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Week Two Powerpoint Definition+Prevalence
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Week Two Powerpoint Definition+Prevalence

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  • 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH MILD/MODERATE INTERVENTION NEEDS SPED 4/53050 INSTRUCTOR: BRIAN FRIEDT Week two: Definitions and prevalence
  • 2. Labeling
    • Benefits
      • Avenue to services
      • Assuming standard definition, gives teachers information
      • Precision
    • Potential risks
      • Stigmatization and marginalization
      • Negative shaping of teacher expectation
  • 3. Disability/handicap
    • The text makes the following distinction:
      • A disability is an “atypical inability to perform a specific skill or a diminished capacity to perform a particular skill” (p. 5)
      • A handicap is a “disadvantage or inability imposed on an individual through an interaction with the demands of a particular environment” (p. 5)
    • Generally, disabilities are lifelong conditions, while handicaps are situation dependent
  • 4. Definitional clarity
    • Several different ways to refer to roughly the same population:
      • Text: “high-incidence disabilities”
      • Title of our course: “mild/moderate intervention needs”
      • Kent State’s description of licensure: “The Mild-Moderate Educational Needs Intervention Specialist license is valid for teaching learners from ages 5 through 21, and grades K through 12 who have been identified with a disability that requires mild to moderate intervention (e.g. learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, developmental disabilities.)”
  • 5. Definitional clarity
    • To further complicate the issue, the text refers to “mild mental retardation.”
    • Ohio uses the term “cognitive disabilities” and does not make a distinction based on severity or intensity.
    • Kent lists “developmental disabilities” under both the mild/moderate license and the moderate/severe license.
  • 6. Prevalence
    • High incidence refers to the incidence within the special education population, not within the school population in general
    • Most recent data from OSEP (2006):
      • Students with disabilities comprise 9.2% of the school age (5-21) population.
      • Students with high incidence disabilities (SLD, EBD, CD) comprise about 64% of that population.
  • 7. Prevalence
  • 8. Services
    • FAPE (free and appropriate public education)
    • IEP (individualized education program)
    • LRE (least restrictive environment)
    • CAP (continuum of alternative placements)
    • ( Much more on all of this beginning in April)
  • 9. Emotional and behavioral disorders
    • Exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree:
      • Inability to learn not explained by other factors
      • Inability to build and maintain satisfactory relationships
      • Inappropriate behaviors/feelings
      • Pervasive unhappiness
      • Tendency to develop physical symptoms as a result of stress or fear
  • 10. Emotional and behavioral disorders
    • Federal definition (and Ohio’s) are fairly subjective.
      • Non-specific language and no operational definitions
        • How long is a “long period?” What are “satisfactory relationships?”
    • Alternate definitions exist
  • 11. Specific learning disabilities
    • Disorder in one or more of the major psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, resulting in an imperfect ability to:
      • Listen
      • Think
      • Speak
      • Read
      • Write
      • Spell
      • Do math
  • 12. Specific learning disabilities
    • Cannot be the result of another disability or an environmental, cultural or economic factor
    • “ unexpected underachievement”
    • Longstanding disagreement over actual rate in the population and effective identification
  • 13. Cognitive disabilities
    • Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (in Ohio, an IQ score lower than 70 or, if appropriate in the judgment of a certified clinician, less than 75)
    • Deficits in adaptive behavior (conceptual skills, social skills, practical skills,)
      • Note: while the text will refer to mild mental retardation, I will use the language from Ohio’s definition. This might be occasionally confusing, but highlights the importance of definition as discussed earlier; in Ohio, think “cognitive disability,” not mental retardation.