Introduction to entrepreneurship course for undergraduates

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Introduction to entrepreneurship course for undergraduates

  1. 1. Introduction to Entrepreneurship Course for Undergraduates Andalas University, Padang 24 December 2005 Prof. Dr. Nor Aishah Buang Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  2. 2. Objective of this Training <ul><li>To explain the detailed topics in the 7 modules of the instructional materials provided for this entrepreneurship course </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the activities accompanying these 7 modules on the instructor’s manual </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss some educational methodology principles in teaching entrepreneurship education. </li></ul><ul><li>To expose the methodology of some entrepreneurship games for this course </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the entrepreneurship design thinking and industrial awareness modules which is complementary to the previous trainings given the internal consultant </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session 1: An overview of the Modules <ul><li>Entrepreneurship Concepts, Attitude and Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial Design Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Business Skills in Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Awareness for Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Search Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Business Plan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Underlying Concept <ul><li>An entrepreneur is an individual or a team that either create or identifies a business opportunity. He or she then gathers the necessary resources, conceptualize the business ideas, implement his or her business ideas and is ultimately responsible for the consequences of the organization of the business. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The 4 categories of Entrepreneurs <ul><li>1. Entrepreneurship is the creation of value through the creation of organization </li></ul><ul><li>2. Entrepreneurship is the process of starting and/or growing a new profit-making business. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Entrepreneurship is the process of providing a new product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Entrepreneurship is the process of managing an organization for profit. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Educational Methodology <ul><li>Pedagogy: The art and science of Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying theories: </li></ul><ul><li>-Behaviorial Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>-Cognitive Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>-Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>-Social Learning Theory </li></ul>
  7. 7. Question/Discussion <ul><li>Is Management Education Developing, or Killing the Entrepreneurship Spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Authors: </li></ul><ul><li>Dean A. Shepherd </li></ul><ul><li>Evan Douglas </li></ul>
  8. 8. What they said… <ul><li>“ Sustained business growth and profitability requires managers to exercise the spirit of entrepreneurship. Since the spirit of entrepreneurship may not be endemic in every person, or may require awakening, and enhancing, business education should teach not the various business disciplines but also the essence of entrepreneurship. We feel that many business schools may be failing in their duty to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship, even in their entrepreneurship courses” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Continue.. <ul><li>“… business schools often approach entrepreneurship as a capstone course that ‘brings together’ the functional parts of a business” </li></ul><ul><li>Business schools and entrepeneurship courses must recognize this distinction and target the EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE accordingly. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is the essence of entrepreneurship? <ul><li>1. Entrepreneurs must look beyond the limits of the functional business disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>-see competitive situations </li></ul><ul><li>-consider what the environment will do on him </li></ul><ul><li>-face the unknown through anticipation/reliance on forecasts of others’ actions, </li></ul><ul><li>-addresses the unstructured and unique issues </li></ul>
  11. 12. Continue… <ul><li>The entrepreneurial process needs to be continuous and ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>-the timing of decisions often irregular, </li></ul><ul><li>In order to grasp unforeseen opportunities, or triggered by change on environment </li></ul>
  12. 15. Continue… <ul><li>3. entrepreneurs need to form a vision over 5, 10 to 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>-although these horizons must be shortened if circumtances dictate, </li></ul><ul><li>-must have long-term strategic vision </li></ul>
  13. 17. Continue.. <ul><li>4. Entrepreneurship involves the coordination of the traditional disciplines </li></ul>
  14. 18. Conclusion.. <ul><li>General question: </li></ul><ul><li>“How is entrepreneurship different from general management, or the ordinary CEO?” </li></ul>
  15. 19. Continue… <ul><li>The entrepreneur manages his/her business with substantially greater UNCERTAINTY about the preferences of customers, the production process, and/or the identity and actions of rivals (both actual and potential). </li></ul>
  16. 21. Continue… <ul><li>The ability to envision and chart a course for a new business venture by combining information from the functional disciplines and from the external environment in the context of extraordinary uncertainty and ambiguity faces the new business venture. </li></ul><ul><li>-needs creative strategies, innovative tactics, uncanny perceptions of trends, market mood changers, courageous leadership… </li></ul>
  17. 23. Current Approaches to Entrepreneurship Education <ul><li>1. The “Old War Stories” Approach </li></ul><ul><li>2. The “Case Study” Approach </li></ul><ul><li>3. The “Planning” Approach </li></ul><ul><li>4. The “Generic Action” Approach </li></ul><ul><li>-these approaches impedes the spirit and thinking of entrepreneurship. </li></ul><ul><li>-because it requires only analysis, logic and ingenuity but NOT creativity, initiative, intuition, timeliness and perception (generative/emergent nature). </li></ul>
  18. 24. Continue… <ul><li>The focus should SHIFT from Teaching to Learning… </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is most beneficial when the student actually performs the skill in an environment as close as that in which it will be performed in real life </li></ul><ul><li>Through guided trial and error from the expert </li></ul>
  19. 25. Continue… <ul><li>The entrepreneurial thinking must be generated by the person NOT the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively easy to train people based on “situation centered” skills and, </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to train people on “person centered” skills </li></ul>
  20. 26. Continue… <ul><li>Most experiential learning through games, role plays and simulations suffer the problems of “situation centered” </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore not fully transferable to other situations or real world </li></ul>
  21. 27. Continue.. <ul><li>How does such an approach to entrepreneurship course fit within a total business education? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between the science of business and the art of entrepreneurship in a business degree? </li></ul>
  22. 28. An integrated Approach <ul><li>Foundation of knowledge-lectures, reading and memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented with DEBATES, WORKSHOPS, AND CASE STUDIES </li></ul>
  23. 29. Continue… <ul><li>Electives courses-debates, workshops, discussions and case studies with some textbook teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented with experiential learning through role play and real world assignments (formulation and implementation) and constructive feedback </li></ul>
  24. 30. Continue… <ul><li>Advanced courses-use their knowledge for creativity, intuition, boldness and timeliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the use of games, simulations, role plays and on-the-job training </li></ul>
  25. 31. Bidang keusahawanan merangkumi perkara-perkara berikut: <ul><li>Memahami apa itu bidang </li></ul><ul><li>keusahawanan </li></ul><ul><li>Memahami siapa itu usahawan </li></ul><ul><li>Bagaimana usahawan dibangunkan </li></ul><ul><li>Langkah-langkah membangunkan </li></ul><ul><li>keusahawanan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendidikan keusahawanan lanjutan </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Bidang keusahawanan ialah satu bidang pengajian tentang proses pembangunan usahawan dari sebelum menjadi usahawan sehingga dia berkembang maju dalam perniagaan </li></ul>
  27. 33. Kurikulum Keusahawanan-Modul 1 <ul><li>-Mengenal Diri/Analisa Diri </li></ul><ul><li>-Mengenal Potensi Diri/SWOT </li></ul><ul><li>-Motivasi Pencapaian </li></ul><ul><li>Pembangunan Potensi Diri </li></ul>
  28. 34. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Pemikiran Keusahawanan </li></ul><ul><li>-Mengenal idea/peluang perniagaan </li></ul><ul><li>-Design thinking/technological thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Technopreneurs= soft and hard technology </li></ul>
  29. 35. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Kemahiran Pengurusan Perniagaan </li></ul><ul><li>-pengurusan organisasi/operasi </li></ul><ul><li>-pengurusan kewangan </li></ul><ul><li>-pengurusan pemasaran </li></ul><ul><li>-pengurusan sumber manusia </li></ul>
  30. 36. Kurikulum keusahawanan <ul><li>Kesedaran Industri (kerja lapangan) </li></ul><ul><li>-analisa industri di persekitaran </li></ul><ul><li>-memilih bidang industri yang sesuai </li></ul>
  31. 37. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Vokasional Keusahawanan </li></ul><ul><li>-transformasi vokasi diri dalam bentuk produk atau perkhidmatan yang boleh diusahakan </li></ul>
  32. 38. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Kemahiran Mencari Modal/kewangan </li></ul><ul><li>-Tabungan </li></ul><ul><li>-pinjaman (keluarga dan bank) </li></ul><ul><li>-mengusahakan kewangan secara kecil-kecilan. </li></ul>
  33. 39. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Latihan Industri </li></ul><ul><li>-prantisan (apprenticeship) </li></ul>
  34. 40. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Hubungan Globalisasi dan Keusahawanan </li></ul><ul><li>Kemahiran globalisasi </li></ul><ul><li>Aplikasi Teknologi dalam dunia keusahawanan </li></ul>
  35. 41. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Menyediakan Perancangan Perniagaan (Business Plan) </li></ul>
  36. 42. Kurikulum Keusahawanan <ul><li>Pendidikan Keusahawanan Lanjutan </li></ul><ul><li>-Contoh: Business Communication, Negotiation Skills, Image Building, Financial Management etc. </li></ul>
  37. 43. Discussion <ul><li>Based on CIPP Model- </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul>
  38. 44. CIPP-Context <ul><li>Context/Konteks (Gap/Jurang pemisah) </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Global </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Nasional </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Daerah </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Universiti </li></ul><ul><li>*Apa sedang berlaku? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apa masalah kita dengan peringkat diatas. </li></ul><ul><li>*Apa yang kita sedang buat? </li></ul>
  39. 45. CIPP-Input <ul><li>Input (Gap/Jurang pemisah) </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Global </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Nasional </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Daerah </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Universiti (Program, pensyarah, bahan dan infrastruktur) </li></ul><ul><li>*Apa? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apakah tahap penggunaannya? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apakah standard nya? </li></ul>
  40. 46. CIPP-Input <ul><li>Proses (Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran) </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Global </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Nasional </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Daerah </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Universiti (Program, pensyarah, bahan dan infrastruktur) </li></ul><ul><li>*Apa? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apakah kaedahnya? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apakah tahap efektifnessnya? </li></ul>
  41. 47. CIPP-Input <ul><li>Product/Output (Gap/Jurang pemisah) </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Global </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Nasional </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Daerah </li></ul><ul><li>-Peringkat Universiti </li></ul><ul><li>*Berapakah jumlah usahawan yang ada? </li></ul><ul><li>*Apakah ciri-ciri mahasiswa yang diharapkan daripada program ini? </li></ul>
  42. 48. Sharing Experiences in Bali <ul><li>A Proposal for Concentration in Entrepreneurship Development in Management Study Program (MSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying Philosophy for the Program Proposed </li></ul><ul><li>The model for this program is proposed based on four underlying principles: </li></ul>
  43. 49. 4 principles <ul><li>1. The concept of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>An entrepreneur is an individual or a team that either create or identifies a business opportunity. He or she then gathers the necessary resources, conceptualize the business ideas, implement his or her business ideas and is ultimately responsible for the consequences of the organization of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>The entrepreneur manages his/her business with substantially greater UNCERTAINTY about the preferences of customers, the production process, and/or the identity and actions of rivals (both actual and potential). </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to envision and chart a course for a new business venture by combining information from the functional disciplines and from the external environment in the context of extraordinary uncertainty and ambiguity faces the new business venture. He or she needs creative strategies, innovative tactics, uncanny perceptions of trends, market mood changers, and finally courageous leadership. </li></ul>
  44. 50. Continued… <ul><li>2. The process of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>The process of entrepreneurship follows a cycle as shown below. The steps in this cycle serves as the foundations for the choices of the courses in the program (refer to the diagram 1 below). </li></ul>
  45. 51. Develop Attitudes and Skills that may contribute to entrepreneurial behavior/orientation (1) Examine opportunities to fulfill needs or wants, and to solve problems (2) Generate ideas to satisfy the opportunities (3) Gather, manipulate and formulate all available sources and resources to implement business ideas and opportunities (5) Assess the opportunities and ideas By applying business skills and knowledge (4) Plan, prepare the venture thoroughly and start-up the business (6) Take actions to sustain the business and grow the business (7)
  46. 52. Continued…. <ul><li>3. The parallel model for entrepreneurship education and development </li></ul><ul><li>The model of entrepreneurship education is parallel with the model of entrepreneurship development. Thus, the curriculum should be built in line with how an entrepreneur develop himself. </li></ul>
  47. 53. Bidang keusahawanan boleh didemonstrasikan seperti berikut: Proses Pendidikan Keusahawanan Sebelum Ciri/sikap Orientasi Usahawan Menjadi usahawan Pendidikan Usahawan Lanjutan peniaga Education (motivation/how) Thingking & Planning
  48. 54. Proses Pembangunan Usahawan <ul><li>Individu </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise/ Pengkorporatan dll </li></ul><ul><li>Sdn Bhd etc </li></ul>Inovasi (idea creation) Keusahawanan/ Perniagaan Pelaksanaan Perniagaan/ organisasi Pengembangan S E B E L U m
  49. 55. Continued…. <ul><li>4. The entrepreneurship education is different from the business education </li></ul><ul><li>As stated by Dean A. Shepherd and Evan Douglas, the authors of “Is Management Education Developing, or Killing the Entrepreneurship Spirit” </li></ul><ul><li>“ “ Sustained business growth and profitability requires managers to exercise the spirit of entrepreneurship. Since the spirit of entrepreneurship may not be endemic in every person, or may require awakening, and enhancing, business education should teach not the various business disciplines but also the essence of entrepreneurship. We feel that many business schools may be failing in their duty to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship, even in their entrepreneurship courses” </li></ul><ul><li>“… business schools often approach entrepreneurship as a capstone course that ‘brings </li></ul><ul><li>together’ the functional parts of a business” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Business schools and entrepreneurship courses must recognize this distinction and target the EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE accordingly. “ </li></ul>
  50. 56. An analysis of the entrepreneurship programs offered by those universities through out the world as listed in the table below showed that: <ul><li>Some programs equate business courses and entrepreneurship courses as the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Some programs just include one course on entrepreneurship to qualify herself as offering the major </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the programs lack a holistic representative entrepreneurship courses such as lack of theory on entrepreneurship development, design thinking, character building and intrapreneurship emphasis. </li></ul>
  51. 57. Continued… <ul><li>Most of the programs ‘perceive’ entrepreneurship major must include start-ups courses and new venture creations. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, most programs follow this combination of curriculum model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Education courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business core courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship major courses (range between 9 to 5 courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Elective courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of years range from 3-4 years of study. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. The Objectives of the Curriculum for Concentration in Entrepreneurship <ul><ul><li>To understand entrepreneurship and its role and contribution to personal, community and country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop both intra- and entrepreneurial attitude, values, knowledge and skills that may contribute to the success of the students’ real life learning experiences. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 59. Continued… <ul><ul><li>To assess potential opportunities at home, community and surroundings and develop those opportunities by applying personal entrepreneurial experience, knowledge and expertise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To generate business ideas and assess those ideas based on the above opportunities by applying business skills and knowledge research methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop a venture plan that can be used as a planning tool for a specific potential business opportunity or idea. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 60. Continued…. <ul><ul><li>To gather, manipulate, and formulate all the sources and resources that may be used to evaluate and maneuver or lead an entrepreneurial venture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explore other career choices available to the entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial trained individuals. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 61. List of Courses <ul><li>1. Managing Growing Business </li></ul><ul><li>2. New Venture Creation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Introduction to Entrepreneurial Management </li></ul><ul><li>4. E-Business/E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>5. Comparative International Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>6. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>7. Entrepreneurship Skills and Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>8. Entrepreneurship Seminar (can be optional) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Entrepreneurial Design Thinking (Creativity and Innovation) </li></ul><ul><li>Field Work: </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Internship: Practicum or project-based </li></ul>

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