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A Strategy to Tackle Rust Menace: Integrating MAS with Breeding for Durable Rust Resistance
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A Strategy to Tackle Rust Menace: Integrating MAS with Breeding for Durable Rust Resistance

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K.V,. Prabhu

K.V,. Prabhu

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  • 1. A Strategy to Tackle Rust Menace : Integrating MAS with Breeding for Durable Rust Resistance IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute K. V. Prabhu Division of Genetics Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi-110012 BGRI Workshop 21 August 2013, New Delhi
  • 2. Wheat area, production and productivity scenario in India (1964-2011) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Courtesy: Project Director, DWR
  • 3. 33.7 36 45.5 46 46.8 44 45.1 45.7 45.8 45.4 35.3 42.5 47.1 51.3 61.5 48.9 63 62.9 61.5 61 64.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 YieldPotential(Q/ha) Variety (Year of Release) Landmark wheat releases in India 68.0 HD 2967 DPW 621-50 WH 1105 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Courtesy: Project Director, DWR
  • 4. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Changing Climate Taking a Toll : Abiotic stress and yellow rust
  • 5. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 6. Strategies  to  cope  with   changing  climate   1.  Exploitation of alien genetic variation (wild species and genera, land races etc.) 2.  Enhanced input use efficiency 3.  Breeding for earliness 4.  Varieties for fragile ecosystems Ø Plant breeding strategies: Ø Biotechnological tools: 1.  Marker assisted breeding 2.  Transgenics/Cisgenics 3.  Genomics, proteomics etc. 4.  TILLING/ECOTILLING (search for new genes) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 7. F2 P2 F1 P1 x large populations consisting of thousands of plants PHENOTYPIC SELECTION Field trialsGlasshouse trials DonorRecipient CONVENTIONAL PLANT BREEDING Salinity screening in phytotron Bacterial blight screening Phosphorus deficiency plot IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 8. F2 P2 F1 P1 x large populations (e.g. 2000 plants) ResistantSusceptible MAS for 1 QTL – 75% elimination of (3/4) unwanted genotypes MAS for 2 QTLs – 94% elimination of (15/16) unwanted genotypes IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 9. Marker Assisted Wheat Breeding : Rust Resistance IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 10. PYRAMIDING Lr/Sr and Yr GENES IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 11. Lr24 and Lr28 are fixed in HD2329 and PBW343 background IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 12. MAS for Adult Plant Resistance (APR) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 13. 1 2 3 Standardization of methodology for APR for leaf rust resistance under controlled condition IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 14. Screening of APR and susceptible individuals of the cross [ Agra Local XCSP44 (Lr48)] with SSR marker Xgwm372275 (top) and RAPD S3450 Lr48 S3450 S336775 S369950 Xgwm37227 5 4BL 11.8 ± 0.054 cM 3.6 ± 0.043 cM 2.7 ± 0.025 cM 15.3 ± 0.049 cM IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 15. Network Project On Molecular Marker Assisted Development of Biotic Stress Resistant Wheat Varieties (2009-2014) Accelerated Crop Improvement Programme Funded by Department of Biotechnology Ministry of Science and Technology Government of India, New Delhi IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 16. Molecular markers employed for MAS for leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance genes Gene Marker Marker Type Reference Lr24 SCS1302 SCAR Prabhu et al. 2004 Lr34 csLV34 STS Lagudah et al. 2006 Lr57/Yr40 XLr57/Yr40- MAS-CAPS16 PCR-CAPs Kuraparthy et al. 2009 Lr28 SCS421 SCAR Cherukuri et al. 2006 Lr9 SCS5 TPSCAR Gupta et al. 2006 Lr58 PS16 SSR Kuraparthy et al. 2009 Sr25/Lr19 Xwmc 221 SSR Gupta et al. 2006 Sr26 43BE518379 SCAR Liu et al. 2009 Yr10 Xpsp 3000 SSR Bariana et al. 2002 Yr15 Xgwm 273 SSR Peng et al. 2006 Lr48 Xwmc332 SSR Samsampour et al.2010 Lr25 Xgwm 251 SSR Singh et al. 2012 IndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch
  • 17. Targeted Varieties (16) HD 2733* HD 2932* HD 2967 PBW 343* PBW 550 DBW 17 UP 2338* VL 738* HS 240* HS 325 Shivalik* HI 8498 NI 5439 Lok1 HUW 252* MACS 3125 IndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch * Products ready for trials from Rabi2013
  • 18.  Rust  res.      Product    Delivery    Region    trait          Period     1. Leaf and stripe HS240, HS295 2013-15 NHZ rusts VL 738, UP2338 NEPZ UP 2382 2. Leaf, stem and HD 2967, PBW550 2013-15 NWPZ stripe rusts HD 2733, PBW343 NEPZ 3. Leaf and stem Lok1, NI5439 2013-15 CZ, PZ rusts HI 8498, HD2932 MACS3125 Product Delivery Schedule for ReleaseIndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch
  • 19. Standards to Qualify MABB Derived Products in Wheat (To come into effect from 2013-14 Rabi season) Proceedings of Meeting held at DWR, Karnal on 6th October 2012 FAST-TRACKING RELEASES FROM MOLECULAR BREEDING SCHEMES IndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch
  • 20. Guidelines on NILs/MAS Product Testing/Release/Notification under Seed Act 1966 Approved during the 48th Meeting of Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops, 24 Dec. 2007 IndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch
  • 21. Ø Notified on 24 Dec 2007 as proceedings of 48th Meeting of Seed Committee, GoI Ø The recurrent parent (RP) should be a notified variety/parental line of a hybrid lacking in specific traits Ø NILs (EDV) should be in conformity with RP for DUS trait but should have one or two phenotypic characters differing from RP to facilitate seed certification and yield at least on par with RP Ø The NILs (EDV) should have a minimum of 85% RPG recovery based on background selection. Ø Identification, notification and release of NILs: The NILs which have successfully completed two years of testing under AVT1-NIL as per the guidelines/criteria mentioned above should be identified, released and notified as a new variety Fast Tracking of MAS derived NIL (by notification under Seed Act 1966) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 22. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute “Minor genes” for durability of resistance
  • 23. Breeding for “Minor genes” based resistance Breeding for “gene pyramided” resistance IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute The genetic basis for the approach…….
  • 24. Minor  Genes  :  A  realizable  op@on   IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute The genetic basis for the approach…….
  • 25. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute The genetic basis for the approach…….
  • 26. • Recombination breeding using diverse parental lineages Facilitation for mobilization of multiple genes for resistance from different wheat strains in the pedigree in high yielding recombination How Was the Challenge Met?.... IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 27. Pedigree  analysis  of  HD  2967   ALD/COC//URES/HD 2160/HD 2277 ALD/COC URES IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 28. HD 2160 HD 2277 Pedigree  analysis  of  HD  2967   IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 29. Concept of durable resistance consolidated and validated by CIMMYT IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Slide courtesy : Ravi Singh, CIMMYT
  • 30. Courtesy : Ravi Singh, CIMMYT 2010 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 31. How was the Challenge Tackled …contd. A. Durable or Horizontal Resistance Breeding •  Exposure of the segregating materials at hot spot locations (Wellington, Dhaulakuan, Dharwad, Indore) at different stages (shuttling) •  Facilitation of screening against yellow/black or yellow/leaf or black rust enabling us to pick up only the disease resistant plants with levels of 10S-30MSS under high disease pressure   IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 32. REJECT (40S>80S) SELECT (5S-20S) Selection for Minor GenesIndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 33. •  Targe&ng  minor  genes  by  adop&ng  molecular   markers  for  rejec&on  of  all  known  Lr,  Yr  and  Sr   major  genes  with  the  help  of  molecular  markers       •  This  approach  was  adopted  to  facilitate  the   accumula@on    of  minor  genes  in  the  selec@ons   under  high  disease  pressure  are  going  to  be  other   than  these  major  genes  as  the  major  genes  can   be  overcome  by  the  evolving  races  of  the   pathogen  in  a  short  period  aDer  cul@va@on.         Durable or Horizontal Resistance Breeding IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 34. Major genes functional in India Lr9, Lr24,Lr28, Lr48, Lr28, Lr19 Sr2*,Sr24, Sr25, Sr31* Yr9*, Yr5*, Yr10, Yr15,Yr37 *genetic marker or seedling pathology Screening advanced and parental lines for the presence of major genes using molecular or genetic markers IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 35. Per cent genome recovery of HD2733 q  Maximum genetic background of 94.82% was recovered in BC2F2 of HD2733/ HD2687+Lr19/2/HD2733 q  Maximum genetic background of 95.12% was recovered in BC2F2 of HD2733/HD2687+Lr24/2/HD2733 q  Maximum genetic background of 96.25% was recovered in BC2F2 of HD2733/HD2687+Yr15/2/HD2733 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute q  Evaluation of BC2F3 at all four locations for drought and heat q  Intercross NILs: HD 2733 lines(DHT) X HD2733 (RR) Selection in F2-F4 Reconstitution of HD 2733 with drought and heat tolerance + Rust resistance
  • 36. Acknowledgements • NATP, DBT, ACIAR, ICAR, IARI, NRCPB, PAU, DWR • Young Research Fellows and investigators for having stuck together as ONE TEAM displaying full cooperation (Cherukuri DP, Ashwini Charpe, Sudhir Gupta, Sunita Koul, Yogesh Vikal, Parveen Chhuneja, H S Dhaliwal, Bahram Maleki, Davood Samsampour, Anupam Singh, Pallavi J. K, Niharika, Bhojraja, Vinod, J.B. Sharma, G.P. Singh, Neelu Jain, T. Ramya, Rajbir Yadav) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  • 37. Thank You IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute