Biomass for Energy: The Water Footprint for Biodiesel Winnie Gerbens-Leenes University of Twente – the Netherlands Water Footprint NetworkThe Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus, Koln, Nov 26th 2012 www.waterfootprint.org
Water footprint of a product►the volume of fresh water used to produce the product, summed over the varioussteps of the production chain.►when and where the water was used:a water footprint includes atemporal and spatial dimension.►type of water use:green, blue, grey water footprint.
Components of a water footprint Direct water footprint Indirect water footprint consumption Green water footprint Green water footprint Water Water withdrawalNon-consumptive water use (return flow) Blue water footprint Blue water footprint pollution Water Grey water footprint Grey water footprintThe traditional statisticson water use [Hoekstra, 2008]
Grey water footprint• volume of polluted freshwater that associates with the production of a product in its full supply-chain.• calculated as the volume of water that is required to dilute pollutants to such an extent that the quality of the water remains above agreed water quality standards.
The virtual water chain Virtual Virtual Virtual water water water flow Food flow flowFarmer processer Retailer Consumergreen grey blue grey blue grey blue grey and water water water water water water water blue use use usewater use [Hoekstra, 2008]
Production chain Sugar cane Clean stalks Crops as delivered at plant Bagasse Traded (by-) product or with economic value Tops and Untraded (by-) product or with low/now economic value leaves Possible process but not commercially utilized yet Tops and leaves Steam and and and Boiler and Boiling electricity fly ash Bagasse Hydrolysis Vinasse and and Fermentation Distilation Ethanol Mechanical Distilation harvesting or and and andSugar cane Clean stalks Washing Milling Filtering Juice Fermentation and and or Manual Burning harvesting Molasses Filter mud/ cake and and Evaporation Crystalization Centrifugation Sucrose
The water footprint of energyPrimary energy carriers Global average water footprint (m3/GJ)Non-renewable Natural gas 0.11 Coal 0.16 Crude oil 1.06 Uranium 0.09Renewable Wind energy 0.00 Solar thermal energy 0.27 Hydropower 0.5-850 Bioethanol 165 Biodiesel 313 In: Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of biofuels. A. Gasparatos and P. Stromberg eds. Cambridge university press, New York, USA.
Bio-ethanol 2030 Top 10 bio-ethanol consumers in 2030 United States of America BrazilPeoples Republic of China Germany Italy India France United Kingdom Pakistan South Africa 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Consumption (PJ/yr) Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van Lienden, A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, Th.H. Global Environmental Change, 2012, 22, 764-775.
Bio-diesel 2030 Top 10 bio-diesel consumers in 2030 Malaysia United States of America FrancePeoples Republic of China Brazil Italy Germany Spain United Kingdom Indonesia 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Consumption (PJ/yr) Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van Lienden, A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, Th.H. Global Environmental Change, 2012, 22, 764-775.
WF bio-ethanol 2005-2030 Water Footprint of bio-ethanol consumption North America 2005 2030 Europe 2005 2030 Latin America 2005 2030 Developing Asia 2005 2030 Africa 2005 2030 Pacific 2005 2030Former USSR and Balkans 2005 2030 Blue WF Green WF 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 km 3 per year Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van Lienden, A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, Th.H. Global Environmental Change, 2012, 22, 764-775.
WF Bio-diesel 2005-2030 Water Footprint biodiesel consumption Europe 2005 2030 Developing Asia 2005 2030 North America 2005 2030 Latin America 2005 2030Former USSR and Balkans 2005 2030 Middle east 2005 2030 Africa 2005 2030 Blue WF Green WF 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 km 3 per year
Top 10 blue WFs 2030 Top 10 blue biofuel water footprints 2030 USA Brazil China Italy India Spain France PakistanSouth Africa Bio-ethanol Germany Bio-diesel 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 3 km per year
Available water + withdrawals 2030 Available internal India renew able blue w ater Environmental flowWithdraw al Industrial w ithdraw al Domestic w ithdraw al Agricultural USA w ithdraw al Blue biofuel WFWithdraw al ChinaWithdraw al BrazilWithdraw al 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 km 3 per year
Available water + withdrawals 2030South Africa Withdraw al Pakistan Withdraw al Germany Withdraw al Spain Withdraw al Available internal renew able blue w ater Environmental flow France Industrial w ithdraw al Withdraw al Domestic w ithdraw al Agricultural w ithdraw al Italy Blue biofuel WF Withdraw al 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 km 3 per year Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van Lienden, A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, Th.H. Global Environmental Change, 2012, 22, 764-775.
Conclusions►when and where the water was used:a water footprint includes atemporal and spatial dimension.►type of water use:green, blue, grey water footprint.► large increase in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel consumption
Conclusions► differences depend on agricultural system, crop typeand climate► water shortage in India, USA, China, SouthAfrica, Pakistan, Germany, Spain, France, Italy► sufficient in Brazil
ConclusionsWater footprint of bioenergy Large variation in values: 10 - 4000 m3/GJ Water footprint (bio)energy will increase Increasing competition in the Water-Energy-Food Security nexus