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  • 1. Borlaug Global Rust Initiative Technical Workshop – 2014 Session: “Rust Resistance in Tetraploids” Ciudad Obregon, March 23, 2014 Advances in Breeding for Resistance to Stem Rust Caused by Ug99 and Ethiopian Pgt Races in Durum Wheat Ayele Badebo DZARC – EARO, Ethiopia Karim Ammar, Abeyo Bekele, Alexandro Loladze, Susanne Dreisigacker, Roberto-Javier Peña & Masahiro Kishii Global Wheat Program - CIMMYT
  • 2. Stem Rust on Durum Wheat Specificity of the pathogen and current presence „  Ug99+variants ■  Present in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, Iran ■  Widespread resistance in most durum germplasm groups „  Ethiopian races, pre-dating Ug99 ■  Not as well characterized ■  Sr13+Sr9e combined virulence (Olivera et al. 2010) ■  Very little resistance (5%) in all germplasm groups worldwide (Olivera et al. 2010) ■  Confined to Ethiopia?, Sr13 virulence present in Turkey
  • 3. Stem Rust on Durum Wheat Durum areas threatened by the “Ethiopian” races: „  Durum areas of Central India (1.0-1.5 million ha) ■  Through Yemen, most likely path as confirmed by migration of Ug99 ■  Stem rust (less virulent races) already endemic in the region „  Turkey, North-Africa, Middle-East (>5 million ha) ■  Less likely dissemination path, but cannot be ignored ■  Sr13-virulence present in Turkey ■  Durum critical in these areas ■  Historically favorable climatic conditions for the development of stem rust epidemicsDavid Hodson et al. 2008 „  Threat likely to increase with warming temperatures earlier in the cropping seasons as predicted by climate change scenarios
  • 4. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Screening in Njoro-Kenya vs. Debre Zeit-Ethiopia y = 0.9729x + 22.67 R2 = 0.223 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 SR reading KENYA SRreadingETHIOPIA
  • 5. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat The basis of our strategy „  Establishment of bi-annual screening program in Ethiopian “hot-spot” ■  Hosted by the Debre Zeit Ag. Res. Center ■  Artificial inoculation with mixture of relevant races (Ethiopian races + Ug99) ■  Screening of 1000s of lines annually: •  Resistance sources discovery for crossing •  Resistance confirmation in new advanced lines •  Genetic studies for resistance characterization Photos: Dr. Ayele Badebo
  • 6. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Rare resistance to start with in 2009… but enough to work with 50 – 70 S 80 – 100s 278 64 71.3 16.4 Reaction Class Number of Lines Percent of Total 10 MR – 20 MRMS 12 3.1 30 MR – 40 MSS 36 9.3 Data from Debre Zeit, off-season 2009 390 Elite Lines
  • 7. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Emphasis in CIMMYT crossing program 296 456 268 219 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2009 2010 2011 2012 NumberofCrosses Year Crosses made for Stem Rust Resistance 2009 - 2012 Stem Rust Crosses 20 – 46% of program’s crossing effort „  Resistance Sources ■  CIMMYT Elite ■  European germplasm ■  North-American germplasm ■  ICARDA germplasm ■  Genetic resources ■  Stocks with marked genes (MAS)
  • 8. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Selection stream: parallel selection Ethiopia/Mexico of new fixed lines F3 Toluca F2 Obregon F6 PYT Obregon F5 Toluca/Batan F4 Obregon F6 Off season Debre Zeit F7 HR Batan F7 Main season Debre Zeit F8 Rep YT Obregon F8 Off season Debre Zeit Distribution Globally Release Ethiopia Selection for LR, YR, agronomic type, earliness and grain-fill MEXICO: Selection for yield, drought tolerance, quality ETHIOPIA: Selection for Stem Rust resistance
  • 9. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Significant increase in resistant germplasm distributed globally Number % Number % Number % Number % Reaction Group of Lines Total of Lines Total of Lines Total of Lines Total Resistant 20 13.2 5 3.3 17 10.7 26 12.0 Moderately Resistant 5 3.3 17 11.3 44 27.7 60 27.8 Useful for Stem Rust 25 16.4 22 14.6 61 38.4 86 39.8 Moderately Susceptible 12 7.9 19 12.7 5 3.1 2 0.9 Susceptible 115 75.7 109 72.7 93 58.5 128 59.3 N = 152 N = 150 N = 159 N = 216 43 IDYN+IDSN 44 IDYN+IDSN 45 IDYN+IDSN 46 IDYN+IDSN Distributed 2011 Distributed 2012 Distributed 2013 Distributed 20142009: 3.1%
  • 10. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Significant increase in resistant germplasm distributed globally while maintaining agronomic performance 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 Numberoflinesinclass Grain Yield as % of Check JUPARE C2001 Yield Distribution under FULL IRRIGATION within germplasm distributed in 2013 and 2014 International Nurseries ALL (N=304) Stem Rust R/MR (N=124) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 Numberoflinesinclass Grain Yield as % of Check JUPARE C2001 Yield Distribution under DROUGHT within germplasm distributed in 2013 and 2014 International Nurseries ALL (N=291) Stem Rust R/MR (N=115) „  Stem Rust Resistant lines have similar distribution than other lines ■  Yield Potential ■  Drought Tolerance ■  Quality attributes (gluten strength & yellow color)
  • 11. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Stacking alien genes of resistance via MAS Sr25/Lr19 7AL L. ponticum Durum w heat 1 PsyA1+PsyER4 Co-dominant Full phenotypic expression, routine use in parent characterization and MAS cfa2123 Co-dominant csKP81 Co-dominant Inheritance Phenotypic Validation and use in program Sr22 Full phenotypic expression, routine use in parent characterization and MAS Location Origin Source Originally Used 7AL T. boeticum Bread w heat Gene Marker Designation 1: Transferred to durum by Dr. Adam Lukashewski, U.C. Riverside Sr22 (cfa2123, cfa2019) Sr25 (PSY1-EF2_ER4) Photos: Susanne Dreisigacker
  • 12. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Sr22 and Sr25 loci tightly linked , essentially inherited together, attempt at better gene stewardship… Xgpw2242-8.2 Xfba2430.0 Xfba17 Xgpw413013.0 Xcfd6218.7 Xfba23122.4 XEF1R33.9 Xfba12738.9 Xfba10958.4 Xbcd143859.4 Xgpw320165.3 Xgpw323476.2 Xfbb22286.8 Xcfa205697.8 Xfbb7998.9 Xfba7199.5 Xfbb366106.8 Xgpw3208125.4 Xcfd6129.5 Xgpw7313136.1 Xpsr165136.6 Xwmc182137.7 Xpsp3050138.4 Xcfa2110147.5 XksuA5168.5 Xbc9O10169.6 Xglk478174.5 XksuG12178.2 Xcfa2123193.3 Xfba69198.7 Xpsp3094 Xgpw2252210.6 Xtam51219.9 Xcfa2019224.0 Xcfa2293232.4 XksuD2232.8 Xfba350244.7 Xwg232.1253.6 Xwg232.2253.8 Xcfa2040256.2 XksuH9267.5 7AL-1-0.39-0.717AL-18-0.9-1 Sr22 (cfa2123, cfa2019) Sr25 (PSY1-EF2_ER4) Chr. 7A (Courtot x C.S.) DWSr22 x Elite 1 F1Sr22 DWSr25 x Elite 2 F1Sr25X Double-Cross Population F2 F6 F8 Testing SR Testing SR Yield, Drought Quality MAS
  • 13. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Advanced lines with linked Sr22+Sr25 „  GISH of L. Ponticum segment ■  Telomeric „  GISH of T. Boeticum segment ■  Not yet available Photos: Masahiro Kishii
  • 14. Breeding for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Advanced lines with linked Sr22+Sr25: Characteristics „  Confirmed homozygocity for both genes ■  Markers stably homozygous in F6 – F8 head-rows ■  Stably resistant over 2-3 seasons at Debre Zeit „  Improved quality parameters ■  Better gluten strength than most local cultivars ■  Significantly higher yellow color than local cultivars „  Variable yield performance and drought tolerance ■  Obregon: some yield penalty due to lower kernel size ■  Ethiopia: under evaluation ■  Second round breeding started!!
  • 15. CIMMYT – DZARC Joint Breeding Effort for Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat: Conclusions „  Strategy of parallel Selection Mexico/Ethiopia has been successful ■  Significant progress in frequency of SR resistant or moderately resistant lines in CIMMYT outgoing germplasm ■  Useful variability for yield potential, drought tolerance and quality maintained in new resistant germplasm „  Debre Zeit phenotyping platform has been key! ■  Testing facilities have been enhanced, effort needs sustaining „  MAS with gene stewardship in mind provided valuable germplasm ■  If not usable for cultivar release, provides useful parental stocks for further breeding
  • 16. Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Research efforts to provide information and markers for breeding „  Association Mapping of Stem Rusts resistance ■  Beachell-Borlaug scholar Tesfaye Dugo Letta ■  Led y Prof. Tuberosa team, Univ. Bologna, Italy ■  Results from adult plant reaction and seedling published (Letta et al., TAG, 2013; Letta et al., Plant Genome, 2014) „  Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance from Boohai ■  Beachell-Borlaug scholar Tesfaye Dugo Letta ■  Led y Prof. Tuberosa team, Univ. Bologna, Italy ■  Phenotyping done, mapping in process „  Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance from COCORIT ■  Collaboration with Dr. Curtis Pozniak, Univ. Saskatchewan ■  Preliminary results presented, manuscript in progress

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