Waste Not, Want Not: The Importance of Being Earnest About Gene Stewardship
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  • 1. Waste  Not,  Want  Not:   The  Importance  of  Being  Earnest     About  Gene  Stewardship  
  • 2. Effec@ve  APR  Resources   •  Sr2/Yr30   •  Lr34/Yr18/Sr57   •  Lr46/Yr29   •  Lr67/Yr46/Sr55   •  Sr56  on  5BL   •  Others   –  1A   –  2B   –  3D   –  4A   –  6B   –  7A  
  • 3. New  or  Revived  Major  Genes   •  Sr22   •  Sr25   •  Sr26   •  Sr28   •  Sr32   •  Sr33   •  Sr35   •  Sr37   •  Sr39     •  Sr40   •  Sr43   •  Sr44   •  Sr45   •  Sr46   •  Sr47   •  Sr50   •  Sr51   •  Sr53  
  • 4. What  Will  Be  the  Fate  of  These  Genes?   •  Will  they  provide  the  protec@on  we  need?   •  Will  they  affect  yield  or  quality?   •  Will  they  last?   •  Will  our  investments  be  rewarded  or  wasted?  
  • 5. What  is  Stewardship?   •  Stewardship  can  be  defined  as  the  careful  and   responsible  management  of  something   entrusted  to  one’s  care.   •  What  does  it  mean  for  us?   –  Genes  remain  useful  for  a  long  period  of  @me   –  Stewardship  and  durability  are  inescapably  linked   concepts    
  • 6. Components  of  Stewardship   •  Integrated  Disease  Management   –  Keep  popula@ons  small;  get  rid  of  rust  suckers   –  Break  or  weaken  green  bridges   –  Use  fungicides  if  prac@cal   •  Know  your  enemy   –  Phenotyping  (race  surveys)   –  Biogeography:  Hot  spots  for  diversity  (barberries,  etc.)   –  Genomics:  Understand  avirulence  genes  (effectors)   •  Know  your  cul@vars:     –  Gene  postula@on,  genotyping,  analyzing  unknowns   •  Know  your  R-­‐genes:     –  Mechanisms,  matching  avirulence  genes   –  Synergism  or  antagonism  between  genes   •  Deploy  genes  intelligently   –  Use  minor  gene  Adult  Plant  Resistance  (APR)   –  Use  good  strategies  for  major  gene  resistance  
  • 7. Deployment  Strategies   MacDonald  and  Linde,  2002  
  • 8. Don’t  Provide  Stepping  Stones  
  • 9. Use  Pyramid  Power   Simultaneous  Muta@on  Probability  =    mn  
  • 10. Bigger  is  Beher  
  • 11. Hot  Spots  Need  Extra  Care   Singh  et  al.  2011  
  • 12. What  is  Our  Priority?   •  Protect  the  crop   •  Protect  the  resistance  genes  
  • 13. Stewardship  Groups   1.  No  stewardship  needed   2.  Common  pool:  Combina@ons  with  at   least  three  genes  recommended   3.  Reserved  pool:  Bigger  pyramids   required  
  • 14. Nomina@ons  for  Reserve  Pool   •  Sr22   •  Sr25   •  Sr26   •  Sr28   •  Sr32   •  Sr33   •  Sr35   •  Sr37   •  Sr39     •  Sr40   •  Sr43   •  Sr44   •  Sr45   •  Sr46   •  Sr47   •  Sr50   •  Sr51   •  Sr53  
  • 15. Proposals   1.  Need  beher  interna@onal  support  for   common  pool  resistance  gene  combina@ons   a)  support  marker-­‐assisted  selec@on   b)  monitor  genes  in  candidate  varie@es   c)  rapidly  fix  and  replace  weak  combina@ons   2.  Need  reserved  set  of  genes  for  higher  level   of  stewardship   a)  share  with  any  responsible  party   b)  following  stewardship  rules  is  mandatory  
  • 16. A  Chain  is  Only  As  Strong  As  the   Weakest  Link  
  • 17. We’re  All  In  This  Together  
  • 18. If  you  want  to  join  the  rust-­‐genes   listserv  on  Google  Groups     then  email:   robert.bowden@ars.usda.gov   or   jbakum@gmail.com    
  • 19. The  Importance  of  Being  Earnest   Norman  E.  Borlaug  Norman  Ernest  Borlaug