S german 2011 bgri tw

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Silvia German, INIA
Challenges in controlling leaf rust in the Southern Cone region of South America

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S german 2011 bgri tw

  1. 1. Challenges in controllingleaf rust in the Southern Cone region of South America 2011 BGRI Technical Workshop St. Paul, Minnesota, USA June 13-16, 2011 Silvia Germán, INIA La Estanzuela, Uruguay Pablo Campos, INTA Bordenave, Argentina Marcia Chaves, EMBRAPA-CNPT, Brazil Ricardo Madariaga, INIA Quilamapu, Chile - Uruguay Mohan Kohli, CAPECO, Paraguay
  2. 2. Updated informationof the wheat leaf rust(Puccinia triticina)situationGenes present ingermplasmBreeding for resistanceChallenges to controlthe disease
  3. 3. Wheat leaf rust in the Southern Cone of S.A.• Continues to be the most widespread and important foliar disease of wheat• In susceptible varieties losses can be higher than 50% if fungicides are not used• Favorable weather conditions for disease development• Local over-summering of the pathogen
  4. 4. High % of S cultivars used in all countriesPercentage of 2010 Uruguayan wheat area with cultivars with different leaf rust field reaction 50 Information of 40 91% of total área % of wheat area 30 20 46 10 15 10 9 11 0 R MR MRMS MS S Field leaf rust characterization
  5. 5. The pathogen can over-summer in large areas Early onset of severe epidemicsUruguay UruguayEarly sowing date (April), Late sowing date (August)2006 2001
  6. 6. Highly variable Puccinia triticina populationFrequency of some P. triticina races. Uruguay. 1991-2009. 60 50 MBD-10,20 MCR-10 MCR-10 MCD-10,20 E.Federal Cardenal INIA Mirlo E.Pelón 90 MDR-10,20 40 I TorcazaFrecuencia I Churrinche 30 MFP-20 I Tero MC(H)P-10 20 K.Don MCR-10 MFR E.Federal Enrique 10 I.Caburé 0 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Años
  7. 7. Frequency of prevalent P. triticina races in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. 2008-2010. Brazilian Argentina Brazil UruguayRace code Detected 2008 2009 Detected 2008 2009 2010* Detected 2008 2009 2010*MCP-10 2000 5.9 12.3 2000 1.2MFT-20 B51 2002 3.4 15.4 2008 1.6MDT 2008 2.4 0.9 2010 7.5MDP 2005 25.9 28.3 2002 7.3 13.6 10.4MFP 2005 5.4 9.9 2001 4.0 21.0 30.6MDP-10,20 B58 2005 2.4 6.1 2007 2.5 2004 11.3 3.7 5.2MFP-10,20 2005 1.0 4.2 2004 16.9 18.5 6.7MDP-20 2004 6.8 2.4 2004 2.4 3.7 6.7MFP-20 B56 2005 2.9 6.1 2006 0.7 2.5 2005 12.9 13.6 1.5MDT-10,20 B55 2007 30.2 15.6 2005 10.7 7.4 2.2 2007 17.7 8.6 2.2MFT-10,20 B55 2007 4.9 7.1 2005 64.4 51.9 71.7 2007 11.3 6.2 0.7TDT-10,20 B57 2005 1.3 1.2 2.2 2010 14.9TFT-10,20 B57 2005 10.7 8.6 23.2 2010 11.9 * Partial results
  8. 8. Cultivars affected by changes in the pathogen during 2008-2010Paraguay, 2009: IAN 10, ITAPUA 55, ITAPUA 65Argentina, 2010: BIOINTA 3004, Don Mario Themix, Don Mario AtlaxUruguay, 2010: Atlax (TDT-10,20), INIA Carpintero PARAGUAY BRAZIL CHILE URUGUAY ARGENTINA Puccinia triticina population: Extremely dynamic, determines short duration of resistance of new cultivars
  9. 9. Chemical control• Farmers continue to grow high yielding leaf rust susceptible cultivars using fungicides• Fungicides are widely used to control the disease complex present in the region, leaf rust is the main target Wheat Average % area of Highest Nª area (Mill, % area with Nª of reference for applicationsCountry ha) fungicides applications av. Nº Appl. on S Cvs.Argentina 4.0 25-40 1.2 40 in 2010 2Chile 0.4 100 >1 100Brazil 2.3 100 >1 100 4Paraguay 0.5 100 >1 100 3Uruguay 0.5 > 90 1.0-1.5 100 3 Brazil and Paraguay: mixtures of strobilurins + triazols Argentina, Chile and Uruguay: triazols, and mixtures
  10. 10. Genetic basis of leaf rust resistanceLr3, 3ka, 9, 10, 16, 24, 26, 34, 37, 39, 47 present inpopular Argentinean cultivarsLr16, 24, 34, 37, 39 present in some Uruguayan cultivarsLimited information of Uruguayan cultivarsNo information of cultivars from Brazil, Chile and Paraguay Few major R genes appear to be present in the regional germplasm (Germán et al. 2007, 2009) Resistance appears to depend on different combinations of seedling R genes or their combination with APR genesRecently released cultivars have only APR likely of the slowrusting type: Klein Capricornio (Argentina), Canindé 12 and C. 13 (Paraguay
  11. 11. Breeding for resistance to leaf rustImportant breeding objective for most programsHas become less important in some programs due toefficient control of the disease through use of fungicidesSome programs have released high yielding S lines Main target: introduce APR of the slow rusting type (conferred by minor genes with additive effects) into adapted germplasm. Some programs also use major R genes, although do not know which ones Markers for Lr19, Lr47 and Lr34 are used in Argentina
  12. 12. Phenotypic selection possible every year in most of the Southern Cone region of S. A. Lalbahadur Lalbahadur Lr46Leaf rust nursery,LE, Uruguay, 2010
  13. 13. Challenges to control leaf rust in the Southern Cone region of S.A.Reduce damage by increasing release andadoption of resistant cultivarsIncorporate resistance into high yielding backgrounds with quality standards required by the market adequate levels of R to other prevalent diseases
  14. 14. Grain yield Industrial qualityFusarium Stripe rust Stem rustHeadblight Tan spot ANDOther diseases Brusone (Pyricularia LEAF RUSTMaturity, Lodging grisea) in Brazil, RESISTANCESprouting Bolivia, Paraguay
  15. 15. Grain yield with and without fungicides, yield reduction and diseasesCapitán Miranda, Paraguay, average 2008-2009. Yield (kg/ha) Fusarium With Without % yield Leaf head Tan HeadCultivars fung. fung. reduction rust blight spot blastOldCD 104 4672 3505 25.0 S S MS SItapúa 40 4628 4307 6.9 MS MS MS MSNewCanindé 1 4415 4228 4.2 R S MR RItapúa 70 4964 4986 -0.4 MR MS MS MS Source: Wheat Program, CRIA, Cap. Miranda
  16. 16. Grain yield with and without fungicides, yield reduction and diseasesBalcarce, Argentina, 2010 Yield (kg/ha) % yield LeafCultivars With fung. Without fung. reduction rustFrenchBaguette 19 6580 5723 13.0 90SBaguette 30 6257 5393 13.8 90S Source: RET TrigoLocal 2010ACA 303 5307 5350 0.0 5MS SubregiónKlein Capricornio 5233 4878 6.7 5MS IV INASEBIOINTA 2004 4773 4960 -3.9 0 MAGPyALa Estanzuela, Uruguay Yield (kg/ha) % yield Leaf FoliarCultivars With fung. Without fung. reduction rust spotsFrenchNT 805 8358 a 6745 a 19 ** 99SLocalI. DON ALBERTO 8170 a 7367 a 10 NS 2MRR 40GENESIS 2354 8131 ab 7101 a 13 NS 3MR 3LE 2369 7592 b 7194 a 5 NS 5RMR 25 Source: modified from Castro et al., 2011
  17. 17. Yield and leaf rust infection of INIA breeding lines. La Estanzuela, Uruguay, 2010Line Cross Yield (kg/ha) Leaf rustLE2358 PI/FUNO*2/5/VLD/4/CO723595/3/TAM200*2//TAM107/TA2460/6/LE2220 6862 a 0LE2346 PEETHREE NR2/2*OS//NWT/3/OS.VONA PYN COMP/4/ PIOPIO/5/LE2221 6766 a 0F5 09-13158 I.TORCAZA*2//CEP8749/EMBRAPA27 6657 ab 0F6 09-696 ITIJ/4/TRAP1/YACO/3/KAUZ*2/TRAP//KAUZ 6487 abc 15MSSLE2359 ITIJ/LE2266 6459 abc 0F6 09-10081 IGAR/LE2321 6096 abcd 10MSF5 09-13139 I.TORCAZA*2//CEP8749/EMBRAPA27 6007 abcd 0F6 09-599 IGAV/5/CEP85155/3/CEP7780*2//H499.71A/4*JUP/4/BR23 5999 abcd 15MSSF5 09-13049 I.TIJERETA*2/SUZ6/OPATA 5986 abcd 0F6 09-10027 IGAR/ALSEN 5935 abcd 0F5 09-13177 I.GORRION*2/CHAPIO 5895 abcd 30MSSI.GARZA ICAB/ITIJ 5856 abcd 10MSBAGUETTE 19 5530 bcd 70SBIOINTA 3000 5467 cd 50SI.TIJERETA LE2132/ECAL 5196 de 15MSSBIOINTA 3004 4122 e 70S Source: M. Quincke, INIA wheat breeding program
  18. 18. BC1F5 lines from INIA-Uruguay combining APR to leaf rust and resistance to other prevalent diseases Fusarium Septoria Stem head Tan leaf rustLine Cross blight spot blotch KenyaR09-19126 I.TIJERETA*2/TOROPI MRR09-19008 PARULA/ORL 99192*2 MR MRMSR09-19228 LE 2304*2/PARULA MRMS RR08-10690 LE2252*2//GENARO*3/PARULA MR RR09-19200 I.GORRION*2/CHAPIO MRMSR09-19229 LE 2304*2/TOROPI R RR09-19173 I.TORCAZA*2//CEP8749/EMBRAPA27 MR RR08-4898 I.TIJERETA*2/AMADINA MR
  19. 19. Increase duration of resistance by pyramiding resistance genesOne strategy: use of major genesIntroduce effective major R genes not presentin the regional germplasm in combinations increase diversity within and among programs reduce the risk of widespread epidemics monitoring the pathogenThe other strategy: use APR genes (slow rusting)Introduce several APR of the slow rusting typeLr34, Lr46, Lr67, LrP and othersBUT…
  20. 20. Many resistant advanced lines of the regional breedingprograms have effective seedling resistanceIt is more difficult to introduce APR in R backgrounds Seedling IT of Uruguayan lines to 17 P. triticina races MMD-10,20 MCD-10,20 MDR-10,20 MDP-10,20 KDG-10,20 MDT-10,20 MFR-10,20 MFP-10,20 MFT-10,20 TDD-10,20 MCR-10 MCT-10 MFP-20 SPG-10 MDP MFP CHTLineFacultativeLE 2359 0 0 0 0; 0 0 0 0 0 0; 0 0 0 0; 2 0 0LE 2366 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0LE 2377 0 0; 0; 0;1= 0; 0; 0; 0 0; 0; 1-; 0 0 0 0; 0 0;LE 2379 0 ;1= 1; 2-; ;1= 1-; 2 ;1= 12- 0; ;1- 0; ;1= 2=; ; 0 1;SpringLE 2354 0; 0; ;1= ;1= ;1= ;1= ;1= 0 0 ;1- 0; ; ;1- ; 0; 0; ;1=LE 2382 0 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 2-; ,1= 2=; 0; 0 0; 0; 2=; 2=; 0; ;1=LE 2388 0 0; ,1= 12- 2=; 1-; 1-; ;1= 0; ;1= 0; ;1- ;1= ;1= ; 0 ;1=LE 2390 0 0; 0 0; 0; 2=; 2 0; 2=; 0; ;1= 0; 0; 2-; 0; 0; 0;
  21. 21. Both strategies require:Characterization of the type of resistance present germplasm used in breeding sources of resistanceKnow genes present and genes to be introducedMore efficient use of available resourcesIncrease use of molecular markers will help identification of some R genes present facilitate identification of possible new R genes genetic progress in breeding for leaf rust R
  22. 22. Generally adequate:Resources Trained personnel Greenhouses Argentina Laboratory Brazil Equipment Uruguay Funding for current projectsChile: progressive reduction in human resourcesParaguay: serious deficiencies in resourcesBetter integration between disciplines related to breedingwould be beneficialIn general breeders require more training in methodologyto identify and select for APRCommunication among researchers in the region shouldImprove. Workshops should be organized regularly
  23. 23. Research to identify mainly new APR genesprobably present in Southern Cone germplasmQTL analysis of durable R (B.Mant, Sinvalocho, Toropi)Projects using association mapping havebeen approved recently in Argentina, Braziland UruguayCollaborative research with other programscontributing with phenotyping of mapping pops.
  24. 24. AcknowledgementsWheat Regional Project funded by INIA-España, CIMMYT,PROCISUR, INIA-UruguayBrazilian Institutions funding research projects onresistance to wheat rusts Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico Ministerio da Agricultura Pescuária e Abastecimento Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Rio Grande do SulTechnician and students
  25. 25. Pablo José A. Marcia Lidia Quintana Campos, Martinelli, Chaves, de Viedma Argentina Brazil Brazil Paraguay Francisco Sacco, Julio Argentina Ricardo Huerta- Madariaga, Espino, Chile México Silvia Germán UruguayMohan KohliParaguay Thank you

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