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Midterm

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Transcript

  • 1. What we have become TODAY By Bayron Guajardo
  • 2. New Horizons
    • Homo sapiens dominated Earth over all the species (250,000 years ago)
    • From Africa to the rest of the World (Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas)
    • We all came from one single man
    Neanderthal VS Homo sapiens soloensis father???
  • 3. Life before Agricultural Revolution
    • Gathering
    • Hunting
    • Small communities
    • Simple life
    • Climate complications
    “ They live in a Tranquility which is not disturb’d by the Inequality of Conditions: The Earth and sea of their own accord furnishes them with all thing necessary for life, they covet not Magnificient houses, Household-stuff…. In short they seem’d to set no value upon any thing we gave them…. They think themselves provided with all the necesarys of Life” Captain James Cook, 1770
  • 4. The Long Road to the Global Presence of Humankind 1,000 Human entry into New Zealand (last major region to receive human settlers) 3,500 - 11,000 Austronesian migration to Pacific Islands and Madagascar 11,000 Extinction of large mammals in North America 12,000 - 10,000 Earliest agricultural revolutions 16,000 - 10,000 End of last Ice Age (global warming) 25,000 Extinction of Neanderthals 25,000 Cave art in Europe 30,000 - 15,000 Human entry into the Americas 30,000 Extinction of large mammals in Australia 40,000 Human entry into Europe 60,000 - 40,000 Human entry into Australia (first use of boats) 70,000 Human entry into eastern Asia 100,000 Beginnings of human migration out of Africa 250,000 Earliest Homo sapiens in Africa 1.9 million to 200,000 Homo erectus (first controlled use of fire and first hominid migrations out of Africa) 2.5 million Homo habilis (early use of stone tools) 7 million to 6 million Earliest bipedal hominids YEARS AGO (all date approximate)
  • 5. Agricultural Revolution
    • “ The deliberate cultivation of particular plants as well as the taming and breeding of particular animals”. (Strayer 36)
    • Fertile Crescent or Southwest Asia (first are to experience a full Agricultural Revolution)
    • Spread of Agricultural habit to the globe by Diffusion and colonization
  • 6. Repercussion of the Revolution
    • Exponential increase of population
    • Agricultural Breakthroughs
    • Selective diet made the difference of the power of societies
  • 7. Agricultural Breakthroughs Sunflower, goosefoot, sumpweed 2,000 - 1,000 Eastern woodlands of North America Turkey Maize, squash (perhaps 7,000 B.C.E.), beans 3,000 - 2,000 Mesoamerica Llamas, alpaca, guinea pig Potatoes, quinoa, manioc 3,000 - 2,000 Andres region Taro, bananas, yams, sugarcane 7,000 - 4,000 Highland New Guinea Cattle (perhaps 8,000 B.C.E.) Sorghum, millet, yams, teff 3,000 - 2,000 Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa Pigs, chickens, water buffalo Rice, millet, yams, teff 6,500 - 5,000 China Goats, sheep, cattle, pigs Barley, wheat, lentils, figs 9,000 - 7,000 Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent) Animals Plants Dates (B.C.E.) Location
  • 8. Civilizations
    • Highly complex societies
    • Based in bustling cities and governed by powerful states
    • City as the heart of the community
    • First Civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Pakistan and northern India, China, Peru, and Mexico ( TIMELINE )
  • 9. Legacy of Old Civilizations
    • Positive legacy:
      • Inspiring art
      • Profound reflections on the meaning of life
      • Innovations in technology
      • Knowledge about nature and how to control it
      • Art of writing
    • Negative legacy:
      • Massive inequalities
      • State oppression
      • Slavery
      • Large-scale warfare
      • Subordination of women
      • Epidemic diseases