Labor Board
        • “ Work or Fight”
  • Food Admin. Under Hoover
    • “ Gospel of the clean plate”
      • Meatless
      • Sweetless
      • Wheatless
      • Porkless
  • Victory Gardens
    • Community gardens started to grow food – would mean more food available for the troops
  • Government Bonds
    • Encourage public to buy war bonds
      • Helped finance war
  • Committee on Public Info
    • George Creel
      • Speeches, posters, pamphlets in many languages
      • Promoted Patriotism= created hatred towards certain ethnic groups ( hate crimes)
  • Anti-immigrant Hysteria
    • Attacks against certain Ethnic Groups
    • People with German last names lost jobs
    • Mozart, Bach, Beethoven banned
    • Towns changed names, libraries removed books
    • German measles: Liberty measles
    • Hamburger: Salisbury steak
    • Sauerkraut: liberty cabbage
    • Dachshunds : liberty pups
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts
    • Up to $10,000 & 20 years in jail for saying anything disloyal about the government or war effort
  • African Americans
    • support the war (Du Bois) but
    • Don’t support a racist government
    • Great Migration
      • Escape racial discrimination in the South
      • Northern job
      • opportunities
  • Women in the war
    • Women moved into jobs that had been held exclusively by men
    • Plus maintained traditional roles at home
    • 1919 Congress passed the 19 th Amendment
    Order of Ratification of the 19th Amendment KEY: Ratification on June 10, 1919 (yellow); ratification from June 16, 1919 to July 28, 1919 (chartreuse); ratification from August 2, 1919 to December 15, 1919 (aqua); ratification from January 6, 1920 to March 22, 1920 (gray-green); ratification on August 18, 1920 (gray).