Week six sld sped_23000

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO EXCEPTIONALITIES SPED 23000 INSTRUCTOR: BRIAN FRIEDT Week six: Students with specific learning disabilities
  • 2. Historical context
    • Category itself is comparatively new
      • This (along with less social stigma) might account for larger identification rates
    • Some brain/psychological connection
    • Traditional focus on language processing
  • 3. Definitional clarity
    • Unexpected underachievement
    • Does not achieve commensurate with age or ability
    • A discrepancy between expected and actual achievement
      • Measurement difficulty
      • No longer a requirement for qualification
      • Still the best way to conceptualize term to others
    • Failure to respond to interventions
      • Recent development in law
      • Probably better for screening
  • 4. Definitional clarity
    • Ohio: (a) A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations . This includes conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
    • (b) Disorders not included. Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
    • NJCLD: heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing. reasoning, or mathematical abilities . Intrinsic to individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction ...problems in self-regulatory, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities.
    • For all disability definitions (the boilerplate), refer to: http://www.edresourcesohio.org/ogdse/glossary
  • 5. Prevalence
  • 6. Prevalence
    • Outside general education less than 21% of the day: 54%
    • Outside general education between 21% and 60% of the day: 34%
    • Outside general education more than 60% of the day: 11%
  • 7. Causal factors
    • Use the book for specifics!
      • Neurological basis
      • Even more than last week; we are concerned with presentation in the instructional setting
  • 8. Identification
    • Identification through:
      • Discrepancy model OR RTI
  • 9. Early childhood
    • Precursors to SLD might be present
      • Gross/fine motor
      • Auditory/visual/linguistic processing
      • Attention
    • Indicators of future difficulty
      • Reading
      • Social development
    • EARLY INTERVENTION
  • 10. School age
    • Impact of disability across these domains:
      • Reading
      • Writing
      • Math
      • Metacognitive processes
      • Social skills
  • 11. Reading
    • Phonemic awareness/phonological awareness
      • Segmentation (how many?)
      • Isolation (first sound?)
      • Blending (put together?)
      • Identity (same sound?)
      • Categorization (does not belong?)
      • Rhyming
      • Deletion (take out a sound?)
    • Phonemic awareness -> decoding -> comprehension
  • 12. Reading
    • Automaticity
    • Rate
    • Fluency
    • Comprehension
  • 13. Writing
    • Organization
    • Content
    • Spelling, grammar, usage...
  • 14. Math
    • Calculation
      • PE
      • MD
      • AS
    • Application
  • 15. Metacognition
    • Working memory
    • Executive control
    • Motivation
    • Attention
  • 16. Social behavior
    • More likely to have social skill deficits
    • NPR pieces
  • 17. Instruction
    • Accommodation
    • “ good” instruction
    • P. 203-212