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  • 1. DAAD Webinar Public Policy and Good Governance --challenges in the MENA Region– Session III Knowing the Problem – Engineering the Solution: Science v. Interests v. Ideologies DAAD WEBINARPUBLIC POLICY ANDGOOD GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION Prof. Florian Hoffmann Franz Haniel Chair of Public Policy Willy Brandt School of Public Policy University of Erfurt (Germany) http://www.brandtschool.de/the-school/full-time-academic-staff/prof-dr-florian-hoffmann.html
  • 2. Questions Good Governance • Which elements of ‚Good Governance‘ are most crucial in a MENA transition context ? • Are all the elements of ‚Good Governance‘ compatible with one another ? • How important is ‘Good Governance’ forDAAD WEBINAR economic development ? PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 3. Questions Science v. Interests v. Ideologies • How is knowledge constituted and what role does science play in this ? • What role does the politics of knowledge play in the identification of issues and the formulation of solutions ?DAAD WEBINAR • Is ‘Expertocracy’ an unavoidable consequence of PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE contemporary governance ?CHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 4. Good Governance  “[W]e have to consider the political incentives that operate on governments and on the persons and groups that are in office. The rulers have the incentive to listen to what people want if they have to face their criticism and seek their support in elections.” (Amartya Sen)  UNDP  Accountability: government is able and willing to show the extent to which its actions and decisions are consistent with clearly-defined and agreed-upon objectives.  Transparency: government actions, decisions and decision-making processes are open to an appropriate level of scrutiny by others parts of government, civil society and, in some instances, outside institutions and governments.  Efficiency and effectiveness: government strives to produce quality public outputs, including services delivered to citizens, at the best cost, and ensures that outputs meet the original intentions of policymakers.  Responsiveness: government has the capacity and flexibility to respond rapidly to societal changes, takes into account the expectations of civil societyDAAD WEBINAR in identifying the general public interest, and is willing to critically re-examine the role of government. PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD  Forward vision: government is able to anticipate future problems and issues GOVERNANCE based on current data and trends and develop policies that take into accountCHALLENGES IN THE future costs and anticipated changes (e.g. MENA REGION demographic, economic, environmental, etc.).  Rule of law: government enforces equally transparent laws, regulations and codes
  • 5. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 6. Governance & StakeholdersDAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 7. Governance – Development - Transition  Hungary: Between 1990 and 2000,  1. GDP growth rates increased from –3.49% to 5.152% (annual)  2. GDP per capita increased from 4857.47 to 5425 (constant 1995 US $)  3. Inflation decreased from 28.97% to 9.79% (consumer prices, % annual)  4. Fertility rates decreased from 1.84 to 1.29 (total, births per woman)  Poland: Between 1990 and 2000,  1. GPD growth rates increased from –7% to 4 % (annual)  2. GDP per capita increased from 2990.3 to 4223.4 (constant 1995 US $)  3. Inflation decreased from 555.38 % to 10.1% (consumer prices, % annual)  4. Fertility rates decreased from 2.04 to 1.4 (total, births per woman)DAAD WEBINAR  Czech Republic: Between 1990 and 2000,  1. GDP growth rates increased from -11.6% to 2.94% (annual) PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD  2. GDP per capita increased from 5269.6 to 5310.9(constant 1995 US $) GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE  3. Inflation decreased from 9.96% to 3.9% (consumer prices, % annual) MENA REGION  4. Fertility rates decreased from 1.87 to 1.15 (total, births per woman) From: World Development Indicators (World Bank, 2001)
  • 8. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION Maps by Phillipe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique
  • 9. MENA Governance World Bank IndicatorsDAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 10. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 11. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 12. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 13. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 14. DAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 15. Knowing the problem – engineering the solution Science/Knowledge Ideology InterestDAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 16. • What is knowledge? • Scientific knowledge = Universal knowledge? => Science relies on evidence to validate its theories and models Ontology Epistemology Ontology is the "the Epistemology is theDAAD WEBINAR science of being“. “science of PUBLIC POLICY The object of knowledge”, that is the AND GOOD ontology is to theory of how we know GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE determine what is. that which we know. MENA REGION
  • 17. • Knowledge to actionDAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION
  • 18. • The Role of Experts in Policy-Making • Technocracy vs. Democracy Legitimacy? • Technocracy Technocracy is a form of government where technical experts are in control of decision making in their respective fields. Engineers, scientists, health professionals, and those who have knowledge, expertise or skills would compose the governing body • DemocracyDAAD WEBINAR PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD GOVERNANCECHALLENGES IN THE MENA REGION