Development of Pgt race Ug99 Resistant Wheat Cultivars in Iran: Achievements and Prospects

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G. Najafian, M. Vahab Zadeh, A. Amini and S. Mahfoozi

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Development of Pgt race Ug99 Resistant Wheat Cultivars in Iran: Achievements and Prospects

  1. 1. Development of Pgt race Ug99 resistant wheat cultivars in Iran: achievements and prospects G. Najafian, M. Vahab Zadeh, A. Amini and S. Mahfoozi Wheat breeders, Cereal Research Dept., Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran, Postal Code: 3135933151 e-mail: goodarzn@yahoo.co.uk
  2. 2. • Wheat area: 6.5 mha, 2.4 irrigated, 4.1 rain fed. • Production: 12-15 m tons depending on the drought/humidity of the season • Among rusts, Yellow rust >> more prevalent especially in humid seasons • Up to 1.5 million tons wheat grain loss in 1993 (Torabi, et al. 1995). • Development of new cultivars specially in irrigated wheat >>> some how controlled. • Leaf and stem rust potential threats especially in northern Caspian sea shore where humidity and temperature are favorable.
  3. 3. History of stem rust in Iran: 1947: The First Report of wheat SR in Iran 1966-68: Reported from North of Iran 1976: Epidemic of SR in South of Iran 2007: Sr31-virulence in Iran (Nazari et al. 2008) • Since then, no considerable stem rust has been observed/reported, but considered as an important challenge for ongoing wheat breeding programs.
  4. 4. • Evaluation of circulating germplasm to this new virulence, where disease was prevalent • This opportunity provided through BGRI formation and CIMMYT support and Kenyan ARI (KARI) • Evaluation of germplasm in Kenya for APR against Ug99 virulence from 2007 onward • Seedling assessment: In green house inside the country
  5. 5. Status of Iranian evaluated wheat germplasm in Kenya from 2007 till 2012 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Tested genotypes Maximum infection 50M Resistant (Max. infection 30M)
  6. 6. Source: BGRI, John Bakum personal communications
  7. 7. • A national stem rust management research program • Hybridization and gene pyramiding strategy. • The first generation of breeding lines developed from crosses of Parsi, Sivand and Morvarid • Molecular tracking of the genes is also under progress to characterize resistant varieties. • Pathological evaluations: pathotype identification, trap nursery monitoring, seedling and adult plant resistance evaluations in green house
  8. 8. • Other concerning challenges: • Low investment of government, no private sector • Complication of drought and moisture stress cycles >> affecting the goals • Adoption of new varieties >> farmers will, Attila and Sardari • Variation in virulence for Yr in different corners of the country , complicated epidemiology • Neighboring countries epidemics and inoculums transfer>> • Using of rich genetic resources>> lack of an effective pre-breeding program

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