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MMA  Green Calendars
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MMA Green Calendars

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Project done on green calendars that was presented at a conference March 2010.

Project done on green calendars that was presented at a conference March 2010.

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    MMA  Green Calendars MMA Green Calendars Presentation Transcript

    • Bela Florenthal, Ph.D.
      Assistant Professor of Marketing
      &
      Priscilla A. Arling, Ph.D.
      Assistant Professor of MIS
      College of Business
      Butler University
      Do Consumers with Green Lifestyles Appreciate Green Attributes of Low Involvement Products?
    • Research Purpose
      Are all green products valued equally by consumers?
      Do low involvement green products appeal to consumers with green lifestyle?
      Are green attributes important to consumers with green lifestyles when choosing a low involvement product?
      Is the relationship between green lifestyle and behavior mediated by green attitude toward the product?
      Why calendar purchases were chosen as the product category?
      Recently consumers have looked more for calendars that reflect their personal preferences
    • Proposed Framework
      Relates four concepts in the context of low involvement product category (a calendar):
      Green
      Lifestyle
      Green
      Attitude
      Green Behavior
      Demographics
      Importance of green attributes when buying a calendar
      Importance of green attributes in a gift calendar
      Green activities in everyday life
      Gender
      Income
    • Theoretical Background & Hypotheses
      Demographics & Green Lifestyle:
      Studies show that women are more likely to consume healthier products, pay more attention to nutrition, and practice healthier diets (Divine and Lepisto 2005).
      H1: Women are more inclined to practice every day green activities than men.
      Consumption of healthier food (e.g., fruits and vegetables) has been positively associated with a higher income segment (Divine and Lepisto 2005).
      H2: Higher income consumers are more inclined to practice every day green activities than lower income consumers.
    • Theoretical Background & Hypotheses
      Green lifestyle & Green Attitude:
      Green lifestyle has been conceptualized in several ways:
      health-related and/or environment-related activities, values, and perceptions (Divine and Lepisto 2005; Fraj and Martinez 2006).
      Green lifestyle can be also viewed as everyday green activities (Divine and Lepisto 2005).
      Green lifestyle has been related to product specific attitudes (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd 1994; Laroche et al. 2001)
      H3: Consumers who practice every day green activities will value green attributes in a gift calendar.
    • Theoretical Background & Hypotheses
      Green Attitude & Green Behavior:
      Positive attitudes toward green attributes are also strengthened when individuals exhibit willingness for personal sacrifice and perceive an ecological relevance to their individual actions (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd 1994).
      Product specific green attitudes will influence environmentally conscious purchases and consumptions (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd, 1994)
      H4: Consumers that value green attributes in a gift calendar will perceive green attributes as important when buying a calendar.
    • Methodology
      Questionnaires was designed based on exploratory research and were administered in-person via paper and pencil.
      Green Lifestyle: ‘actual commitment’ dimension of Maloney and Ward’s (1973) ecological scale was used
      Green Attitude: singe-item measured the importance of receiving a gift calendar printed on environmentally friendly paper
      Green Behavior: singe-item measured choosing a calendar with green or environmental features
    • Sample Characteristics
      Survey data were collected from 101 college graduates from both private (33%) and public (67%) universities.
      Demographics:
      49% married
      48% live in a two member household
      46% earn between $60,000 and $120,000
    • Analysis and Results
      Two-step structural equation model was used (Anderson and Gerbing 1988):
      Nested model tested the fit of the hypothesized framework
      RSMEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.94, AGFI = 0.90, NFI = 0.90
      0.36
      (3.29)
      Green
      Lifestyle
      Green
      Behavior
      0.24
      (2.23)
      0.67
      (5.64)
      0.48
      (4.49)
      Green
      Attitude
      Income
      0.20
      (2.49)
      Gender
    • Analysis and Results
    • Conclusions
      Green lifestyle varies by income:
      Higher income was related to greener lifestyle
      Green attitude varied by gender:
      Females were more prone to care about green attributes of a gift calendar than males
      Probably based on product category
      Green attitude partially mediated the relationship between green lifestyle and green behavior
      May result from using a low involvement products domain (calendars)
    • Managerial Implications
      Developing promotions to strengthen attitudes of green lifestyle consumers toward these products will help in the purchasing decision
      Companies with low involvement products should target high income green lifestyle consumers
      These companies should also target their promotions more attentively toward the female segment in particular, with decorative low involvement products
    • Limitations
      Sampling:
      Non-probability convenience method
      Geographic areas were not controlled
      Measures:
      Two single-item measures
      Product category:
      Only one low-involvement was tested
      Demographic variables:
      Only two variables were tested
    • Thank you