Week two definition+prevalence

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Week two definition+prevalence

  1. 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH MILD/MODERATE INTERVENTION NEEDS SPED 4/53050 INSTRUCTOR: BRIAN FRIEDT Week two: Definitions and prevalence
  2. 2. Labeling <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avenue to services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming standard definition, gives teachers information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stigmatization and marginalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative shaping of teacher expectation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Disability/handicap <ul><li>The text makes the following distinction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disability is an “atypical inability to perform a specific skill or a diminished capacity to perform a particular skill” (p. 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A handicap is a “disadvantage or inability imposed on an individual through an interaction with the demands of a particular environment” (p. 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally, disabilities are lifelong conditions, while handicaps are situation dependent </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitional clarity <ul><li>Several different ways to refer to roughly the same population: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text: “high-incidence disabilities” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title of our course: “mild/moderate intervention needs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kent State’s description of licensure: “The Mild-Moderate Educational Needs Intervention Specialist license is valid for teaching learners from ages 5 through 21, and grades K through 12 who have been identified with a disability that requires mild to moderate intervention (e.g. learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, developmental disabilities.)” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Definitional clarity <ul><li>To further complicate the issue, the text refers to “mild mental retardation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio uses the term “cognitive disabilities” and does not make a distinction based on severity or intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>Kent lists “developmental disabilities” under both the mild/moderate license and the moderate/severe license. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevalence <ul><li>High incidence refers to the incidence within the special education population, not within the school population in general </li></ul><ul><li>Most recent data from OSEP (2006): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities comprise 9.2% of the school age (5-21) population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with high incidence disabilities (SLD, EBD, CD) comprise about 64% of that population. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Prevalence
  8. 8. Services <ul><li>FAPE (free and appropriate public education) </li></ul><ul><li>IEP (individualized education program) </li></ul><ul><li>LRE (least restrictive environment) </li></ul><ul><li>CAP (continuum of alternative placements) </li></ul><ul><li>( Much more on all of this beginning in November) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Emotional and behavioral disorders <ul><li>Exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to learn not explained by other factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to build and maintain satisfactory relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate behaviors/feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive unhappiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to develop physical symptoms as a result of stress or fear </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Emotional and behavioral disorders <ul><li>Federal definition (and Ohio’s) are fairly subjective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-specific language and no operational definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How long is a “long period?” What are “satisfactory relationships?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternate definitions exist </li></ul>
  11. 11. Specific learning disabilities <ul><li>Disorder in one or more of the major psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, resulting in an imperfect ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do math </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Specific learning disabilities <ul><li>Cannot be the result of another disability or an environmental, cultural or economic factor </li></ul><ul><li>“ unexpected underachievement” </li></ul><ul><li>Longstanding disagreement over actual rate in the population and effective identification </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive disabilities <ul><li>Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (in Ohio, an IQ score lower than 70 or, if appropriate in the judgment of a certified clinician, less than 75) </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in adaptive behavior (conceptual skills, social skills, practical skills,) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: while the text will refer to mild mental retardation, I will use the language from Ohio’s definition. This might be occasionally confusing, but highlights the importance of definition as discussed earlier; in Ohio, think “cognitive disability,” not mental retardation. </li></ul></ul>

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