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MaD Session1

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  • 1. Migration and development: actors, challenges and opportunities Stefan Rother05 September 2012 People on the Move - Migration for Development
  • 2. Webinar Sessions Session 2: The role of migrants in social economic development Wednesday, 12 September 2012, 19.00h UTC+2 Speaker: Ronald Lucardie, EUNOMAD Session 3: Labour on the move – migrant workers as drivers for development? Wednesday, 19 September 2012, 19.00h UTC+2 Speaker: Björn Gruber, GIZ Session 4: Climate change induced displacement and migration Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 19.00h UTC+2 Speaker: Sophia Wirsching, Brot für die Welt/Bread for the World Session 5: Development potential beyond monetary remittances: Migration and Civil Society Tuesday, 2 October 2012, 19.00h UTC+2 Speakers: Anke Butscher, Consulting; Freda Marful, Clean Africa e.V.Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 3. The GFMD: An opportunity… PROTECTING AND EMPOWERING MIGRANTS FOR DEVELOPMENT SECOND MEETING OF THE GFMD (MANILA) 27-30 October 2008Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 4. …or a threat?Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 5. GFMD critiqueRother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 6. Divided views on migration and development I International Institutions, policy makers, think tanks, “diaspora” organisations, some migration scholars: -Development optimism, “new development mantra” -Focus on monetary remittances and “diaspora” engagement -Pilot projects, studies, reports from major organisations (UNDP Human Development Report 2009: “Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development”) -Websites, Handbooks (EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) http://www.migration4development.org/ -Example Handbook “A botttom-up approach to migration and development”: - Small-scale actors: range of organizations from civil society, the public and the private sector, including NGOs, migrant organizations, grassroots organizations, local authorities, universities, research and training institutes, micro-finance institutions, employer associations, trade unions - Social capital, financial capital, human capital, cultural capitalRother: Introduction Migration and Development .
  • 7. Divided views on migration and development II Migrant rights organisations, grassroots organisations, trade unions, social movement unions, critical migration scholars: “(…) ask whether the celebration of migrants as the new heroes of international development has always been ‘‘spin’’ and, if so, why there has been this systematic perpetuation of delusions” (Nina Glick Schiller) “Knowing that the nexus has been variously described as unsettled and, later, as ‘‘hype’’ or a panacea for development, we wonder whether its history can be likened to the story of ‘‘The Emperor’s New Clothes’’.” (Birgitte Mossin Brønden) “The Costs and Benefits of Migration to Sending States: the More You Look, the Worse it Gets.” “(…) rather than generate development, migration probably exacerbates the economic, social and political problems that provoke migration in the first place. Unless state leaders confront this reality, they will never escape it.” (Rodolfo de la Garza)Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 8. Migration and development – a new debate or a “pendulum”? I “The Migration and Development Pendulum” (Hein de Haas) 1950-1960s: -Development optimism, migrants can contribute to the development of their countries and communities of origin -Acknowledgement of migrants‘ contribution to the development of the host country (Germany 10 September 1964: Celebration of „Gastarbeiter“ number „1 million“ from Portugal) -1970s: - development pessimism - „brain drain“ debate: highly qualified workers leave their country of origin -(see alo „brain gain“ and later „brain regain“)Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 9. Migration and development – a new debate or a “pendulum”? II Since the 1990s two trends observable: 1. The securitization of migration -„The old bogeyman image (Feindbild) of communism has been replaced by the demonisation of migration“ (Karl-Heinz Meier-Braun) -Migration perceived as a threat that disrupts the „natural“ unit / „container unit“ of the nation state -Reinforced by the September 11 terrorist attacks -Criminalization of migration, militarisation of borders, deportations -Stricter asylum/visa policies -EU: FRONTEX border patrols, EU Return Directive… -Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 10. Migration and development – a new debate or a “pendulum”? III Since the 1990s two trends observable: 2. The migration and development nexus -The „new development mantra“ (Devesh Kapur) -Triggered by the impressive amount of global remittances: In 2011, according to World Bank 372 billion (Milliarden) US$ have been transfered to developing countries – a 12,1 percent increase compared to 2010 -The „transnational turn“ (Glick Schiller et al.) -Migrants keep sustained ties to their home communities -Transnational social fields/spaces -Social remittances (Peggy Levitt) -Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 11. Asessment: Migration and development – the good… Plus: -Poverty reduction -Framing of migration as a positive force that can foster development -Triple-win-scenarios acknowledge migrants‘ contributions to the receiving society -Migration is discussed in the international arena instead of being exclusively seen as „every (receiving) state‘s own business“ -Some policies that could be deemed pro-migrant in the receiving countries (Blue Card, dual citizenship, debate on integration) -Support for migrant organisations -Research, pilot projectsRother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 12. Assessment: Migration and development – …the bad… Minus: -Limited evidence for development, job creation etc.; strong focus on remittances -Often unreflected use of controversial terms: - Development – which development are we talking about? - Circular migration: Very ambigiuos/undefined term – is the main goal development or rather appeasement of xenophobic populations? - Diasporas – unreflected, ahistorical term; assumes migrants to constitute a homogenous group - Migration management – suggest migration is a technical issue that can be adressed by technical solutions from aboveRother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 13. Migration and development – …and the ugly Minus Minus: -The praise for migrants as agents of development might deflect form the failure of recieving countries to live up to their promises made in the MDGs -Unlike refugees no „global governance of migration“ (GFMD: state-led, informal; IOM: reports to member states, assists with deportations, both: outside the UN) -The financial, social and human costs of migration are largely ignored -Philippine example: -Case of „migration instead of development“ -Migrants are praised as „national heroes“ but there is widespread physical, psychological and sexual abuse in the receiving countries (gender dimension – migrant domestic workers, care workers, de-skilling)Rother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 14. Solutions? - Reframing the debate on migration and development - More extensive concept of human development - Rights-based approach: human rights, portable labour rights - Regulation of „migration industry“ - Adress development obstacles in sending countries - Multiple-entry-visas instead of limited circular migration programs - Adress structural reasons for migration - Bring the GFMD process back to the UN - Ratification and implication of conventions, i.e. UN Migrant Workers Convention, ILO convention 189 on decent work for domestic workersRother: Introduction Migration and Development
  • 15. ILO ConventionRother: Introduction Migration and Development