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Stripe Rust and the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey
 

Stripe Rust and the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey

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M. Solh, M. Burak, K. Nazari, M. Keser, Y. Karaman,

M. Solh, M. Burak, K. Nazari, M. Keser, Y. Karaman,
M. Baum and Z. Mert

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    Stripe Rust and the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey Stripe Rust and the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey Presentation Transcript

    • Stripe Rust and the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey M. Solh, M. Burak, K. Nazari, M. Keser, Y. Karaman, M. Baum and Z. Mert International Center of Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies of Turkey Regional Wheat Rust Research Center, AARI, Izmir, Turkey Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, Izmir, Turkey CIMMYT - ICARDA, Ankara, Turkey Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Ankara, Turkey
    • Outline Ø  Importance of stripe/yellow rust of wheat; Ø  Epidemiological considerations of yellow rust disease; Ø  Elements of the Stripe Rust Strategy Ø  Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereals Rust Research Center at Izmir; Ø  RCRRC activities in 2012-2013; Ø  Conclusion Ø  Acknowledgements
    • Importance of Stripe/Yellow Rust of Wheat
    • Wheat rust diseases pose serious threat to wheat production worldwide Stripe  (yellow)  rust   Leaf  (brown)  rust   Stem  (black)  rust  
    • Country/  Year   Crop  losses   million  $   USA 2000-07 2010 6.5 million tones 2.2 million tones $US 30 Washington state Australia 2003-2006 AUS $ 30-90 China 1950, 1964, 1990, 2002 14.38 million tones More than 20 million ha can be effected annually Turkey 1992 1996 2000 2009-10 26.5% (Gereck > 1 m ha) 1.2 million tonest (Cekurova) 3% Gerek 79, 568 53 10 (> 1.5 mh) Iran 1992-94 2007 and 09 2010 2.5 million tones 2 million ha infection 650,000 ha spray 258 ? ? Uzbekistan 1998 2009-10 35% yield losses Yellow rust outbreak 135 30% Morocco 2009-10 Achtar 75% of the what areas 25-35% Syria 2010 Cham 8 (80% yield loss) 80% of Area Ethiopia, Kenya, SA 2010 $US 3.2 in fungicide application in Ethiopia Impact of Stripe Rust Epidemics Worldwide 5  
    • Incidence: widespread 2 or 3 years in 5 over whole production region Severity: 5-10% crop losses Incidence: localised, 2 in 5 years over 25% growing areas Severity: 1-5% crop losses Interna=onal  Stripe  Rust   Current  Context   Wellings CR (2011) Euphytica 179:129–141
    • 0   100   200   300   400   500   600   700   Ethiopia   Iran   Kenya   Lebanon  Morocco  Pakistan   Yemen   Stem  rust   Leaf  rust   Yellow  Rust   0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   Ethiopia   Iran   Kenya   Lebanon  Morocco  Pakistan   Yemen   Stem  rust   Leaf  rust   Yellow  Rust   Yellow rust has struck the “Wheat-Belt” in Central & West Asia, North Africa, East Africa, the Caucasus and South Asia in 2013 2013   2010  
    • Stripe Rust, a call for action: Long-term investment to reduce the threat of stripe rust Summary  Status   Component   Stem  rust  (Ug99)   Stripe  rust   Coordinated  Global   Response   X   Regional  Coordina=on   Clearly  defined  target   X   More  is  needed   Informa=on  systems  +   Data  Management   X   Regional  not  Global   Surveillance  Network  +   Tools   X   X   Pathotyping  capacity   X  with  limita=ons   (GRRC  with  some   limita=ons)   Ahead  of  disease   progress?   X   Much  more  is  needed   Adapted  from  Dave  Hodson,  CIMMYT  
    • Epidemiological Considerations of Yellow Rust Disease
    • 1.  Conducive environmental conditions & climate change; 2.  Genetic similarity of Mega-cultivar with yellow rust resistant (withYr9 and Yr27) and the susceptibility of local cultivars (e.g. Turkey=Gerek, Iran= Sardari, Morocco= Achtar,…); 3.  Wind borne and other means of transportation factors; 4.  Overlapping/continuous cropping seasons/systems; 5.  Widespread of alternate host and wheat wild relatives. Epidemiological Factors
    • “Green Bridge” and “Continues Cropping” Country Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug E a s t Africa N e a r East Egypt N o r t h Africa W e s t Asia Y e m e n o f f - season Y e m e n m a i n season Planting Growing Harvesting No crop 11
    • 12   Alternate Hosts for Stripe/Yellow Rust in Wheat are widely Spread
    • Emergence of a New Race of Stripe/Yellow Rust in Wheat due to Climate Change in West & Central Asia , 2009/2010 Ø  Serious outbreak of yellow rust on wheat in the West and Central Asia in 2009/2010 season; Ø Due to an average higher temperature in winter (4-5%), Yellow rust has been serious in in the 2009/10 Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Morocco, as well as Syria, and is a cause for concern in both Pakistan and India with serious losses occurring last season.
    • Widespread Yellow Rust Infestation in 2009/2010 15   Ø Race analysis confirmed that epidemic caused by new aggressive race which is virulent on the widely used Yr-gene Yr27; Ø This race was detected in more than 90% of identified physiological races using Yr differential sets at ICARDA; Ø Breeding germplasm evaluated at ICARDA headquarters in Syria against the new race identified high level of resistance to the new race;
    • Yellow rust resistant material developed at ICARDA Ready  for  mulH-­‐locaHon  tesHng  and  fast-­‐track       seed  mulHplicaHon  for  distribuHon  to  affected  countries     Susceptible Resistant Susceptible
    • The Need for Setting a Disease Surveillance Short to Long Term Strategy for Coping with Stripe/Yellow Rust in Wheat 17
    • Elements of Stripe Rust Strategy
    • 19  Organized  by  ICARDA,  BGRI,  CIMMYT,  FAO,  IFAD  and    AARINENA    
    • Based on the outcome of the International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium,   Elements of the Strategy were developed to develop durable resistance to yellow rust and reduce wheat stripe/yellow rust infestation in wheat. Elements of Yellow Rust Strategy
    • Elements of the Strategy to address wheat stripe rust disease Ø Surveillance and information exchange within and between countries; Ø Basic epidemiological research of stripe rust including beter understanding of alternate hosts; Ø  Early warning and early reaction including planning, monitoring, awareness, and preparedness to rapidly deliver appropriate seeds and fungicides where they are needed to arrest the spread of wheat rust diseases; Ø  Developing capacities and skills in national research and educational institutions, extension services, and at the farm level to develop effective strategies for managing rust diseases; Ø Research to utilize germplasm for new sources of resistance and for developing improved varieties with durable resistance to the emerging pathotypes of stripe rust.  
    • Approaching Stripe Rust as a Social Disease Ø Stripe rust does not respect national borders and “Rust does not Sleep”; Ø The rusts including stripe rust are ‘social diseases’; Ø The fight against rust requires good neighbors, partner working together and networking; Ø The role of policy makers and global leadership is crucial if we are to take a significant step forward in minimizing the impacts of stripe rust; Ø Requires building a cooperative attitude for information sharing, the mutual sharing of risk analyses, and trust at both regional and international levels.
    • The Need for Developing National Action Plans Ø A multi-faceted approach is needed by countries to combat wheat rusts. Ø Disease monitoring and immediate action to combat new rust pathotypes through the use of fungicides Ø Reducing the cropping of susceptible mega-cultivars across vast wheat growing areas is perhaps the best insurance policy against widespread rust damage
    • Reducing the impact of dependence on narrow range of varieties Ø   Diversified cropping of wheat varieties (DW & BW); Ø Use of non-race specific durable resistance genes; Ø Maintenance breeding as short-term strategy; Ø Better understanding of genetic basis of resistance of current cultivars and candidate advanced lines; Ø Search and utilization of new sources of resistance from land races and wild relatives.
    • Coordinated Effective Seed Production System Ø Developing a clear approach to seed multiplication and farmer engagement in the evaluation of new and diverse varieties; Ø Strengthening NARS in capacity development; Ø To establish fast-track variety release systems; Ø Participatory demonstration and accelerated seed multiplication of newly released wheat resistant varieties; Ø Fast replacement of existing vulnerable commercial varieties.
    • •  Capacity   development   •  Fast-­‐track  variety   release   •  Accelerated  seed   multiplication   and  seed  delivery   •  International,   regional  and   national  training   courses   •  Long  &  short  -­‐ term  training   •  Graduate  student   •  Regional  traveling   workshop   •  International   program   •  National   program   •  Utilization  of   genetic   resources   •  Race  analysis   •  GRRC   •  National  rust   laboratory   •  Trap  Nurseries   •  Exchange   information   Co-­‐ordinated   pathogen   monitoring   and   awareness   Co-­‐ordinated   breeding  for   durable   resistance   Effective  seed   production   system   Capacity   development   and  training   Elements  of  the  Stripe  Rust  Strategy  
    • Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereals Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey
    • International Rust Laboratories Ø IPO, in Wageningen (Yr) § 1956-1992 :5000 samples from 60 countries Ø  Global rust Center, Aarhus University, Denmark Ø Cereal Disease Laboratory, USDA-ARS, St. Paul, University of Minnesota Ø  Cereal Research Center, AAFC, Winnipeg, CANADA    
    • National Rust Laboratories •  Australia •  India •  Iran •  Ethiopia •  Kenya •  South Africa     •  Turkey •  Pakistan •  Egypt •  Morocco
    • 30   Attempt to establish Regional Rust center in Iran followed by 1st Regional Yellow Rust Conference, 2001, Iran SPII
    • Turkey-­‐ICARDA  Regional  Cereal  Rust  Research  Center   (RCRRC),  Izmir,  Turkey,  established  in  2012  
    • Major Goal of the Turkey – ICARDA RCRRC Developing and Promoting Durable Stripe Rust Resistance in Central & West Asia and North Africa through Partnership and Networking
    • Kumarse  Nazari     k.nazari@cgiar.org   INTERNATIONAL  CENTER  FOR  AGRICULTURAL  RESEARCH  IN  THE  DRY  AREAS  (ICARDA),  ALEPPO,  SYRIA   2011  BGRI  Technical  Workshop,  JUNE  13-­‐16,  2011   Yellow Rust in CWANA in 2010-2011 “The situation and Measures Taken” CWANA Highly Diverse & Challenging Region Population: >1 Billion people Wheat Area: ~ 50 million hectares 33   Izmir  
    • Wheat: a staple food in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Ø  Wheat = 37% of total food supply (calories) in MENA Ø  Average annual per capita consumption: §  North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) = 174 kg §  Middle East = 158kg §  Total MENA = 166kg §  World average = 66kg Ø  The region imports almost half its wheat needs, but at an increasing cost  
    • Top 10 net wheat Importers & Exporters 2010 (mt) Source:  FAOSTAT,  2013.   +25.1   +4.0   United States Argentina Nigeria -­‐4   +17.9   Europe -­‐10.6   Egypt +11.8   Russian Federation -­‐2.4   China Australia            Net  Exporter              Net  Importer   +15.9   +18.3   Canada -­‐5.0   Brazil Japan -­‐5.5   +4.3   Ukraine Morocco -­‐3.2   +5.1   Kazakhstan Algeria -­‐5.1   -­‐3.1   Mexico
    • •  Short-term •  Long term •  Fellowship •  Yellow rust •  Leaf rust •  Stem rust •  Yellow rust •  Leaf rust •  Stem rust •  Yellow rust •  Leaf rust •  Stem rust Regional   race   analysis   Regional   field   screening   Training  &   Capacity   building   Trap   Nurseries   Four Major Activities of the RCRRC
    • RCRRC, Izmir, Turkey India & Pakistan Ethiopia & Kenya Turkey Morocco Uzbekistan & Tajikistan SPII, Iran CDL Pullman & CIMMYT GRRC, DK PBI Aus. AAFC,   Canada   INRA,   France  
    • ICARDA   Distribu=on  of  Regional  Rust  Trap  Nurseries   in  80  loca=ons  in  32  countries,  2009/10  
    • Progress in Establishing RCRRC Ø Development of engineering designs of bio-containment facilities and pathology building; Ø Approval and allocation of construction funds by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey; Ø The construction process has started and it is expected that the facilities will be operation in early 2014; Ø Field screening of wheat germplasm to Yr, Lr, and Sr already started in 2012-13 (4 ha lands with mist irrigation system).
    • Progress (cont’d) •  ICARDA senior cereal pathologist and technicians are relocated in Izmir •  4 research assistants (MSc degree) were hired for the center •  1 post doc position will be open to start Match 2014 (Financially supported by DRRW Project) •  Full rust pathology laboratory equipments are in place; •  Field machinery for planting, harvesting and threshing are available; •  Walk in growth chamber is available for seedling screening of wheat germplasm.
    • Regional  Ceral  Rust  Research  Center  
    • Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereals Rust Research Center at Izmir, Turkey
    • Regional field screening for resistance to Yr, Lr, Sr, at the RCRRC, Izmir 1.  In 2012-13, more than 10,000 genotypes from ICARDA, IWWIP, and the national breeding program were evaluated against local race of yellow rust 2.  All the available sources of rust differential genotypes were planted in large scale plots for seed multiplication 3.  Seeds multiplication of the three International Trap Nurseries a.  International Yellow Rust Trap Nursery (80 entries) b.  International Stem Rust Trap Nurseries (80 entries) c.  International Leaf Rust Trap Nurseries (80 entries) 4.  The three trap Nurseries will be distributed from Izmir in 2013 and beyond.
    • Cereal  Rust  Pathology  Laboratory   Working  at  the  Rust  Growth  Chamber   Field  screening  2013   Turkey-­‐  ICARDA    RCRRC  at  Izmir  
    • Training and Capacity Development Partners:  ICARDA  in  collabora=on  with   BGRI,FAO,  ICARDA,  CIMMYT,  na=onal,     regional  and  interna=onal  universi=es   Ø Training  course   –  Race  analysis   –  Field  screening  and              geneHcs  of  resistance   Ø Student  Internship   –  MSc   –  PhD  
    • The  2012-­‐2013  cropping  season  at  the  RCRRC  at  Izmir,  Turkey    
    • Regional Training Course-Rust Pathology at ICARDA
    • Acknowledgements   The  Ministry  of  Agriculture  of  Turkey     The  General  Directorate  of  Agricultural  Research  and  Policies  of   Turkey   Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, Izmir, Turkey Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Ankara, Turkey Borlaug  Global  Rust  Ini=a=ve  (BGRI)  
    • Conclusion Ø  The only way we can cope with the continuous threat of Stripe/Yellow Rust is to ensure durable resistance through effective partnership and networking; Ø  Partnership and cooperation is needed : §  Across countries; §  Across institutions; §  Across disciplines involving wheat pathologists, breeders, biotechnologists; agronomists and seed multiplication experts; §  Across the research for development continuum involving researchers, extension agents, seed producers and most important farmers; Ø  We should always remember that ……
    • Ø  The  diverse  impacts  of  climate  change   on  the  durabilty  of  stripe  rust  disease   resistance  need  to  be  considered  at   national,  regional    and  international   research    and  development  levels.  
    • Announcement 2nd International Wheat Stripe (Yellow) Rust Symposium, Izmir,Turkey, May…2014 Thank You for Your Attention
    • GRRC Wheat Rust Sample Summary 2013
    • GRRC Wheat Rust Sample Summary 2013
    • GRRC Wheat Rust Sample Summary 2013