Lecture SeriesMonday, 23.01.2011Water in development cooperation and The Water-Energy-FoodRio plus 20 Security Nexus Winter Semester 2011 / 2012Christoph Merdes,BMZBundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeitund Entwicklung (BMZ)
Structure of Presenta.on I Bonn 2011 Nexus Conference II Water in Rio plus 20 III German Development Coopera=on in the Water Sector Discussion 3
Bonn2011 Nexus-‐Conference ... was an oﬃcial preparatory conference for the Rio+20 Summit. Was special contribu=on of the German Government to the Rio plus 20 Summit – announced by Chancellor Merkel ... was a pioneering eﬀort to bring together a wide range of stakeholders, leaders and experts from governments, businesses, NGOs, donors, and UN agencies to address the nexus of water, energy and food security. ... included strategic partnerships with IFPRI, World Economic Forum and World Wide Fund for Nature 4 for the prepara=on of the conference.
Special Features Conference fully focused on Nexus Perspective – Intersectoral lense on sectoral decisions Two core dimensions: • dentification of trade-offs between three areas for I informed decision making • xploitation of synergies between water, energy, and E food This focus determines: • articipants – fully interesectoral P • hoice of action fields C • hoice of hot topics C • ormulation of outcomes F
What’s new? great accelera=on Anthropocene Steﬀen et al 6
Welcome to the Anthropocene
At the Tipping Point Water Energy Food 900mio without access to safe 2.5bn without access to 1bn suffering from hunger2010 drinking water modern forms of energy 2.6 bn without access to 1.5bn without access to sanitation electricity Population growth, urbanisation, economic growth… + 40% energy demand + 30-50% food demand2030 40%-gap of water ressources (between availability and demand) 8
From inequal access to planetary boundaries IFPRI 2011
Access to Water – Scarcity and Politics • DWA • DED Besuch BMZ 10Page 10 05.09.2007
Poor people pay more for water Source: PPIAF databaseDr. Ulrike Pokorski da Cunha 1/23/12
From inequal access to planetary boundaries per-capita energy use in low-income countries: 420 kg OE high-income countries: 5300 kg OEWDI 2010WWF Living PlanetRockström et al 2009
At the Tipping Point Water Energy Food 900mio without access to safe 2.5bn without access to 1bn suffering from hunger2010 drinking water modern forms of energy 2.6 bn without access to 1.5bn without access to sanitation electricity Population growth, urbanisation, economic growth… + 40% energy demand + 30-50% food demand2030 40%-gap of water ressources (between availability and demand) 13
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference -‐ Proﬁle 16-18 November 2011 14 World Conference Center Bonn
Examples of Nexus Linkages 16-18 November 2011 15 World Conference Center Bonn
The water - energy nexus Water for Energy Energy for Water World Energy Council 2010
The water -‐ energy nexus photo concentrating gas coal / oil / hydropower biofuels voltaics solar power nuclearm3 /MWh ~0 ~2 ~1 ~2 ~ 60 ~ 180 variable variable Renewable Energy can cause increasing water demand New water can cause increasing energy demand surface water ground water reused desalination wastewater
The water - energy nexus Desalina.on Water for Energy Desalination is 10 times more energy intensive than local freshwater Desalination capacity in MENA is projected to grow by 500% by 2030 Energy for Water GWI (2008) IEA (2009)
Globalisierung Welthandelsvolumen seit 1972: 420 -‐> 15000 Mrd. US$ FDI – Auslandsinves==onen in Land (und Wasser) Anseeuw et al
Globalisierung Anseeuw et al 2011Welthandelsvolumen seit 1972: 420 -‐> 15000 Mrd. US$ FDI – Auslandsinves==onen in Land (und Wasser) Foreign Direct Investment in Africa (million ha) Driver: i.a. Climate Policy
Sustainable production & consumption losses in the food chain Charles et al 2009
Sustainable production & consumption „rebound effect“ 140 130 120 110 100 average horsepowers (PS) 90 of cars sold in Germany 80 70 1995 2000 2005 2011
Hot Topics Nexus-TopicUrban AgricultureEnding food waste (from field to fork)Sustainable Energy for AllThe Bioenergy, Food and Water NexusThe Urban ChallengeSoils for Sustainable DevelopmentNo Food and Nutrition Security without Water, Sanitation and HygieneMaking Dams Work for the NexusIntegrate or Disintegrate: Tackling Competition for Water and LandOpportunities and Risks in Large Scale Investments in Land and Irrigation SchemesEmerging Country Strategies for Improving Food SecurityManaging the Nexus for Green GrowthThe WEF Security Nexus: Understanding the Risks and Opportunities for PrivateFinanceCorporate Water Stewardship 23
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Outcomes A huge demand for dialogue, exchange and mutual learning was apparent throughout the conference Policy recommenda.ons based on mul=-‐stakeholder consulta=ons focusing on cross-‐sectoral approaches (available soon a`er second round of web based consulta=on) Launch of speciﬁc ini.a.ves (such as a water stewardship ini=a=ve for Africa) to address the water, energy and food security nexus in a coherent and sustainable way 24
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Key Messages Achieving long-‐term Water, Energy and Food Security for all is possible. But business as usual is not an op.on. A nexus perspec=ve increases the understanding of the interdependencies across water, energy, food and climate policies. It helps to understand and to avoid unintended consequences from our ac=ons.
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Key Messages Achieving long-‐term Water, Energy and Food Security for all is possible. But business as usual is not an op.on. The nexus perspec=ve helps to move beyond silos and ivory towers that preclude interdisciplinary solu=ons. It opens the eyes for mutually beneﬁcial responses and the poten.al of coopera.on.
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Key Messages Achieving long-‐term Water, Energy and Food Security for all is possible. But business as usual is not an op.on. In sum, the nexus perspec.ve provides an informed and transparent framework for determining and resolving trade-‐oﬀs to meet increasing demand without compromising sustainability.
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Messages II Nexus opportuni.es Applying a nexus approach will create new opportuni=es for ac=on, in par=cular: Increase policy coherence Accelerate access Create more with less End waste and minimize losses Invest in natural infrastructure Mobilize consumer inﬂuence 16-18 November 2011 28 World Conference Center Bonn
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Messages III Overarching PRINCIPLES: Pubng people and their basic human rights at the centre of the nexus Establishing eﬀec=ve legisla=ve frameworks, promo=ng good governance, elimina=ng corrup=on, Involving local communi=es, including indigenous and women’s groups fully and eﬀec=vely in the planning and implementa=on processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment 29
Bonn2011 Nexus Conference – Messages IV How to make it work? The importance of taking a nexus perspec=ve will not result automa=cally in implementa=on. While the opportuni=es and their social, environmental and economic beneﬁts are real, implementa=on requires: 1. Seng the right incen.ves 2. Mechanisms for policy coherence 3. Smart ins.tu.onal frameworks 4. Educa.on, Informa.on, (Dissemina.on) and Empowerment 30
From Bonn to Rio and beyond The nexus perspec.ve is central to the themes of Rio2012 and the Green Economy. The key to success will be to iden.fy the forces that are driving the adop=on of a nexus approach and to build alliances with them. outcomes of Rio should adequately take into account the interdependencies between water, energy and food as well as the underlying natural resources water, land and soil.
Water in Rio+20
Water in Rio+20 2010 – Beginning of Discussion; water virtually absent as a topic of discussion Process: Formal intergovernmental nego=a=on DESA received 677 submissions, more than 5000 pages On this basis Zero Dra` prepared – online since last week Now nego=a=ons of the text Three important water dimensions: 1) Water chapter 2) Nexus-‐perspec=ve 3) Water in Sustainable Development Goal Chapter
Water in Rio+20
Water in Rio+20 Major Water Contribu=ons – UNSGAB I This paper makes the case for a strong focus and decisions on (i) access to sanitation & drinking water, (ii) wastewater management, and (iii) more productive water use in agriculture.
Water in Rio+20 Major Water Contribu=ons – UNSGAB II Objective 1 –Access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Ensure universal access to sanitation and safe drinking water through the adoption of plans for accelerated implementation of all dimensions of the human right to water and sanitation: safety, availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability, non-discrimination, participation and accountability. Objective 2 – Common vision of wastewater management. Governments together decide to strengthen their respective actions on pollution of freshwater by adopting a shared vision of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater management including collection, treatment and water reuse. Objective 3 – More food with the water available. Adoption of an internationally agreed political objective linking food production and water use through increasing global water productivity of agriculture
Water in Rio+20 Major Water Contribu=ons – UN-‐Water I The highest priority must be given to the ‘bottom billion’ people while addressing inequities in access to water, which are closely linked to energy security as well as food security. Universal coverage of water supply and sanitation services must be a central development goal in the post-2015 period. The framework for achieving the ultimate goal will need to accommodate both development targets and human rights targets at all levels There must also be a commitment to build the foundation for a water resource efficient green economy. Over 70% of freshwater resources are utilized for agricultural production. Therefore, we must help farmers increase water efficiency in agriculture – more nutrition and crop per drop. Similarly, all stakeholders are urged to reduce water losses and waste from field to fork, thus increasing the total food supplychain efficiency. National governments should also commit to increase water efficiency in energy production – more Kilowatts per drop.
Water in Rio+20 Major Water Contribu=ons – Stockholm Statement Accordingly, over and above achieving the Millennium Development Goals, we call for a universal provisioning of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and modern energy services by the year 2030. We call on local, municipal, and national governments and all major groups participating at the Rio+20 Summit to commit to achieving the following intervening targets by 2020: 1. 20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency; reduce losses and waste from field to fork 2. 20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture; more nutrition and crop per drop 3. 20% increase in water use efficiency in energy production; more kWh per drop 4. 20% increase in the quantity of water reused 5. 20% decrease in water pollution
Water in Rio+20 -‐ What about Energy? The Sectetary-‐Generals Energy Goals: Sustainable Energy for All Ini=a=ve and Zero Dra` We propose to build on the Sustainable Energy for All initiative launched by the Secretary-General, with the goals of 1. providing universal access to a basic minimum level of modern energy services for both consumption and production uses by 2030; 2. improving energy efficiency at all levels with a view to doubling the rate of improvement by 2030; 3. and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 through promoting the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies in all countries.
Water in Rio+20 – The Zero Drac
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac Three important water dimensions: 1) Water chapter 2) Nexus-‐perspec=ve 3) Water in Sustainable Development Goal Chapter
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac 1) Water chapter 67. We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Furthermore, we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security, hydropower, agriculture and rural development. 68. We recognize the necessity of setting goals for wastewater management, including reducing water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promoting water efficiency, wastewater treatment and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly in expanding urban areas.
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac 1) Water chapter II 69. We renew our commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans. We reaffirm our commitment to the 2005-2015 International Decade for Action “Water for Life”. We encourage cooperation initiatives for water resources management in particular through capacity development, exchange of experiences, best practices and lessons learned, as well as sharing appropriate environmentally sound technologies and know-how.
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac 2) Nexus-‐ Perspec=ve Water, Energy, Food central ﬁrst themes in nearly any chaper Linkages not yet very strong Speciﬁc reference: “We encourage international initiatives and partnerships to address the interrelationship among water, energy, food and climate change in order to achieve synergies as well as to minimize conflicts among policy objectives, being particularly sensitive to impacts on vulnerable populations.”
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac Three important water dimensions: 3) Water in Sustainable Development Goal Chapter We recognize that goals, targets and milestones are essential for measuring and accelerating progress towards sustainable development and agree to launch an inclusive process to devise by 2015: a) a set of global Sustainable Development Goals that reflect an integrated and balanced treatment of the three dimensions of sustainable development, are consistent with the principles of Agenda 21, and are universal and applicable to all countries but allowing for differentiated approaches among countries;
Water in Rio+20 – Zero Drac Three important water dimensions: Sustainable Development Goals II 107. We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency; sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction and resilience.
Rio Secretary General Sha Zukang at Bonn Nexus Conference on SDGs These would need to be balanced and integrated into discussions about a post-2015 development agenda. We need to accelerate progress to meet the aspirations of the poor. But this is not enough. Our future sustainable development goals must encompass the poor and the rich alike. The UN is starting working on the post-2015 development agenda (not post-2015 MDG agenda). As part of this, it will have to address the limitations of the current goals and one of these is the lack of sufficient goals on sustainability. Yes there are goals on water, sanitation, slum upgradation, but there are none on energy, sustainable consumption and production, or the other critical priority areas. Any development agenda must be a sustainable development agenda, incorporating the unfinished MDG agenda, in what we define in 2015. The nexus of food, water and energy is likely to be addressed in a post 2015 development agenda.
German Development Cooperation on Water and Sanitation I• Water and Sanitation Important Priority Area – In terms of financial volume – Number of partner countries• Fields of Action: – Sector and institutional reform – Investment programs // Access to Water – IWRM promotion and Transboundary Water Management – Sustainable Water use in agriculture
German Development Cooperation on Water and Sanitation II• International Sector Dialogue – Water Initiatives like Sanitation and Water for All or Global Water Partnershop - World Water Forum/Stockholm Water Week• Water engagement of multilateral institutions – Water policies and projects of EU, WB, Reg. Banks
German contribution to multilateral organisations spent on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH – 2010, USD)Organisation Contribution in Mio. $Global Environment Facility (GEF) 1,7African Development Fund (AfDF) 20,1Asian Development Fund (AsDF) 5,8International Development Association 99,7(IDA)European Commission (EC) 105,5Total 233,0
German Development Cooperation – Actors in bilateral cooperaiton Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)(sets overall sectoral and regional policies, leads dialogue with partner governments) TechnicalFinancial Cooperation CooperationGerman Development GIZBank, KFW BGR In support of implementation of water strategies of partners
28 Partner Countries with Special Focus onWater
Total German Commitments in the Water Sector Million USD, 2005 - 2010 1100 977,44 1000 906,44 917,42 900 800 700 600 593,96 500 497,14 400 382,26 300 200 100 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Institutional Development of the Water Sector (Kenya) Project partner: Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) Other Partners: DED, InWEnt, KfW, UN-Habitat, google.org Duration: 2003 – 2010 Total Funding: € 14.4 Million Initial situation: Inadequate access to safe water supplies/ sanitation Ineffective, centralized and responsibilities leaving unclear structure without incentives for better performance Incoherent data regarding water supply situation Approach: Policy Development and Commercialisation Accounting needs of poor populations Water resources management supporting 2 Catchment Advisory Committees Support public relations & communication
DiscussionI Bonn 2011 Nexus Conference1) Is the Nexus-Perspective useful? Strenghts/Weaknesses?2) Where is integrated planning and decision-making necessary and where is a sector-focus more important?II Water in Rio plus 201. From a water perspective: What would you like to see in the Rio Outcome2. What should be in a Sustainable Development Goal on Water ?III German Development Cooperation in the Water Sector
Institutional Development of the Water Sector (Kenya)Impacts: Improvement in institutional framework conditions for the water sector 2 of 3 newly funded Water and Sewerage Companies enabled to meet their operation and maintenance costs, supported WSP in Nyeri prototype of effectiveness Stakeholders accepted and participated actively within the reform process Water Kiosks solution introduced: estimated 2.5 % of income/per month for water instead of 15 % for illegal resources (500.000 persons reached) Support to a national Catchment Management Strategy