Achieving	
  sustainable	
  leaf	
  rust	
  control	
  in	
  durum	
  wheat:	
  	
  
What	
  have	
  we	
  learnt	
  and	
...
Content	
  
„ Background	
  
■  Dw,	
  losses	
  
„ Resistance	
  
■  Resistance	
  in	
  general	
  
■  Race-­‐specific	...
Durum wheat - Importance
50%50%
% durum wheat area
developed
world
developing
world
80%
20%
% durum wheat
cultivars in dev...
Leaf	
  rust	
  -­‐	
  importance	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Yield	
 ...
„ Before	
  BBG/BN	
  (<Year	
  2001)	
  
■ No	
  severe	
  leaf	
  rust	
  epidemics	
  reported	
  
■ CulSvars	
  resis...
80%
20%
Cultivars from 31
different countries
Lr72
Other
Leaf rust resistance in Altar C84: Lr72
Atred
Atil2000
Altar84
P....
Major leaf rust resistance genes identified at CIMMYT
effective to BBG/BN
Lrgene	
   Chr	
   Origin	
   CulKvar/line	
  
3...
DW-­‐specific	
  P.	
  tri(cina	
  races	
  idenKfied	
  in	
  Mexico	
  since	
  1988	
  	
  
	
  
LrCamayo	
  	
  
Lr14a	
...
Year	
  of	
  release	
  and	
  year	
  of	
  breakdown	
  of	
  leaf	
  rust	
  resistance	
  
of	
  important	
  culKvar...
AddiKonal	
  major	
  leaf	
  rust	
  resistance	
  genes	
  known	
  to	
  be	
  
present	
  in	
  durum	
  wheat	
  
	
 ...
Resistance	
  sources:	
  Slow	
  rusKng	
  
„ Few	
  geneSc	
  studies	
  (Singh	
  et	
  al	
  1993)	
  made	
  before	...
GeneKc	
  analysis	
  of	
  CIMMYT	
  slow	
  rusKng	
  lines	
  
	
  
■ Based	
  on	
  2-­‐3	
  minor	
  genes	
  with	
 ...
Pyramiding	
  slow	
  rusKng	
  resistance	
  genes	
  	
  
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
ATIL
C2000a
(Check)
ATIL*2/LO
CAL
REDa
(...
GeneKc	
  analysis	
  of	
  slow	
  rusKng	
  resistance	
  
PopulaSon	
   HPTR	
   HPTS	
   OTHER	
   TOTAL	
  
No	
  
ge...
Genomic regions associated with slow rusting resistance
„  IdenSficaSon	
  of	
  Lr46/Yr29/Sr58/
Ltn2	
  in	
  durum	
  wh...
 
	
  
	
  	
  
3
10
18
11
13
4
1
Numberretainedentries
Yield % over check cultivar Cirno C2008
Yield trials in Y12-13
Bre...
AddiKonal	
  studies	
  on	
  slow	
  rusKng	
  resistance	
  
„ EvaluaKon	
  of	
  macroscopic	
  components:	
  latency...
Strategies	
  and	
  future	
  challenges	
  
„ GeneKc	
  diversity	
  essenKal	
  
„ Vulnerability	
  to	
  rely	
  on	...
Pt race BBG/BP
Accession
Seedling
infection
type
Field
severity &
reaction
LTN
OAX93.6.20 3+4 5MS 2
OAX93.6.30 X- 1MS 2
OA...
Strategies	
  and	
  future	
  challenges	
  
„ Transfer	
  of	
  Lr68	
  from	
  bread	
  wheat	
  	
  
„ Lr34	
  and	
...
Acknowledgements	
  
„ CIMMYT’s	
  technical	
  staff	
  
„ GRDC	
  Australia	
  
„ Sida-­‐Sweden	
  
„ SAGARPA-­‐CONAC...
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Achieving sustainable leaf rust control in durum wheat: What have we learnt and how to move

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S. A. Herrera-­‐Foessel, CIMMYT

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Achieving sustainable leaf rust control in durum wheat: What have we learnt and how to move

  1. 1. Achieving  sustainable  leaf  rust  control  in  durum  wheat:     What  have  we  learnt  and  how  to  move  forward     S.A.  Herrera-­‐Foessel,  R.P.  Singh,  J.  Huerta-­‐Espino,  V.  Calvo-­‐Salazar,  C.  Lan,  B.R.   Basnet  and  E.S.  Lagudah     BGRI  Workshop,  Cd.  Obregon,  23  March  2014  
  2. 2. Content   „ Background   ■  Dw,  losses   „ Resistance   ■  Resistance  in  general   ■  Race-­‐specific  or  major  gene-­‐based   ■  Slow  rusSng   „ Challenges  and  Future  prospects      
  3. 3. Durum wheat - Importance 50%50% % durum wheat area developed world developing world 80% 20% % durum wheat cultivars in developing countries CIMMYT-derived Non-CIMMYT derived 80% 20% % wheat area in Yaqui & Mayo valley year 2014 Cirno C2008 Other
  4. 4. Leaf  rust  -­‐  importance                                        Yield  losses  (%)*   Normal   planSng   Late   planSng     Across   trials   Range   Range   Mean   Suscep-­‐ Sble   33-­‐61   67-­‐74   60   *Fungicide  protected  and  non-­‐protected  plots   under  high  disease  pressure,  Cd  Obregon   (Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al.,  2006)  
  5. 5. „ Before  BBG/BN  (<Year  2001)   ■ No  severe  leaf  rust  epidemics  reported   ■ CulSvars  resistant   ■ Not  much  known  on  geneSc  basis  of  resistance   ■ Of  Lr  genes  designated  -­‐  few  of  durum  origin   ■ Not  known  whether  bread  wheat  and  durum   wheat  shared  the  same  resistance  genes     Leaf  rust  resistance  in  durum  wheat  
  6. 6. 80% 20% Cultivars from 31 different countries Lr72 Other Leaf rust resistance in Altar C84: Lr72 Atred Atil2000 Altar84 P. tritcina MBJ/SP Singh  et  al  2004   Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2013     US$ 32 M BBG/BN  
  7. 7. Major leaf rust resistance genes identified at CIMMYT effective to BBG/BN Lrgene   Chr   Origin   CulKvar/line   3   6BLa   T.  aes*vum   Storlom   14a   7BLb   T.  turgidum  ssp.  dicoccum   Llareta  INIA,  Somateria,  Cevi  Oro  C2008,   Patronato  Oro  C2008,  Sawali  Oro  C2008     27+31   3B+4Bc   T.  aes*vum   Jupare  C2001,  Banamichi  C2004   61   6BSd   T.  turdigum  ssp.  durum   Guayacan  INIA,  Guayacan  2   Camayo   6BLa   T.  turdigum  ssp.  durum   Camayo,  Cirno  C2008   a  Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2007a   b  Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2008a   c  pers.  comm   d  Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2008b  
  8. 8. DW-­‐specific  P.  tri(cina  races  idenKfied  in  Mexico  since  1988       LrCamayo     Lr14a  
  9. 9. Year  of  release  and  year  of  breakdown  of  leaf  rust  resistance   of  important  culKvars  from  northwestern  Mexico CulKvar   Wheat   Year   Gene   Race   Yecora  70   BW   1973   Lr1,  13   ?   Tanori  71   BW   1975   Lr13,  17   ?   Jupateco  73   BW   1977   Lr17,  27+31   TBD/TM   Genaro  81   BW   1984   Lr13,  26   TCB/TB   Seri  82   BW   1985   Lr23,  26   TCB/TD   Baviacora  92   BW   1994   Lr27+31,  APRa    MCJ/SP   Altar  84   DW   2001   Lr72   BBG/BN   Jupare  2001   DW   2008   Lr27+31   BBG/BP   Cirno  C2008   DW   ?   LrCam   ?   a  Unknown  race-­‐specific  adult  plant  resistance  gene    
  10. 10. AddiKonal  major  leaf  rust  resistance  genes  known  to  be   present  in  durum  wheat       Lr  gene   Chr   Origin   Reference   10a   1AS   T.  aes*vum   Aguilar-­‐Rincon  et  al.  2001;  B.  Keller  (pers.   comm.)   19b   7A   Lophopyrum  pon*cum   Zhang  et  al.  2005;  Gennaro  et  al.  2009   23a   2B   T.  turdigum  ssp.  durum   Watson  and  Luig  1961   33a   1B   T.  aes*vum/T.  turgidum  ssp.   dicoccoides   Dyck  1994;  Dyck  and  Bartos  1994   37b   2AS   T.  ventricosa   Helguera  et  al.  2003   47   7AS   T.  speltoides   Dubcovsky  et  al.  1998     52   5BS   T.  aes*vum   Singh  et  al.  2010   64   6AL   T.  turgidum  ssp.dicoccoides   R.A.  McIntosh  (pers.comm)   ac127   4A   T.  turdigum  ssp.  durum   Hussein  et  al.  2005   a Virulence common among durum specific races b Virulence already present among bread wheat specific races
  11. 11. Resistance  sources:  Slow  rusKng   „ Few  geneSc  studies  (Singh  et  al  1993)  made  before  Lr72   was  overcome,  since  this  gene  was  present  in  most   durums   „ New  slow  rusSng  sources  that  reduced  yield  losses   idenSfied  (Singh  et  al  2004;  Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2006)   „ Post-­‐flowering  leaf  Sp  necrosis    
  12. 12. GeneKc  analysis  of  CIMMYT  slow  rusKng  lines     ■ Based  on  2-­‐3  minor  genes  with  addiSve  effect   ■ Narrow  geneSc  base   ■ Transgressive  segregaSon     Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2008c  
  13. 13. Pyramiding  slow  rusKng  resistance  genes     0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ATIL C2000a (Check) ATIL*2/LO CAL REDa (Check) PIQ UERO b BERG ANDbAM ICbKN IPAb TAG UAbTRILEb PLANETAb PLAYERO b PLAY/BERG //PIQ /AM IC _60c PLAY/BER G //PIQ /AM IC _64c PLAN /AM IC //BERG /TRILE_91c PLAN/AM IC //BERG /TR ILE_96c PLAN /KN IPA//BERG /TAG U A_100c BER G /AM IC//PLAY/PIQ _125c BERG /AM IC//PLAY/PIQ _126c CIMMYT Slow rusting durum wheats %Leafrust 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 AreaUnit FDS AUDPC A x B C x D F1 x F1
  14. 14. GeneKc  analysis  of  slow  rusKng  resistance   PopulaSon   HPTR   HPTS   OTHER   TOTAL   No   genes   P-­‐ value   ATREDa/HELLER  #1b   4   6   125   135   4   0.82   ATRED/BAIRDSc   9   4   127   140   4   0.21   ATRED/DUNKLERd   5   2   118   125   4   0.46   a  ATRED  =  ATIL*2/LOCAL  RED   b  HELLER  #1  =  PLAYERO/BERGAND//PIQUERO/AMIC   c  BAIRDS  =  BERGAND/AMIC//PLAYERO/PIQUERO   e  DUNKLER  =  AMIC/TRILE//PLANETA/PIQUERO   No.  genes  esSmated-­‐  Cd.  Obregon  2013  
  15. 15. Genomic regions associated with slow rusting resistance „  IdenSficaSon  of  Lr46/Yr29/Sr58/ Ltn2  in  durum  wheat  using  Atred  #1   x  ASl  C2000  RIL  populaSon  and   CSIRO  marker  csLV46G22   Chromosome   References   2AL,  3AS,  7BS   Maccaferri  et  al   2008   2AL,  2BS,  4BL,  5A   Marone  et  al  2009   2BL,  3BS,  7BS   Maccaferri  et  al   2010   1B,  2B,  4B,  7B   Singh  A  et  al  2012     Cd.  Obregon  2013,  significant  difference  at  P<0.05   49 29 43 35 12 26 -LR46/YR29 +LR46/YR29 SEGREGATING %Rustseverity Mean % rust severity for RILs of Atil C2000 x Atred #1 population Leaf rust Stripe rust „  Reported  minor  QTLs/slow   rusSng  resistance?  
  16. 16.         3 10 18 11 13 4 1 Numberretainedentries Yield % over check cultivar Cirno C2008 Yield trials in Y12-13 Breeding  for  high  yielding  durable  leaf  rust  resistant   germplasm     „ Slow  rusKng  DW  developed  from  backcrosses  with  AKl   C2000  retained  (n=57)  from  1st  year  yield  trial  at  Cd  Obregon   2013  
  17. 17. AddiKonal  studies  on  slow  rusKng  resistance   „ EvaluaKon  of  macroscopic  components:  latency  period,   recepKvity,  uredinium  size   ■  MarSnez  et  al  2001;  Herrera-­‐Foessel  et  al  2007b;  MarSnez  et  al   2007;  Marone  et  al  2009;  Soleiman  et  al  2013   „ EvaluaKon  of  microscopic  components:  No.  early   aborted  infecKon  units  (-­‐),  relaKve  colony  size   ■  Marone  et  al  2009;  Soleiman  et  al  2013  
  18. 18. Strategies  and  future  challenges   „ GeneKc  diversity  essenKal   „ Vulnerability  to  rely  on  few  major  genes  (LrCam  or   Lr14a)   „ Slow  rusKng  resistance-­‐a  more  durable  soluKon   „ The  narrow  geneKc  base  of  CIMMYT  durum  wheats   implies  that  other  sources  should  be  invesKgated   „ Exploit  variability  from  landraces  or  related  tetraploids   to  enhance  diversity  and  achieve  higher  levels  of   resistance  
  19. 19. Pt race BBG/BP Accession Seedling infection type Field severity & reaction LTN OAX93.6.20 3+4 5MS 2 OAX93.6.30 X- 1MS 2 OAX93.6.81 3+ 5MS 2 OAX93.8.2 X+ 5MS 2 OAX93.8.40 3+4 10MS 2 OAX93.8.46 3+ 10MS 1 OAX93.8.47 3+ 10MS 2 OAX93.8.51 3+4 15MS 2 OAX93.9.7 3+4 10MS 2 OAX93.9.9 3+4 5MS 2 OAX93.16.47 X 1MRMS 2 OAX93.18.18 X+3C 1MR 2 New  sources  of  resistance   Cd.  Obregon  2013  
  20. 20. Strategies  and  future  challenges   „ Transfer  of  Lr68  from  bread  wheat     „ Lr34  and  Lr67,  located  in  the  D-­‐genome     „ Molecular  characterizaKon  of  slow  rusKng  resistance   needed   ■  Increase  knowledge     ■  MAS   „ Strengthening  strategic  effort  to  breed  for  APR   resistance  in  durum  wheat  (require  absence  of  major   genes)        
  21. 21. Acknowledgements   „ CIMMYT’s  technical  staff   „ GRDC  Australia   „ Sida-­‐Sweden   „ SAGARPA-­‐CONACYT-­‐Mexico      
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