MMA Green Calendars


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Project done on green calendars that was presented at a conference March 2010.

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MMA Green Calendars

  1. 1. Bela Florenthal, Ph.D.<br />Assistant Professor of Marketing<br />&<br />Priscilla A. Arling, Ph.D. <br />Assistant Professor of MIS<br />College of Business<br />Butler University<br />Do Consumers with Green Lifestyles Appreciate Green Attributes of Low Involvement Products?<br />
  2. 2. Research Purpose<br />Are all green products valued equally by consumers?<br />Do low involvement green products appeal to consumers with green lifestyle?<br />Are green attributes important to consumers with green lifestyles when choosing a low involvement product?<br />Is the relationship between green lifestyle and behavior mediated by green attitude toward the product?<br />Why calendar purchases were chosen as the product category?<br />Recently consumers have looked more for calendars that reflect their personal preferences<br />
  3. 3. Proposed Framework<br />Relates four concepts in the context of low involvement product category (a calendar):<br />Green<br />Lifestyle<br />Green<br />Attitude<br />Green Behavior<br />Demographics<br />Importance of green attributes when buying a calendar<br />Importance of green attributes in a gift calendar <br />Green activities in everyday life<br />Gender<br />Income<br />
  4. 4. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses<br />Demographics & Green Lifestyle:<br />Studies show that women are more likely to consume healthier products, pay more attention to nutrition, and practice healthier diets (Divine and Lepisto 2005).<br />H1: Women are more inclined to practice every day green activities than men.<br />Consumption of healthier food (e.g., fruits and vegetables) has been positively associated with a higher income segment (Divine and Lepisto 2005). <br />H2: Higher income consumers are more inclined to practice every day green activities than lower income consumers.<br />
  5. 5. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses<br />Green lifestyle & Green Attitude:<br />Green lifestyle has been conceptualized in several ways:<br />health-related and/or environment-related activities, values, and perceptions (Divine and Lepisto 2005; Fraj and Martinez 2006). <br />Green lifestyle can be also viewed as everyday green activities (Divine and Lepisto 2005).<br />Green lifestyle has been related to product specific attitudes (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd 1994; Laroche et al. 2001)<br />H3: Consumers who practice every day green activities will value green attributes in a gift calendar.<br />
  6. 6. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses<br />Green Attitude & Green Behavior:<br />Positive attitudes toward green attributes are also strengthened when individuals exhibit willingness for personal sacrifice and perceive an ecological relevance to their individual actions (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd 1994). <br />Product specific green attitudes will influence environmentally conscious purchases and consumptions (Dembkowski and Hanmer-Lloyd, 1994)<br />H4: Consumers that value green attributes in a gift calendar will perceive green attributes as important when buying a calendar. <br />
  7. 7. Methodology<br />Questionnaires was designed based on exploratory research and were administered in-person via paper and pencil.<br />Green Lifestyle: ‘actual commitment’ dimension of Maloney and Ward’s (1973) ecological scale was used<br />Green Attitude: singe-item measured the importance of receiving a gift calendar printed on environmentally friendly paper <br />Green Behavior: singe-item measured choosing a calendar with green or environmental features <br />
  8. 8. Sample Characteristics<br />Survey data were collected from 101 college graduates from both private (33%) and public (67%) universities.<br />Demographics:<br />49% married <br />48% live in a two member household<br />46% earn between $60,000 and $120,000<br />
  9. 9. Analysis and Results<br />Two-step structural equation model was used (Anderson and Gerbing 1988):<br />Nested model tested the fit of the hypothesized framework<br />RSMEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.94, AGFI = 0.90, NFI = 0.90<br />0.36<br />(3.29)<br />Green<br />Lifestyle<br />Green<br />Behavior<br />0.24<br />(2.23)<br />0.67<br />(5.64)<br />0.48<br />(4.49)<br />Green<br />Attitude<br />Income<br />0.20<br />(2.49)<br />Gender<br />
  10. 10. Analysis and Results<br />
  11. 11. Conclusions<br />Green lifestyle varies by income:<br />Higher income was related to greener lifestyle<br />Green attitude varied by gender:<br />Females were more prone to care about green attributes of a gift calendar than males<br />Probably based on product category<br />Green attitude partially mediated the relationship between green lifestyle and green behavior <br />May result from using a low involvement products domain (calendars)<br />
  12. 12. Managerial Implications<br />Developing promotions to strengthen attitudes of green lifestyle consumers toward these products will help in the purchasing decision<br />Companies with low involvement products should target high income green lifestyle consumers<br />These companies should also target their promotions more attentively toward the female segment in particular, with decorative low involvement products <br />
  13. 13. Limitations<br />Sampling: <br />Non-probability convenience method <br />Geographic areas were not controlled<br />Measures:<br />Two single-item measures<br />Product category:<br />Only one low-involvement was tested<br />Demographic variables:<br />Only two variables were tested<br />
  14. 14. Thank you<br />