Trouble at Home and Abroad Topics and Themes We Will Explore
The Spanish-American War
The Progressive Era
Trouble at Home and Abroad During this unit of American History we will successfully complete the following:
Complete several short-answer response summaries
Complete one Regents-styled DBQ
And as always, we will be prepared for the occasional unannounced quiz
Begin to think about our next class project: Project #5 “Virtual Tour”
Most importantly, we will experience the trials and tribulations of the American spirit and our American Ancestors during the late 19th and early 20th century
***Please do not forget - during the course of our discovery of this particular unit, I will make All of the class notes available on our class website!!!
The Spanish-American War Was the war necessary? McKinley’s desire to placate the Republican Party Jingoism (Yellow Journalism) The war on two fronts “Remember the Maine” Renewed Interest in the Panama Canal The End of Isolationism to World Power
The Spanish-American War: 1898 Background:
Cuba and Puerto Rico continued as colonies of Spain into the late 19th century, long after the rest of Latin America had achieved independence.
Economic reasons – Cuba’s booming sugar industry
Large Spanish immigrant population – loyalty to their homeland
Slavery existed until 1866
Growing number of Cubans embraced the cause of Independence, self-rule, economic freedom, and modernization of the island
The Ten-Years War (1868-1878): Creole Rebels stirred the pot for independence
José Marti – Cuban Revolutionary
The 1st attempt – 1895 – “Marti the Martyr”; Leaders and other troops gain experience
The Spanish-American War José Marti Cuban Sugar Cane field
The Spanish-American War The United States to the rescue TTYN In short-answer format - Why would the United States, a nation that has practiced isolationism elect to interfere in the politics and foreign affairs of another nation? “President McKinley is ‘a low politician’ and a man who is weak and caters to the rabble.”
Enrique Dupuy de Lôme - Spanish Minister to Washington, Feb. 9, 1898
William McKinley 25th 1897-1901 Party - Republican
The Spanish-American War Causes: Remember the Maine!
The Spanish-American War Boys "Remember The Maine"Words & music by E.A. WarrenPublished: 1898 For God and home and native land we're marching to the sea,For our dear flag that waves above and for humanity;Our gallant fleet is on the move, we're fighting treachrous Spain.Spurred on by the battle cry, "Remember the 'Maine'!" The stars and stripes are waving on the land and sea,Underneath this banner Cuba shall be free;The army and the navy, while they're fighting Spain,Go forth with the watchword, "Remember the 'Maine'!" We've come to set poor Cuba free, we've come to punish Spain,And to avenge the murder of the heroes of the "Maine".They call to us from wat'ry graves, they shall not call in vain,We will fight beneath the flag, Rememb'ring the "Maine". Hurrah for Yankee soldiers now, beneath one flag they stand,Not only from the North they come, but from the "Dixie land".Now brothers in a common cause, they chant the same refrain."Blue and Gray" march side by side, Rememb'ring the "Maine".
The Spanish-American War Causes continued: Grassroots Origins
Growing number of Creoles (people born on the island) believed their well-being and progress was repressed by the Spaniards.
Marti, who founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party (PRC) in Florida found the ‘right’ mix to challenge Spain’s rule.
Exiles and Immigrants
Marti promotes not an anti-Spanish Cuba, but a Cuba that would share similar beliefs and values as America…..egalitarian, racially diverse, and democratic.
The Spanish-American War Causes continued: American Intervention
McKinley’s fear that the Republican Party would suffer should he resist the clamor for war; how to respond to pro-war Republicans such as Asst. Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt.
Media War – Jingoism (Yellow Journalism)
Remember the Maine
The Spanish-American War The Theater
The Spanish-American War The Results:
United States intervention lasted four months
United States superiority on land and sea
August, 1898 Spain surrenders
Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
Cuba becomes semi-independent in 1902
United States occupies Cuba and refuses to acknowledge Cuban Independence forces and instead chose to recognize moderate, upper-class Cubans.
T he seeds were planted for the Cuban Revolution of 1959…Hello Fidel!!
Of the 5,000 lives lost during the entire war by U.S. forces, at least 4,600 were caused by disease or lack of sanitation.
The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War Residual Outcomes: From Isolationism to World Power
The Roosevelt Corollary
The Spanish-American War U.S.S. Oregon; 1898
The Progressive Era Do Now!! In short-answer format – Describe Progressivism
Progressivism was a common term around the beginning of the twentieth century, as way of describing a broad, loosely defined political movement of individuals and groups who hoped to bring about significant change in American social and political life.
Who were the Progressives?
Forward-looking businessmen who realized that workers must be accorded a voice
Labor Activists who were bent on empowering industrial workers
Female reform organizations who hoped to protect women and children from exploitation
And finally, elected officials who advocated for social and political change
The Progressive Era How America was changing
Growth of Cities – for the first time in American History, Cities and farms grew at the same pace
Recovery successfully underway from the 1890’s depression
The “Golden Age of Agriculture – growth of urban areas stimulated demand for farm goods.
Haves vs. Have Not’s; 5th Ave Millionaire Row vs. Immigrant City
The Progressive Era TTYN In short-answer format – describe the passage below That first night we sat around in the house and they asked me, Well, why did you come? I told them about that first night and what the ugly shoemaker said about life, liberty and the getting of happiness. They all leaned back and laughed What you need is money, they said It was all right at home. You wanted nothing. You ate your own meat and your own things on the farm. You made your own clothes and had your own leather. The other things you got at the Jew man's store and paid him with sacks of rye. But here you want a hundred things. Whenever you walk out you see new things you want, and you must have money to buy everything.. . . . The next morning my friends woke me up at five o'clock and said, Now, if you want life, liberty and happiness, they laughed, you must push for yourself. You must get a job. Come with us.According to this document, how is life in America different than what the immigrant expected?
The Progressive Era Digital History: The Progressive Era Using this picture, describe what living conditions were like for many immigrants
The Progressive Era The New Consumer Society
Higher rate of pay than most industrial workers
Spies and armed detectives to prevent unionization
The Progressive Era What Many progressives believed
The key to increasing industrial freedom lay in empowering workers to participate in economic decision-making via a strong unions
Role of Unions American Federation of Labor (AFL)
The AFL sought to forge closer ties with forward-looking corporate leaders looking to deal with unions as a way to stabilize employee relations.
Mainly represented the most privileged workers – skilled industrial and craft laborers, nearly all of them were white, men, and notive-born.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Extends a “fraternal hand to every wage worker, no matter what his religion, fatherland, or trade
To mobilize those excluded from the AFL
The Progressive Era The “Mommy” Problem: Feminism TTYN In short-answer format – Describe the role of women during the progressive era
Feminism meant and continues to mean a women’s emancipation both as a human being and a sex-being. In other words, feminism attacked the traditional rules of sexual behavior.
The Vote – The Suffrage Movement; from the state
Dominated stage to the National stage
Greater economic opportunities
The Progressive Era Progressive Politics “I am the steward of the public welfare” -T. Roosevelt Teddy Roosevelt - The Square Deal Attempted to confront the problems caused by economic consolidation by distinguishing between “good” and “bad” corporations.
TR’s use of the Sherman Antitrust Act
Roosevelt believed, the president should be an hones broker in labor disputes, rather than automatically siding with employers – as did previous presidents.
The Progressive Era Progressive Politics Woodrow Wilson keeps the progressive ball rolling…
Graduated income tax on the richest 5%
Creation of the Federal Reserve Bank
Federal Trade Commission
Overall, Wilson preached greater government supervision of the economy
Unit Preview: Imperialism and WWI “speak softly and carry a big stick” In other words, If the American nation will speak softly and yet build and keep at a pitch of the highest training a thoroughly efficient navy, the Monroe Doctrine will go far Theodore Roosevelt 26th 1901-1909 Party: Republican
Unit Preview: Imperialism and WWI The Roosevelt Corollary “It is not true that the United States feels any land hunger or entertains any projects as regards the other nations of the Western Hemisphere save such as are for their welfare. All that this country desires is to see the neighboring countries stable, orderly and prosperous....Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention...[and] force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an internal police power.” Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904 Essential Question: Considering the events and results of the Spanish-American War of 1898 and TR’s amendment to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904. Should we consider the United States an Imperialist Nation? Before answering, please carefully consider the text and tone that Roosevelt projects!
Unit Preview: Imperialism and WWI Can’t get enough of Teddy Algeciras Conference Bull-Moose Party Nobel Peace Prize National Parks Theodore Roosevelt, the noted conservation president, had an impact on the national park system extending well beyond his term in office. As chief executive from 1901 to 1909, he signed legislation establishing five national parks Devils Tower National Monument Devils Tower, WY