Rio+20 Session 2

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  • 1. Summer School on ‘Implementing Green Economy through Regional Development Planning’, Rio+20 Date: 4-13 November, 2012 Venue: Schloss Eringerfeld; NRW-GermanySYNTHESIS OF EMERGING ISSUES, CASE STUDIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 2. Implementing Green Economy through Regional Development Planning, Rio +20• Conducted by ISPC, TU Dortmund• Sponsored by DAAD (Rio+20, Green Economy)• 19 participants from 13 countries: Peru, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.• Learning from each other; experience sharing; networking04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 2
  • 3. The Workshop Participants04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 3
  • 4. Schloss Eringerfeld near Geseke04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 4
  • 5. Presentation Structure• Introducing Green Economy and Regional Development Planning• Biodiversity conservation and livelihood needs; forestry• Green economy in income generation opportunities• Renewable energies• Green building• Sustainable tourism• Conclusions04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 5
  • 6. Day 1: Green Economy and Regional Development Planning04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 6
  • 7. Summary The Potential of Regional Development Planning for the Implementation of Green Economy• The concept of brown and green economy cannot be viewed as a continuum. Certain elements of brown economy may contribute to sustainable development and certain elements of green economy may not necessarily be appropriate in some development contexts.• Political commitment & proper coordination among implementing agencies are pre-requisites to the effective implementation of GE development plans.• Sound and practical strategies for financial mobilization & human resource allocation & development should accompany GE development plans.• Product marketing & distribution, as well as disposal of business waste products should be consistent with GE principles. 7
  • 8. Continuation…• Corporate social responsibility should be strengthened with the mobilization of local content & support to community development such as social & physical infrastructure.• Research should be consistent with the government regulatory framework & aim at appropriate dissemination, mainstreaming & implementing research outcomes.• Effective participation of relevant stakeholders should be upheld in all GE researches.• Government should develop/strengthen policies supporting research and development.• Best practices in the use of environmentally-sound technologies by the industrial sector should be addressed by research & their appropriateness in varying context assessed. 8
  • 9. SummarySome Experiences 9
  • 10. Day 2: Biodiversity Conservation and Livelihood Needs; Forestry04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 10
  • 11. Summary 1. Balancing Biodiversity Conservation and Livelihoods Needs 2. Integrated PA Management and Buffer Zone Concept• Sustainable resource management embodies conservation and production/use for socio-economic needs.• Participation of local communities in forest management is key to sustainability.• Secure tenure rights for surrounding communities are important to ensure the protection of forest resources.• Selected areas for controlled economic activities including farming and alternative income generation activities are vital in conserving forest resources in a sustainable manner.• Integration of biodiversity conservation into the broader regional development plan ensures support and sustainability 11
  • 12. SummaryExperiences from Tanzania, Ghana, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Kenya Chololo Eco Village; Tanzania The use of improved seeds, livestock breed and fish production Community forest has been improved through planting of trees and protecting existing ones. Solar energy and biogas potential are used to generate energy and energy efficient heating stoves have been introduced and adopted by community members Participatory Forest Resource Management (PAFORM) Project in the Transition Zone; Ghana There is interdependence between participation in forest protection and livelihood needs Government agency should strengthen its capacity in promoting this participation Arusha National Park; Tanzania The absence of buffer zone has generated complaints among the surrounding communities. Resettled communities from the park were compensated There is no community consultation in managing the park Payment Forest Environmental Service; Vietnam The forest functions are protected. Local community get benefits from protecting the forest Forest development at the buffer zones of Addis Ababa Indigenous species of trees are planted to replace the exotic one e.g eucalyptus. Urban agriculture is well addressed. River bank protection through buffer zone management; Kenya Involvement of farmers and clear articulation of benefits are key 12
  • 13. Recommendations• Tenure rights of surrounding communities should be secured through legalization and where applicable, group rights should also be institutionalized to ensure sustainability in biodiversity conservation• Off-park income generating activities should be enhanced• Buffer zone is important in the conservation of protected areas• Up-scaling of the benefits from pilot projects should be emphasized as is the case of the Chololo-Eco village
  • 14. Day 3: Green Economy in Income Generation Opportunities around Protected Areas04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 14
  • 15. Summary Supporting Services for the Enhancement of Income Generation• Emphasis on the promotion of income generation activities need to consider the political, economic, and socio-cultural context.• Tailor-made concepts apart from blueprints should form core planning strategies for regional economic development (RED)• The aims of RED involve four components: – Human Resource Development (soft and hard skills) – Institutional Development (local, urban and their structures) – Locality Development (infrastructure development; market access, bank access, improved working environment) – Advice and financial support / business development services• NGOs can play an active role by mediating among different actors to arrive at viable solutions for effective implementation of alternative livelihood program 15
  • 16. Summary Experiences from Ghana, Philippines and Greater Mekong Region Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd., livelihood program; Ghana Private Sector has an important role in improving the livelihood needs of its affected people through its CSR Existence of regulatory framework and institutions to ensure private sector role in implementing GE. For example; EPA Environmental Policy and Minerals Commission Alternative Livelihood Project ECOSWITCH Project in greening the Philippine companies Case studies show that SMEs can implement simple environmental measures with no investment that can generate simultaneous economic and ecological benefits Environmental benefits has to be translated to its equivalent economic savings to be better appreciated by businesses especially SMEs SME Renewable Ltd., Greater Mekong Region Application of renewable energy in SME sector needs proper assessment on pros and cons of its use for environmentally sound business development Potential market for waste generated in using renewable energy needs to be identified and linked for input in other industrial activity SME Green Business/Innovations face the problem of business scale up standards market penetration 1604.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 17. Recommendations• Tailor-made programs are important for local people to participate• Complimentary general services by NGOs in terms of capacity development and credit should be included in the institutional component• There‟s a need for enterprises to provide services in maintenance of local economic development (LED) initiatives• Chamber of Commerce, industry associations are needed to be included in the institutional arrangements to promote the interest of the business community• Incorporate aspects of globalization, threats and opportunities in local business• Negotiation skills should be provided to the local SMEs to protect them from big/international investors• Backward and forward linkages need to be incorporated in LED
  • 18. Day 4: Renewable Energies04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 18
  • 19. Summary Renewable Energies in Developing Countries• Lack of access to reliable, affordable and modern energy services contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of poverty and problems of health, hygiene, gender inequity and environmental degradation.• Various cutting edge practices in providing energy access to the poor including low-emissions technologies, market development, innovative financing, institutional strengthening and policy development can be converged to scale up the expansion of energy access projects for the poor situated in rural areas.• Projects that combine the delivery of renewable energy services and income generating measures like business development, policy and information support, access to capital and market linkages have the greatest potential for poverty reduction and rural development. 1904.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 20. Summary Experiences from Bangladesh, India, Peru and Phillipines Bangladesh Solar power and biogas as alternative energy source India Renewable energy plays a vital role in India‟s rural development Peru The experience of the NGO RAAA in training small-scale farmers and in promoting the use of renewable energy. Philippines Expanding access to electricity by the poor using solar PV through market-based approach 2004.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 21. Recommendations• Green Economy strategies and plans relevant to renewable energy should be integrated into a country‟s existing national policy framework and other sectoral frameworks to ensure balance and synergies.• Building national institutional leadership that can initiate coordination and cooperation across sectors on green economy and renewable energy is crucial to achieve poverty reduction and rural development• Continuous and critical engagement with stakeholders (private sector, government, NGOs and CSOs) at all levels is necessary to expand and mainstream green economy to ensure support and success. Green Planning 21 04.-13.11.2012
  • 22. Day 5: Climate-friendly Architecture and Building04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 22
  • 23. Summary Climate friendly Architecture and Building• 2011 -> 50% of mankind lives in urban area; 40% of the world energy consumptions are for buildings, thus it is essential to be efficient in energy consumption.• Sustainable cities with green energy & off grid renewable solutions: – decentralization, regional development, off grid energy solutions& renewable, energy efficiency, human settlement, education, local production, local jobs, local materials, local resources• SUSTAINABILITY : Balance between Ecology, Economy, and Social aspects in micro & macro scale. 04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 23
  • 24. Summary Experiences from Germany and IndonesiaSpherion, Deloitte Headquarter, Dusseldorf• Day lighting usage, energy savingsREWE Green Supermarket, Berlin• Day lightings, timber materials, photovoltaic, geothermalHouse for Creative Learning, Bekasi, Indonesia• Local products, involve users in construction, educationEECCHI Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources Office,Jakarta, Indonesia• Energy efficient in office space, green materialsGreen Products: Coco fiber & Sugar cane fiber• Using local resources 24
  • 25. Recommendations• Eco-friendly architecture contributes to Green Economy through energy saving, the use of local materials & labor and through cost efficiency.• It needs integrated planning where architects, engineers and other partners develop solutions that are adapted to local-specific conditions.• The solution should not necessarily be expensive but could be simple, cost effective and applicable to the country in question.• Green building design should also consider indigenous architecture.• Regulatory frameworks are necessary to provide guidelines but should not limit creativity and innovation.• It is necessary to have product standardization for new products. 25 04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 26. Day 6: Sustainable Tourism04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 26
  • 27. Summary Sustainable Tourism“… meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting andenhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management ofall resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can befulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, andbiological diversity, and life support systems.” (UN-WTO 2004)Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-culturalaspects of tourism development. A suitable balance must be established betweenthese three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. ecologically economically acceptable productive socio-culturally sensitive 04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning 27
  • 28. SummaryExperiences from Philippines, Peru, Ghana, Nepal and Indonesia Misamis Occidental Aquamarine Development and Protection Program (MOADPP); Philippines To market the coastline as an eco-tourism destination to generate funds for the impoverished locals. Local Project: Rural tourism development in the Capachica-Llachón Lake Peninsula; Peru The main purpose is contributing to the improvement and development of the current rural tourism entrepreneurship identified in most families of the Capachica-Llachon peninsula. Zero Carbon Resorts; Philippines Zero carbon aims to make the tourism industry energy efficient in a sustainable and competitive way. Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP); Nepal Change in the traditional subsistence activities into a framework of sound resource management . Biodiversity conservation and Tourism development in Northern Ghana Success in Protected Areas (PA) management depends on initiatives on sustainable utilization of non- traditional forest products Wonorejo Mangrove Eco-Tourism The pilot project in Indonesia for Mangrove Eco-System Conservation and sustainable use of reclaimed post-mining lands 28
  • 29. Recommendations• Sustainable rural tourism is one of the key sectors with strong potential for diversifying rural economy.• However, sustainability in tourism is not harmonious on it„s own initiative, but a compromise of competitive goals.• Sustainable consumption and production in the tourism industry should be promoted. Eg. “locavore”• „Soft“ instruments like voluntary environmental initiatives, auditing, eco-labels, awards, voluntary CO2-compensation und networking are important for sustainable tourism, but are not sufficient!• „Hard“ instruments like legal regulations, regional planning, taxes and other duties (e.g. taxes on kerosene /CO2-output) as well as emissions trading are indispensable to enforce principles such as “user pays”. Eg. Flight passengers should pay for their contributions to carbon emissions. 29 04.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 30. KEY INSIGHTS AND THE WAY FORWARD 3004.-13.11.2012 Green Planning
  • 31. THANK YOU 3104.-13.11.2012 Green Planning