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  • 1. Lecture SeriesMonday, 29.10.2012Eco-Innovation for Greening Growth The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus Winter Semester 2012 / 2013Prof. Dr. Harald SanderCologne University of Applied Sciences  
  • 2. Supported by
  • 3. Lecture  series     The  Water  Energy  Food  Security  Nexus   Cologne,  winter  term  2012/2013   Joint  effort  between   DIE,  Universität  zu  Köln,  Cologne  University  of  Applied  Sciences  3
  • 4. Introduc)on  to  the  lecture  series   Prof.  Dr.  Lars  Ribbe     Director  of  InsPtute  for  Technology  and  Resources  Management     in  the  Tropics  and  Subtropics  (ITT)   Cologne  University  of  Applied  Sciences     Betzdorfer  Straße  2   50679  Cologne,  Germany  4
  • 5. Content  1.  Why  „Nexus“?  2.  The  research  cluster  „NEXUS“  at  CUAS  3.  Other  Nexus  acPviPes  and  agenda  for  the  winter   term   5  
  • 6. Nexus  lecture  series:  the  partners   Universität  zu  Köln   DIE   ITT   Prof.  Dr.  Karl  Schneider,   Dr.  WalEna  Scheumann,  DIE-­‐ Prof.  Dr.  Lars  Ribbe,     InsEtute  of  Geography   GDI   ITT  
  • 7. Why  WEF  Nexus?   •  Water,  Food  and  Energy  Security:  Three  pillars  of   economic  development  +  socio-­‐poliPcal  stability   •  Higher  security  levels  in  one  sector  may  impact  the  other   „security  areas“   Today       (2012:  7  bn  populaPon)   No  access  to  safe  water  (0.9  bn)  ,  electricity  (1.5  bn),  sufficient   food  (1bn)     Tomorrow     (2030:  8.5  bn  populaPon)   if  we  want  to  combat  poverty  +  supply  a  growing   populaPon:  Roughly  40  %  more  water,  energy  and   food  demands!   7
  • 8. Global  AcceleraEon  in  the  Anthropocene   (source:  planet  under  pressure,  policy  briefs  
  • 9. Why  WEF  Nexus?   Water  –  Food  –  Energy  Security   Water  demand  of  food  producPon   Water   Food   Reservoir  construcPon  and   operaPon   Hydropower  development   Energy  demand  of  food  producPon   and  processing   Water  for  Energy   Energy  demands  of  water   Biofuels   distribuPon  and  treatment   Energy   9  
  • 10. Why  WEF  Nexus?   W   F   W   F   E   E   2000   2030   10
  • 11. 11  
  • 12. Why  WEF  Nexus?   12  
  • 13. Current  R  &  E  AcEviEes:   Role  of  research  and  educaPon?    Example:  The  Research  Cluster  „Water,  Food  and   Energy  NEXUS“  at  Cologne  University  of  Applied   Sciences  (CUAS)    Funded  by  Ministry  of  InnovaPon,  Science  and   Research,  state  of  NRW  and  CUAS  (2013  –  2016)   13  
  • 14. The research Cluster „Water Food and Energy Security at Cologne University of Applied Sciences (Funded by MIWF, NRW 2013-1015) Ingo Stadler Eberhard Waffenschmidt Ulf Blieske Energy Security   Human Development Harald Sander   Johannes Hamhaber Food Security Water Security Lars Ribbe Sabine Schlüter Michael Sturm Till Meinel Jackson RoehrigWolfgang Kath-Petersen
  • 15. N E X U S  Food   Work  Group  1  :  Food-­‐ Energy   Energy   NEXUS-­‐   Forum   Work  Group  3:   Work  Group  2:   Food-­‐Water   Energy-­‐Water   Nexus  of  disciplines:   •  Natural  Sciences   •  Social  Sciences   •  Engineering     Water   •  …  
  • 16. Current  R  &  E  AcEviEes:   InsPtuPonal  NEXUS:  cooperaPon   Higher Education + Research Cooperative Programmes and Public projects Sector +   Applied Research (I)NGOs   Capacity Development Private   Implementation Sector KIC Knowledge and Innovation Community
  • 17. Centre  for  Natural  Resources   and  Development  -­‐  CNRD   Geografisches   InsPtut  der   University  of   Universität  zu  Köln   North  Florida   (USA)   TÜV   DIP  GmbH     Rheinland   ZEF/Uni  Bonn   Sunpower   University  of   Warsaw   Saint-­‐Gobain   (Poland),   Solar   Food   German  Deutsches   AHK   Energy   Water  InsPtut  für   Sao   Paulo   RheinEnergie   Partner-­‐Entwicklungs AG   ship  poliPk  –  DIE   (GWP)   SEBA   Hydrometrie   GmbH   Water   GREENPEACE   Energy   Dongbei   University  of   Finance  and   Ribeka  Sorware   Economics   GmbH   DHI-­‐WASY   (China)   GmbH   Universität  Kassel   Deutsche  Vereinigung  für  Wasserwirtschar,  Abwasser   und  Abfall  e.  V.  (DWA)   Technische    Universität   Eindhoven   Private  Sector,  NGOs   UNEP  Hochschulnetzwerk   AssociaPons  and  Networks   Research  and  EducaPon  
  • 18. Current  R  &  E  AcEviEes:   Major  acPviPes  of  the  research  cluster   1.  Establish  a  knowledge  base  on  the  Nexus  issues   2.  Develop  common  research  projects,  involve   students   3.  Develop  teaching  materials  and  case  study  material   4.  Outreach  and  communicaPon  with  other   stakeholders   5.  Establish  partnerships  and  networks    
  • 19. Further  acPviPes  of  ITT:   ScienEfic  Conferences   Amman-­‐Cologne  School  of  IWRM:   •  Amman  2011:  „Water-­‐Energy  Nexus“   •  Amman  2012  „Green  Growth  and  Water  Resources  Management   in  the  MENA  region“   •  Amman  2013  „Nexus  topics  within  the  Arab  Water  Week   Centre  for  Natural  Resources  and  Development   •  ITT,  Cologne  2012:  „Research  for  the  Water  Energy  Food  Security   Nexus“    19
  • 20. Further  acPviPes  of  ITT:  University  Partnership  “Enquiry-­‐based  Learning  in  the  Curricula  of  Master-­‐Level  Courses  in  the  Water  and  Land  Nexus”  (Funded  by  DAAD  2013-­‐  2016)  Partners:    •  Khartoum  University,  Sudan;  •  Addis  Abbaba  University,  Ethiopia;  •  Jordan  University     20  
  • 21. The  EBL-­‐NEXUS  project:   21  
  • 22. Last  but  not  least….  I  whish  us  interesPng  expert  inputs  and  a  vivid  debate!  Thank  you!  
  • 23. ECO-INNOVATION FORGREENING GROWTHAND THE WATER-ENERGY-FOOD SECURITY NEXUS Harald Sander Director Institute of Global Business and Society and Professor of International Economics at Cologne University of Applied Sciences Lecture held on October 29, 2012
  • 24. Four Core Messages•  Greening the economy requires green innovation. (the same holds for addressing the synergies and trade-offs in the Water-Food-Energy NEXUS)•  To unleash eco-innovations a green technology policy must complement traditional environmental policies (double externality problem).•  Technology policy in developing countries should focus on technology transfer and building absorptive and adaptive R&D capacities for “environmental leapfrogging”.•  Setting the policy agenda is a process that is highly country-specific and requires tailor-made solutions involving all stakeholders.
  • 25. AgendaI. The Quest for a Green EconomyII. The Concept of Eco-InnovationIII. How to trigger Eco-Innovation?IV. Eco-Innovation and Developing CountriesV. How to Set the Policy Agenda?VI. Summary and Conclusions
  • 26. I. The Quest for a Green Economy•  What is a “green economy”? “…one that results in improved human well‐being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. It is low carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive”. UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, 2011
  • 27. The Quest for a Green Economy•  What is a “green economy”? “a resilient economy that provides a better quality of life for all within the ecological limits of the planet. Green Economy Coalition 2011 (a group of NGOs, trade union groups etc.)
  • 28. The Quest for a Green Economy•  Many definitions, but most include •  social dimensions •  human well-being, social inclusive, reduced inequality,... •  economic dimensions •  high income, high employment,… •  environmental dimensions •  resource efficient, low(-er) environmental risks, sustainability, …•  Green Growth as a means to achieve a Green Economy? “[G]reen growth means fostering economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies. OECD, Towards Green Growth, Paris 2011.
  • 29. Greening growth requires decoupling•  Traditional economic growth usually uses more scarce resources•  Green growth requires decoupling •  absolute decoupling: economic growth and/or higher per capita income with less use of resources •  relative decoupling: reduction of resource use relative to per capita income•  Mixed evidence on decoupling depending on type of pollutant (Environmental Kuznets Curve – EKC)
  • 30. Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)pollution EKC relative absolute per capita income decoupling decoupling
  • 31. Greening growth requires decoupling•  Traditional economic growth usually uses more scarce resources•  Green growth requires decoupling •  absolute decoupling: economic growth and/or higher per capita income with less use of resources •  relative decoupling: reduction of resource use relative to per capita income•  Mixed evidence on decoupling depending on type of pollutant (Environmental Kuznets Curve - EKC) •  Relative and absolute decoupling for NOX, SO2 in high income countries •  No decoupling (yet) for CO2•  Decoupling depends on •  Spatial closeness of negative effects •  Time distance to the effect & time preferences •  Cost of avoiding negative effects (e.g. abatement costs)
  • 32. ..but policies matter too (see Annex I Kyoto Parties) CO2 Emissions 1971-2009 Own Diagram. Data Source: International Energy Agency 2011
  • 33. Innovation for greening growth“Existing production technology and consumer behaviourcan only be expected to produce positive outcomes up to apoint; a frontier, beyond which depleting natural capital hasnegative consequences for overall growth. By pushing thefrontier outward, innovation can help to decouple growthfrom natural capital depletion. …Innovation is therefore the key in enabling green and growthto go hand in hand.”OECD, Fostering Innovation for Green Growth, Paris 2011,p. 9
  • 34. The EKC after eco-innovation: (absolute?)decoupling in high-income countriespollution EKC before eco-innovation EKC after eco-innovation per capita income
  • 35. Eco-innovation and green growth indeveloping countries•  Old approach •  grow first, clean up later •  movement along the EKC viewed as a “normal” development process •  High social and environmental costs •  immediate costs (intra-generational) – direct benefits from greening growth (example: drinking water, cooking stoves) •  Long-term costs (inter-generational) of irreversible damage for future growth and prosperity (costs for present generation depends on time preferences) •  Cross-border regional and global (external) effects•  Greening growth in developing countries requires •  Technology transfer •  Development of “absorptive capacity“ •  Development of own (adaptive) R&D capabilities
  • 36. The EKC in developing countries: Illustration ofrelative decoupling after eco-innovationpollution EKC before eco-innovation EKC after eco-innovation per capita income
  • 37. The EKC in developing countries: Illustration ofabsolute decoupling after eco-innovationpollution EKC before eco-innovation EKC after eco-innovation per capita income
  • 38. II: The Concept of Eco-InnovationOECD (2009: 40) describes eco-innovationas:“the implementation of new, or significantlyimproved, products (goods and services),processes, marketing methods,organizational structures and institutionalarrangement which, with or without intent,lead to environmental improvementscompared to relevant alternatives.”OECD, Eco-Innovation in Industry. Enabling Green Growth, Paris 2009, p. 40.
  • 39. Eco-Innovation comprises technologicaland non-technological social innovation Pollution control Implementation on non-essential technologies: End-of-the-pipe solutions Cleaner production Modify products and production methods: process optimisation, substitution of material (non-toxic, renewable) Eco-efficiency Systematic environmental management and monitoring Life-cycle thinking green supply chain management Closed-loop production Restructuring of production methods: minimizing or eliminating virgin materials, product-service systems Industrial ecology Integrated systems of production, environmental partnerships, product service systemsSource: Based on OECD, 2009: 37, 47
  • 40. Machiba’s proposed framework of eco-innovations Source: T. Machiba, Eco-innovation for enabling resource efficiency and green growth: development of an analytical framework and preliminary analysis of industry and policy practices, in: Bleischwitz et al. (eds.), International Economics of Resource Efficiency, Springer 2011: 361.
  • 41. Illustration: Examples of eco-innovations Source: Machiba 2011, 366
  • 42. Eco-innovation and the NEXUS• The concept of eco-innovation is useful for the NEXUS as eco-innovation focuses on interdependencies over all three sectors• … and beyond.• Three major benefits: •  A broad-based concept including social & non- technological innovation •  drawing on the insights of the innovation & sustainability literature •  Application of recent methods to identify drivers and binding constraints to eco-innovation
  • 43. NEXUS forum on synergies & trade-offs of eco-innovations in the use of all three resources
  • 44. III: How to Trigger Eco-Innovation?• Technical change requires three steps: •  Invention – creation of something new •  Innovation – taking the idea to the showroom •  Diffusion – the process of adoption of a new technology• Diffusion is often the major bottleneck for eco- innovation• Why? •  Do eco-innovations pay off? Often not! •  But even when they are profitable we often observe low adoption rates (e.g. energy efficiency gap)
  • 45. Problem 1: Do eco-innovations pay-off?•  Some may get adopted because of secondary benefits (e.g. fuel-efficient cars if the (discounted) savings in fuel exceed their higher costs)…•  …but still face multiple market failures. The most important market failures for eco-innovations are: •  Environmental externalities •  R&D market failures
  • 46. Problem 1: Do eco-innovations pay-off?•  Some may get adopted because of secondary benefits (e.g. fuel-efficient cars if the (discounted) savings in fuel exceed their higher costs)…•  …but still face multiple market failures. The most important market failures for eco-innovations are: •  Environmental externalities •  Environmental damage associated with the production or consumption of a good is not reflected in the market price •  Too much production and consumption of that good •  To much environmental damage at a too low price •  Market for alternative goods or production processes is under- developed or even non-existent. •  Internalization by environmental policies , e.g. Pigou tax, can address it.
  • 47. Problem 1: Do eco-innovations pay-off?•  Some may get adopted because of secondary benefits (e.g. fuel-efficient cars if the (discounted) savings in fuel exceed their higher costs)…•  …but still face multiple market failures. The most important market failures for eco-innovations are: •  Environmental externalities •  R&D market failures, especially •  Public good nature (intellectual property rights) •  Reward for R&D by means of patents are an incentive to innovate but… •  …makes eco-innovations more expansive & reduce diffusion •  Path dependencies of R&D •  History matters! Companies with a history in “dirty patents“ are likely to continue to innovate “dirty” in the future (see: Aghion et al. 2012). •  Network externalities •  Adoption of a new technology depends on a critical number of adopters
  • 48. Problem 1: Do eco-innovations pay-off?•  Some may get adopted because of secondary benefits (e.g. fuel-efficient cars if the (discounted) savings in fuel exceed their higher costs)…•  …but still face multiple market failures. The most important market failures for eco-innovations are: •  Environmental externalities •  R&D market failures•  Double market failure is the key constraint on eco- innovations •  Environmental externality: limits market size •  R&D externality: limits innovation activity and diffusion
  • 49. A coordinated policy response to addressmarket failures is needed•  Double externality problem requires a double policy response to trigger eco-innovation •  Environmental policy (internalization of external effects) to create a market •  Technology policy to promote technology development and diffusion•  Each single policy actions is a necessary condition for unleashing eco-innovation...•  ...but neither policy action is sufficient when undertaken in isolation.
  • 50. Evidence on eco-innovations and policies Source: Dechezleprêtre et al. 2011: 119
  • 51. Other reasons for low appropriability ofreturns•  Other market failures may occur, too. •  Barriers to entry & competition•  Problems in governance •  Bad governance, low institutional quality •  Preference to incumbents, perverse subsidies •  Incomplete property rights •  Macro-economic instability •  etc.
  • 52. Problem 2: Low diffusion even when market andgovernance failures are properly addressed•  Why?•  Lack of social resources •  Norms and values •  Habit inertia•  Lack of complementary economic resources •  Infrastructure •  Human capital (R&D, absorptive capacity, etc.) •  Access to green technology
  • 53. Summary: What holds backeco-innovation? low returns to eco-innovation lack of complementary resources low appropriability of returns social resources economic resources market failure governance failure norms and values inadequate negative infrastructure externalities Incomplete property rights habit inertia low R&D externatlities and path human capital depenendencies Preference to incumbents, pervers subsidies access to green technology barriers to competition low institutional quality macro-economic instabilty
  • 54. IV. Eco-Innovation and Developing Countries• Most R&D is done in developed countries• Many green technologies are already available and may allow for leapfrogging• Three Problems: •  Affordability of off-the-shelf technologies •  Adaption of off-the shelf technologies to local circumstances •  Adaptive R&D •  In innovating advanced countries (when home market for such technologies is limited – Example: R&D in anti-malaria medicine) •  R&D in (some) developing countries •  Absorptive capacity of the technology-importing country
  • 55. Most R&D is done in developed countries: Source: Dechezleprêtre et al. 2011: 116
  • 56. …but is there a new role for the BRICs? Source: Dechezleprêtre et al. 2011: 116
  • 57. Example: China’s patent boom•  Filing for patents in China has increased drastically, both for national patents (SIPO) as for US patents (USPTO).•  The analysis of Eberhard et al. 2011) suggests that although some patents are truly innovative, the majority is still incremental – mostly for adapting production process to local circumstances.•  Source of Graph: Yu/Eberhard/ Helmers, Is the dragon learning to fly? An analysis of the Chinese patent explosion, in: VoxEU.org, 27 September 2011.
  • 58. The problem of affordability: The 3 majorchannels of technology transfer•  Patents are providing an incentive to innovate, but reduce the diffusion by allowing to charge higher prices.•  Three major channel of technology transfer: •  Exports •  Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) •  100% FDI •  Joint ventures •  Example: China’s joint venture regulation •  Licensing•  Role of (international) financing (e.g. Clean Development Mechanism offers polluters in credits for financing projects for reducing emissions in developing countries” – see Popp 2011 for more details)
  • 59. Adaption of off-the-shelf technologies tolocal circumstances• Often technologies do not fit local circumstances• Adaptive R&D is needed •  Partly an explanation for China’s patent boom •  Example: adapting production process and making them more labor-intensive (photovoltaic in China)•  R&D policies for technology adaption required•  Inertia and other cultural limits to eco-innovation adoption •  Example: cooking stoves in India •  Randomized control trials may help to identify such constraints (see Banerjee/Duflo, Poor Economics, New York 2011)
  • 60. Importing technologies from developingcountries•  There is substantial R&D in (some) developing countries, in particular China and India, especially on adaption•  China wants to become a technological leader in environmental technology according to the 12th 5-year plan.•  Developing country technologies may be more appropriate in terms of factor-proportions required in developing countries and thus easier to adapt to local circumstances•  Lower technological distance matters•  Lower regulatory distance matters (for example in the automobile industry where, according to Dechezlepêtre et al. 2012 ,“…countries are more likely to receive newly-innovated technologies from source countries whose regulatory standards are “closer” to their own).
  • 61. New evidence on the geography of greentechnology transferSource: Dechezleprêtre et al. 2011: 122
  • 62. The importance of advanced countries asexporters of eco-technologies • Advanced countries need to pay attention to innovate adapted technology for developing countries… • …especially when their home market for such technologies is limited • Example: R&D in anti- malaria medicineSource: Dechezleprêtre et al. 2011: 122
  • 63. V. How to Set the Policy Agenda?•  Prioritizing eco-innovation? What is most pressing?•  Prioritizing policy instruments •  Comprehensive approach •  Role of “framework conditions” •  OECD Green growth diagnostics – old wine in new bottles?•  Decision-making process •  National •  International •  Participation of stakeholders
  • 64. How to set the policy agenda?•  Prioritizing eco-innovation? What is most pressing? Recent World Bank approach suggests to focus on those fields where net immediate benefits and risks of irreversibility are high: Source: Hallegatte et al., From Growth to Green Growth, in: VoxEU.org, 24 March 2012
  • 65. How to set the policy agenda?•  Prioritizing eco-innovation? What is most pressing?•  Prioritizing policy instruments •  Comprehensive approach •  E.g. “Fishbone Approach” (see Wuppertal Institute, Eco-innovation, 2012). Comprehensive Analysis of certain eco-innovations regards all •  Technical Drivers and Barriers •  Economic Drivers and Barriers •  Natural Drivers and Barriers •  Social Drivers and Barriers
  • 66. How to set the policy agenda?•  Prioritizing eco-innovation? What is most pressing?•  Prioritizing policy instruments •  Comprehensive approach •  Role of “framework conditions”„…the rate and pattern of “green” innovation is heavily influenced by another factor – theenvironmental policy framework. … a number of framework policies for innovation areimportant. First, a policy environment based on core “framework conditions” – soundmacroeconomic policy, competition, openness to international trade andinvestment, adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectualproperty rights, efficient tax and financial systems – is a fundamental building blockof any effective (green) growth strategy and allows innovation to thrive.” (OECD 2011: 46) •  Towards a green Washington consensus?
  • 67. How to set the policy agenda?•  Prioritizing eco-innovation? What is most pressing?•  Prioritizing policy instruments •  Comprehensive approach •  Role of “framework conditions” •  Green growth diagnostics – old wine in new bottles? •  OECD 2011 (Towards Green Growth) has proposed a green growth diagnostics (GGD) approach to identify the (most) binding constraints to green growth. •  This GGD is based the Growth Diagnostics (GD) approach proposed by Hausman et al. (2008). The basic idea of GD is that each country’s economic growth is hold back by different binding constraints at a certain time. •  GD thus rejects the idea of a one-size-fits-all diagnosis. •  Useful for identifying country- and time-specific binding constraints to eco-innovations (see Sander, 2011 The use and usefulness of OECD’s green growth diagnostics, GLOBUS Working Paper, Cologne 2011)
  • 68. A green growth diagnostic (GGD) decisiontree for eco-innovation low returns to eco-innovation lack of complementary resources low appropriability of returns social resources economic resources market failure governance failure norms and values inadequate negative infrastructure externalities Incomplete property rights habit inertia low R&D externatlities and path human capital depenendencies Preference to incumbents, pervers subsidies access to green technology barriers to competition low institutional quality macro-economic instabilty
  • 69. The necessary conditions for triggeringeco-innovations in the GGD (marked red) low returns to eco-innovation lack of complementary resources low appropriability of returns social resources economic resources market failure governance failure norms and values inadequate negative infrastructure externalities Incomplete property rights habit inertia low R&D externatlities and path human capital depenendencies Preference to incumbents, pervers subsidies access to green technology barriers to competition low institutional quality macro-economic instabilty
  • 70. GGD for triggering eco-innovation•  Step 1: Are adequate environmental and technology policies in place to address double market failure?•  Step 2: If yes, can they work – or are they facing other “binding constraints”?•  Step 3: Identify country-specific binding constraints and appropriate policies to reduce/remove these constraints.•  Involve all relevant stakeholders in identifying binding constraints•  GGD is a process as binding constraints change over time
  • 71. VI. Summary & Conclusions (1)• Broadly defined eco-innovations are key for greening growth / the NEXUS.• Eco-innovations need both, environmental and technology policies to address the double- externality problem.• Developing countries need to develop a policy agenda for eco-technology transfer that is •  country-specific, and •  involving all stake-holders •  in a permanent dialogue.
  • 72. Summary & Conclusions (2)• Focus on projects where immediate local benefits are high and urgent (non-reversibility)• Effective eco-technology transfer can be supported by •  Developing absorptive capacity in developing countries •  Developing own (adaptive) research capabilities •  Drawing not only on advanced country R&D but also on R&D from countries where the technological distance is lower •  R&D for adapted eco-technologies in advanced countries for developing countries •  Global and regional financing mechanisms
  • 73. THANK YOU!QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?Harald SanderFor more information on GLOBUS see:http://www.fh-koeln.de/globusFor more questions and more comments:harald.sander@fh-koeln.de