Physiology Ch 5 Lecture Notes

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Physiology Ch 5 Lecture Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5: TISSUESThe Immortal Henrietta Lacks - CBS Sunday Morning - CBS News
  2. 2. Tissue - cells with the same structure and function4 Major Types1. epithelial2. connective3. muscle4. nerve
  3. 3. cytoplasm
  4. 4. Epithelial Tissue - covers all body surfaces, inside & out - always connected to a non-living material called the basement membrane - easily reproduced - heal rapidly
  5. 5. 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium - single layer of thin flat cells - easily allows for diffusion - found in air sacs in the lungs, walls of blood capillaries, & inside wall of blood vessels
  6. 6. 2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - single layer of cubed-shaped cells - covers ovaries, lines kidney tubes & glands - involved in secretion & absorption in the kidney and glands
  7. 7. 3. Simple Columnar Epithelium - single layer of elongated cells - lining of the uterus & organs of the digestive tract - have microvilli to increase the absorption of nutrients - contain goblet cells - secretes mucus
  8. 8. 4. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - single layer of cells that looks like many layers - nuclei are not lined up in a row - usually has cilia and goblet cells - lines tubes of respiratory system and reproductive system - moves mucus or egg cells
  9. 9. 5. Stratified Squamous Epithelium - many layers of thin, flat cells - cell reproduction occurs in deep layers & pushes up older cells - found in the skin - as skin cells age, they produce keratin - found in the mouth, throat, & anal canal
  10. 10. 6. Stratified cuboidal epithelium - consists of 2 or 3 layers of cubed- shaped cells - lines the larger ducts of the mammary glands, sweat glands, and salivary glands
  11. 11. 7. Stratified columnar - consists of several layers of columnar cells - located in male urethra, vas deferens, and pharynx
  12. 12. 8. Transitional Epithelium - has many layers that can change in thick- ness in response to tension - found in the lining of the bladder and urinary system - prevents diffusion of urine
  13. 13. 9. Glandular Epithelium - produces and secretes substances - exocrine glands - releases substances into small tubes called ducts - endocrine glands - releases substances into the bloodstream
  14. 14. Connective Tissue - most common type - cells are farther apart and have an abundance of extracellular matrix - this matrix can be protein fibers, fluids, or other molecules
  15. 15. Connective Tissue Fibers - produced by fibroblasts a) collagenous fibers - made of collagen - holds structures together - strong - ex. tendons - referred to as the white fibers b) elastic fibers - made of elastin - ex. vocal cords - referred to as the yellow fibers
  16. 16. 1. Loose Connective Tissue - connective fibers are far apart - forms a thin membrane between organs - found beneath the skin and between muscles
  17. 17. 2. Fibrous Connective Tissue - densely packed connective fibers - ligaments connects bone to bone - tendons connects muscle to bone
  18. 18. 3. Adipose Tissue - fat tissue - fat stored in adipocytes - 18% in men - 28% in women Functions - act as an insulator - reserve energy supply
  19. 19. 4. Cartilage - functions for support - chondrocyte - cartilage cells - the perichondrium surrounds the cells 3 Types a) hyaline cartilage - found at the ends of bones at joints - nose - supporting rings of trachea - development of bones
  20. 20. b) elastic cartilage - contains elastic fibers in matrix - found in the ears and parts of the larynxc) fibrocartilage - acts as a shock absorber - found in the knee, disks of the backbone, & pelvic girdle
  21. 21. 5. Bone - most rigid tissue - provides internal support - the bone cells, osteocytes, are arranged in circles called osteons
  22. 22. 6. Blood - a liquid tissue - made up of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets
  23. 23. Types of Membranes - there are 3 epithelial membranes and 1 connective membrane 1. Serous Membrane - lines body cavities that lack outside openinings - covers organs within cavities - produces a fluid called serous fluid
  24. 24. 2. Mucous membranes - lines body cavities with an opening to the outside - nasal, urinary, and reproductive tracts - goblet cells produce a fluid called mucus3. Cutaneous membranes - the skin - produces a fluid called sebum
  25. 25. 4. Synovial membrane - usually found at joints - produces synovial fluid
  26. 26. Muscle Tissue - made up of contracting muscle fibers
  27. 27. 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue - also called striated or voluntary muscle - contains many nuclei - are attached to bone
  28. 28. 2. Smooth Muscle Tissue - lacks striations - also called involuntary - only one nucleus per cell - found in the walls of hollow internal organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels
  29. 29. 3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue - found only in the heart - only 1 nucleus per cell - some striations - contain intercalated disks which connects 2 cardiac cells
  30. 30. Nerve Tissue - consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves 2 Types of Cells a) Neuroglial cells - bind & support nerve tissue - carry on phagocytosis - connect neurons to blood vessels
  31. 31. b) Nerve cells  called neurons - coordinate and regulate body functions

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