What is matter• Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Vocabulary-• Substance- matter with a composition that is always the same• Mixture-matter where the composition can vary• Vary- to change or be able to change• Composition-the way things are put together• Element- a substance that is made of all of the same type of atoms• Compound- a substance made of all the same type of molecules.• Homogeneous- made of the same• Heterogeneous- not made of the same
Matter substanc e mixtur eComposition Compositionis always theSAME can VARY TRAIL SALT MIX
SubstancesMatter with a composition that isalways the same.
SUBSTANCESs=same• A scoop of any substance will always have the same stuff (type and quantity of atoms)• Salt ( Na+CL)= 1 molecule of salt• Sugar(C6+H12+O6)= 1 molecule of sugar• Gold (Au)= many single atoms of gold = a chunk of gold• These are ALL types of substances because they are made from the same types or groups of atoms.
Substances• Elements- a substance made from millions of the same atoms. Or• Compounds- substances made from the same molecules always the same-don’t change ▫ Sugar is a substance b/c it is made of the same stuff --- always ▫ Salt is a substance b/c it is made of the same stuff----always
Draw a model of what you think anelement and a compound might looklike
Salt is a substance that is made of 2types of atoms. Is it a compound orelement?
b/c it is always made from the sameatoms of gold (Au)• Why is gold considered a substance?• Is it an element or compound?
Sugar is a substance that is made of 3types of atoms. C6H12O6. Is it an element orcompound?
Water is a substance made of 2 typesof atomsH2OIs it an element or compound?
Neon is substance that glows in avacuum. It is made only of atoms ofneon. Is it an element or compound?
Matter review• Matter can be: ▫ Mixture ▫ Substance Element- same atoms Compound-same molecules
matter substance mixtureelements compounds All the same Made from the same type of atoms molecules
What are two ways matter isclassified?Substances and mixturesWhat two ways are substances classified? elements or compoundsWhat is the difference between an element and a compound? element is all of the same atoms compound all of the same molecules
What’s the difference between amolecule and an atom?• Atom- the smallest particle that an element can be broken down into. It is only made of one type of element(the periodic table)• Molecule- is made of 2 or more different types of atoms. (water, salt, sugar)build a molecule
Smallest to largest• atoms – make elements• 2 or more elements make molecules• Molecules and elements make substances• Substances make matter= cookies
Largest to smallest• Cake ▫ Made of different substances (sugar, salt, water) ▫ These substances are made from molecules =H2O, C6H12O6, NaCl ▫ These molecules are made from elements Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, Sodium, chloride ▫ The elements are made from atoms
IMPORTANT NOTE• Elements usually have different chemical properties then when combined in a molecule.• What is a chemical property?• So Oxygen behaves differently alone then when paired with hydrogen .• Alone oxygen and hydrogen are very explosive.• Together they are water.
What are the two types ofclassification of matter?• Substances and mixturesThinking back what are the 2 types of properties that scientists use to describe matter? ▫ Physical and chemical propertiesWhat are the two ways that scientist classify changes in matter? ▫ Chemical and physical changes
What is the difference between amixture and a substance?• A substance is always made from the same atoms or molecules• A mixtures make up can vary.• check this out
Mixtures• Heterogeneous the substances are not evenly mixed. 2 samples of trail mix would give you different amounts of things• Homogeneous- ▫ The substance IS evenly mixed (the same throughout) ▫ Substances are so small and evenly mixed you cannot see the different parts even under most microscopes. Air is homogeneous, soda is homogeneous,
Pg 229 homework• Create a venn diagram to compare and contrast• Compounds and mixtures.
Read pg 228-229• Create your own definition of a mixture.• Explain in your own words the two different types of mixtures.
More definitions• Solution- a homogeneous mixture made of two parts- a solvent and one or more solutes• Solvent- a substances that is present in the largest amount• Solute-dissolves or breaks apart and mixes evenly in the solvent
Pg. 228 in text• Explain why even though a solution is a mixture, it is different from some mixtures?Solutions look like pure substances, you can’t seethe different parts (sometimes not even under amicroscope)Other mixtures you can easily see the differentparts.
Pg 229• Look at the graphics at the bottom, read the captions and paraphrase the difference between solutions and compounds.
vocabulary• Protons-positively charged particles in the nucleus• Neutron- neutrally charged particles in the nucleus• Electrons- negatively charged particles that float around the nucleus.• Nucleus- center of the atom. Most of the atoms mass is in this space.• Isotopes- one of two or more atoms of an element having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.• Ions- an atom that has a charge because it as gained or lost an electron• Atomic number- the number of protons• Atomic mass- mass of the atom =neutrons + protons
Atoms can be broke down into smallerparts; subatomic particles• Electrons• Neutron• Protons• Nucleus
Electrons- negatively charged -• Fly around the nucleus.• Electrons that are close to the nucleus are strongly attracted to the nucleus and have less energy.• Electrons that are farther away from the nucleus have more energy.• Electrons move so fast that scientists can not pinpoint their location at any specific time.
Protons- positively charged +• Located in the nucleus• # of protons = atomic number• Stable atoms have the same amount of protons and neutrons.
Neutrons- no charge• Located in the nucleus• No electrical charge- neutral• Extra neutrons create isotopes
hmm…• What are the two particles in the nucleus of an atom?• What are the charges of those particles?• What are the particles in the area surrounding the atom called?• What is the charge of that particle?• What is the electron cloud?
Atomic number• The atomic number is the amount of protons in the nucleus of an atom.• Look at the periodic table at the back of the book: ▫ What is the atomic number for: ▫ oxygen O? how many protons does it have? ▫ Magnesium Mg ? How many protons does it have? ▫ Gold Au? How many protons does it have?
What kind of pattern do you noticeabout the periodic table with respectto the atomic numbers of theelements?
Some atoms of the same element canbe slightly different.• Isotopes- different number of NEUTRONS
Some atoms of the same element canbe different in a second way.•Ions-uneven number of electrons and protons. ▫ Usually happens during a chemical reaction where an atom looses or gains an electron.
Atoms• Ions- different # of electrons• Isotopes- same type of element but different # of neutrons
We have learned different ways toclassify matter.• Physical /chemical properties• Physical /chemical changes• Substances /mixturesCreate a graphic organizer for each of these : t-chart, venn diagram, flow chart… etc.