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  • 1. Chapter 4 Notes
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Frederick Douglas, escaped slave
    • made speeches against slavery
    • owned newspaper called “North Star”
    Abolition - Effort to end slavery
  • 4. Compromise of 1820 “Missouri Compromise”
    • Missouri, a slave territory, applied to be a State
    • would be admitted if Maine was admitted as a Free State
  • 5.
    • maintains the balance of power in congress (12 Free/12 Slave)
    • Drew a line dividing the Louisiana Territory
    • everything above must be free, except Missouri
  • 6. Nat Turner
    • Virginia slave, led slave revolt, 1831
    • 50 followers attacked 4 plantations killing 60 people
    • eventually captured and hanged
  • 7. Compromise of 1850
    • California admitted as Free State
    • South was given The Fugitive Slave Law
      • runaway slaves were to be returned even if caught in the North
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. “ The Underground Railroad”
    • Secret network of volunteers who hid fugitive slaves fleeing north
  • 11. 1854 - Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • “ Popular Sovereignty”
      • allow people to decide whether or not to have slavery
    • cancels Missouri Compromise
  • 12. “ Bleeding Kansas”- 1855
    • Kansas became battleground over slavery
      • some say Civil War actually started here
  • 13. 1857 - Dred Scott Case
    • moved from slave state to free state and back to slave state
    • Dred Scott sued for his freedom
    • Supreme Court ruled that slaves are considered property and have no rights
  • 14. 1858-Lincoln-Douglas debates
    • U.S. senate race- Illinois
      • Douglas was for popular sovereignty
      • Lincoln said Union could not exist half slave, half free A
      • “ House divided against itself, cannot stand.”
    • Douglas wins but Lincoln becomes popular
  • 15. Nov. 1860 - Lincoln elected 16th President, (ultimate cause of Civil War)
  • 16. Dec. 1860 – South Carolina secedes from the Union
    • 10 other slave states (including Texas) seceded forming The Confederate States of America
  • 17. Four slave states did not secede/became known as “Border States” ( Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware )
  • 18. Fort Sumter
    • Union fort
    • Falls to south
    • starts combat
  • 19. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  • 20. Northern Leaders
    • President Abraham Lincoln
    • from 1863 - General Ulysses S. Grant
  • 21. Southern Leaders
    • President
    • Jefferson Davis
    • General Robert E. Lee
  • 22. Strategies
    • North
    • blockade southern ports
      • Stop trade with Europe
    • split South in half by capturing Mississippi River
    • capture Richmond, Virginia
      • South’s capital
    • South
    • Fight a defensive war
      • attack if possible
  • 23. Union ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
    • Population
    • Larger military
    • More Factories
    • More Rail lines
    Poor leaders Did not know the land No Cause (save the Union) until 1863 (Free the slaves)
  • 24. Confederate ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
    • Fight a defensive war
    • Knew the land
    • Great leaders
    • Cause, INDEPENDENCE
    • Smaller population
    • Smaller military
    • Fewer factories
    • Fewer rail lines
  • 25.  
  • 26. Major Battles
  • 27. July, 1861 Battle of Bull Run Manassas, Virginia
    • first land battle
    • 25 miles from D.C.
    • North expected quick, easy victory
    • major victory for South
    • many southern soldiers thought war was over and went home to celebrate
  • 28.
    • 1861-Antietam, MA. bloodiest single day battle
      • 26,000 total casualties
    • 1862-Shiloh, Tenn.
    • North begins splitting South in half in Tenn.
  • 29. Battle of the Ironclads 1862
  • 30. July, 1863-Vicksburg, Miss. and Gettysburg, Pa.
    • both major victories for the North
    • Vicksburg
      • split the South
    • Gettysburg
      • South lost 28,000 men
      • turning point in the war
    • southern morale drops
  • 31. 1863-Gettysburg Address honoring the fallen after the battle
  • 32.
    • 1863-Emancipation Proclamation
    • speech made by Lincoln freeing slaves in the south only
    • changed the cause for the North
  • 33. 1864 - Sherman’s March to the Sea
    • from Tenn. through Georgia
    • burned/destroyed farms, cities, railroads – 1 st total war
    • Atlanta totally destroyed
    • splits South again
  • 34.  
  • 35. April, 1865-Appomattox Court House, Va. Lee surrenders to Grant with generous terms , war ends
  • 36. THE RECONSTRUCTION ERA (1865-1877)
  • 37. Two Different Plans
    • Lincoln’s Plan
      • reunite the nation
      • very lenient
    • Radical Republicans
      • make the South “pay” for starting the war
      • military occupation of the South
      • Black suffrage
        • Voting rights
  • 38.  
  • 39.
    • April, 1865 Lincoln assassinated
      • By John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre
      • Radical Reconstruction wins control
  • 40. Andrew Johnson - president
    • Lincoln’s V.P.
      • tried to run Lincoln’s plan
      • not strong enough to control Congress
      • 1 st President to become impeached
        • Be accused
  • 41. Johnson’s Impeachment Trial
    • Came within one vote of being removed from office
  • 42. South divided into military districts Controlled by military governors
  • 43. A different type of invasion
  • 44. Sharecropping
    • new form of slavery starts
      • ex-slaves agree to farm land owned by someone else
      • able to keep some of the crop for themselves
      • always in debt
  • 45. Ku Klux Klan born
    • goal
      • rid south of Reconstruction
      • intimidate ex-slaves
  • 46. Civil War Amendments passed
    • 1865 - 13 th
      • outlawed slavery
    • 1866 - 14 th
      • ex-slaves became U.S. citizens
    • 1870 - 15 th
      • ex-slaves given the right to vote
  • 47.
    • Southern States pass “Black Codes”
      • which limit ex-slaves rights
    • Jim Crow Laws
      • made segregation legal in the South