Physiology ch 12 lecture notes

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Physiology ch 12 lecture notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 12: BLOOD
  2. 2. Blood & Blood Cells - Red Blood Cells (RBC) - White Blood Cells (WBC) - Platelets - Plasma Volume & Composition of Blood - 5 liters - 45% cells - 55% plasma } the percentages is called the hematocrit (HCT)
  3. 3. Red Blood Cells Characteristics  erythrocytes - contains hemoglobin - 1 Hb contains 4 iron atoms to carry O 2 - 200 - 300 million Hb per RBC - lack a nucleus
  4. 4. RBC Counts men = 4.6 - 6.2 million cells/mm 3 women = 4.2 - 5.4 million cells/mm 3 * the more RBC’s - the more O 2 carried RBC Production – hematopoeisis - a typical RBC lasts about 120 days so new RBC’s made all the time
  5. 5. - when O 2 levels decrease, the hormone erythropoeiten (EPO) is released from the kidney - EPO goes to the red bone marrow - increases in RBC production - more RBC’s = increased O 2 levels - O 2 levels increase, EPO secretions decreases the rate of blood cell productions
  6. 6. Destruction of RBC’s - become fragile as they get older - destroyed by macrophages in liver and spleen
  7. 7. hemoglobin   iron (Fe) & biliverden amino acids  biliruben  excreted in bile or urine RBC Destruction
  8. 8. White Blood Cells  leukocytes - form from an increase of interleukins & colony stimulating factors (CSF) 5 Types 1. Granulocytes - twice the size of RBC’s - short life span ~ 12 hours a) neutrophils - phagocytize foreign particles - multi-lobed
  9. 9. b) eosinophils - help control against inflammation and allergic reactions - kill certain parasites
  10. 10. c) basophils - releases heparin to prevent blood clotting - releases histamine to aid injured tissue due to an allergic reaction
  11. 11. 2. Agranulocytes a) monocytes - phagocytize foreign substances
  12. 12. b) lymphocytes - produce antibodies that act against foreign substances
  13. 13. WBC Counts 5,000 - 10,000 cells/mm 3 Leukocytosis - 10,000 + cells/mm 3 - more WBC found due to disease Leukopenia - less than 5,000 cells/mm 3
  14. 14. Platelets  thrombocytes - produced from a megakaryocyte that breaks up into fragments (platelets) - helps in blood clotting - affected by the hormone thrombopoieten
  15. 16. Blood Plasma - yellowish color - 92% water Functions - transporting nutrients, gases, & vitamins - regulates fluid & electrolyte balance - maintains pH
  16. 17. 1. Plasma Proteins a) Albumins - maintains osmotic pressure of the blood - helps to regulate water movement, in doing so, controls blood volume which in turn controls blood pressure Plasma Contents
  17. 18. b) Globulins - transports lipids & fat-soluble vitamins - make up the antibodies of immune system c) Fibrinogen - blood clotting 2. Nutrients and Gases - amino acids - CO 2 - glucose - N 2 - fatty acids - O 2
  18. 19. 3. Nonprotein nitrogenous substances - urea - uric acid 4. Plasma Electrolytes - Na + - Cl - - K + - HCO 3 - - Mg + - PO 4 - * These help maintain osmotic pressure and pH
  19. 21. Hemostasis  the stoppage of bleeding 3 Things May Occur 1. Blood Vessel Spasm – Vasospasm - walls of blood vessel contracts - decreases blood flow 2. Platelet Plug Formation - platelets stick to collagen fibers in blood vessels - forms a plug over the blood vessel
  20. 22. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endothelial lining Collagen fiber Erythrocyte Break in vessel wall 1 Platelet
  21. 23. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endothelial lining Collagen fiber Erythrocyte Break in vessel wall 1 Blood escaping through break 2 Platelet
  22. 24. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endothelial lining Collagen fiber Erythrocyte Break in vessel wall 1 Blood escaping through break 2 Platelets adhere to each other, to end of broken vessel, and to exposed collagen 3 Platelet
  23. 25. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endothelial lining Collagen fiber Erythrocyte Break in vessel wall 1 Blood escaping through break 2 Platelets adhere to each other, to end of broken vessel, and to exposed collagen 3 Platelet plug helps control blood loss 4 Platelet
  24. 26. 3. Blood Coagulation - most effective - forms a blood clot - depends on many clotting factors
  25. 28. Thrombus - an abnormally formed blood clot Embolus - when a thrombus dislodges and begins to move - can get stuck, cause a blockage which leads to death
  26. 29. Blood Groups and Transfusions - RBC’s membrane contains agglutinogens  antigens - plasma contains aglutinins  antibodies - these two types of proteins gives a person their blood type
  27. 30. ABO Blood Groups - based on the presence or absence of antigen A & B Blood Type Antigen Antibody A A anti-B B B anti-A AB A & B None O None anti-A & anti-B
  28. 31. - type AB is the universal recipient - type O is the universal donor - it is important to get the proper blood otherwise agglutination or clumping of the blood will occur
  29. 32. Rh Blood Groups  named after the rhesus monkey - (Rh+) means antigen D is present - (Rh–) means antigen D is absent - this condition needs to be checked when a female is pregnant
  30. 33. - if mother is Rh (-), & father is Rh (+), then baby will be Rh (+) - mother will make antibodies for the Rh or D antigen. This is OK for the first child but for the second, the mothers antibodies (anti-D) will combine with the child’s D antigens and blood will clump
  31. 34. - condition is called erythroblastosis fetalis - easily prevented with a shot of RhoGAM

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