Development of Pgt race Ug99 Resistant Wheat Cultivars in Iran: Achievements and Prospects
Development of Pgt race Ug99 resistant wheat
cultivars in Iran: achievements and prospects
G. Najafian, M. Vahab Zadeh, A. Amini and S. Mahfoozi
Wheat breeders, Cereal Research Dept., Seed and Plant Improvement
Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran, Postal Code: 3135933151
• Wheat area: 6.5 mha, 2.4 irrigated, 4.1 rain fed.
• Production: 12-15 m tons depending on the
drought/humidity of the season
• Among rusts, Yellow rust >> more prevalent
especially in humid seasons
• Up to 1.5 million tons wheat grain loss in 1993
(Torabi, et al. 1995).
• Development of new cultivars specially in irrigated
wheat >>> some how controlled.
• Leaf and stem rust potential threats especially in
northern Caspian sea shore where humidity and
temperature are favorable.
History of stem rust in Iran:
1947: The First Report of wheat SR in Iran
1966-68: Reported from North of Iran
1976: Epidemic of SR in South of Iran
2007: Sr31-virulence in Iran (Nazari et al. 2008)
• Since then, no considerable stem rust has been
observed/reported, but considered as an
important challenge for ongoing wheat breeding
• Evaluation of circulating germplasm to this
new virulence, where disease was prevalent
• This opportunity provided through BGRI
formation and CIMMYT support and Kenyan
• Evaluation of germplasm in Kenya for APR
against Ug99 virulence from 2007 onward
• Seedling assessment: In green house inside
Status of Iranian evaluated wheat germplasm
in Kenya from 2007 till 2012
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Maximum infection 50M
Resistant (Max. infection 30M)
Source: BGRI, John Bakum personal communications
• A national stem rust management research
• Hybridization and gene pyramiding strategy.
• The first generation of breeding lines developed
from crosses of Parsi, Sivand and Morvarid
• Molecular tracking of the genes is also under
progress to characterize resistant varieties.
• Pathological evaluations: pathotype identification,
trap nursery monitoring, seedling and adult plant
resistance evaluations in green house
• Other concerning challenges:
• Low investment of government, no private sector
• Complication of drought and moisture stress
cycles >> affecting the goals
• Adoption of new varieties >> farmers will, Attila
• Variation in virulence for Yr in different corners of
the country , complicated epidemiology
• Neighboring countries epidemics and inoculums
• Using of rich genetic resources>> lack of an
effective pre-breeding program
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