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But from the 1600s to the birth of the United States in 1776, most immigrants were from northern Europe, and the majority were from England. It was these people who shaped the values and traditions that became the dominant, traditional culture of the United States.
(Mayflower puritan, photo 1, European colonization
In 1609, seeking the legendary "Northwest Passage," Henry Hudson discovered this harbor and the river that bears his name. This discovery gave the Dutch a claim to the area. They occupied it is 1624, and founded the colony of New Netherland and its capital, New Amsterdam. In 1664, New Amsterdam was renamed New York when the British assumed control of the city. New York proved to be of vital strategic importance to the British during the American Revolution and they occupied the city until 1783.
In 1815, the population of the United States was 8.4million. Over the next 100 years, the country took in about 35 million immigrants, with the greatest numbers coming in the late 1800s and the early 1900s.
In 1882, 40,000 Chinese arrived, and between 1900 and 1907, there were more than 30,000 Japanese immigrants.
But by far the largest numbers of the new immigrants were from central, eastern and southern Europe.
During the first two decades of the twentieth century, there were as many as 1 million new immigrants per year, so that by the 1910 census, almost 15% of all Americans had been born in another country.
Castle Clinton was built as a fort in 1811, to defend New York against a possible British attack. Immigrants entered the United states without restrictions prior to the 1850's.
They asked us questions, "How much is two and one? How much is two and two?"But the next young girl also from our city, went and they asked her, how do you wash stairs, from the top or from the bottom?" She says,'I don't go to Ameirca to wash stairs.'
In 1893, Joseph Keppler, the founder of Puck and one of the nation's leading cartoonists, poked fun at successful immigrants who, forgetting their own backgrounds, would now keep out their compatriots.
"Those who are loudest in their cry of 'America for Americans' do not have to look very far back to find an ancestor who was an immigrant. " New Immigrants' Protective League, 1906
上图说明： In 1882, the United States passed two immigration laws, one that excluded Chinese laborers and another that excluded "any convict, lunatic, idiot or any person unable to take care of himself or herself without becoming a public charge."
In 1921, the country began to limit immigration, and the immigration Act of 1924 virtually closed the door.
A quota system was established that specified the number of immigrants that could come from each country. It heavily favored immigrants from northern and western Europe and severely limited everyone else.
Which do you want? American or European wages!
Little Israel, Little Italy, Lower East Side of NYC:the American shtetl
The United States was founded on the principle of human equality, but in practice the nation has fallen far short of that ideal. 虽然美国是建立在人人平等的原则基础上的，但事实上，没美国离这个理想还很远。
Power, wealth and prestige are unequally distributed among the population. This inequality is not simply a matter of distinctions between social classes; it tends to follow racial and ethnic lines as well, with the result that class divisions often parallel racial divisions.
The first settlers from ‘Anglo-Saxon” northern Europe quickly took control of economic assets and political power in the United States, and they have maintained this control, to a greater or lesser degree, ever since.
Successive waves of immigrants from other parts of Europe and elsewhere in the world have had to struggle long and hard to become assimilated into the mainstream of American dream; others - notably those whose ethnic or racial characteristics differ most markedly from those of the dominant groups – have been excluded by formal and informal barriers from full participation in American life. （正式和非正式的障碍。前者指用法律形式固定下来的种族歧视，后者指传统习俗造成的对有色人种的歧视行为。）
The result of this discrimination has been a severe and continuing racial tension in the United States that has periodically erupted into outright violence.
Particularly since the civil rights demonstrations, ghetto riots and other unrest in the 1960s, race and ethnic relations have been a major preoccupation of social scientists, politicians and the general public.
Racial issue today
From left, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates, Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., Cambridge Sgt. James Crowley and President Obama.
In the United states, any group other than the dominant white Anglo-Saxon Protestant majority is a minority group in American society. These racial and ethnic minorities mainly refer to the blacks, Native Americans , the Hispanics, and Asian Americans. (sometimes , women and Gays and lesbians )
“ I‘m Here. I’m not Queer （奇怪的，同性恋者。） . But Love is Love. Get USED to it. ”
I‘m Here. I’m not Queer. But Love is Love. Get USED to it.
The first blacks were brought to North America in 1619.Within a few decades the demand for their cheap labor led to a massive slave trade that ultimately transported some 400 000 Africans to this continent. Captured by neighboring tribes in their native villages and then sold to white traders, the slaves were shipped in wretchedly crowded conditions to the Caribbean and then to the United States, where they were sold like cattle at auctions.( 黑人历史文件夹 )
The myth of their racial inferiority – their irresponsibility, promiscuity 乱交 , laziness and lower intelligence – was assiduously propagated as a justification for their continued subjugation 征服 . （所谓 黑人种族低劣的神话，比如说他们不负责任，男女乱交， 懒惰、智力低下 等，并以此作为永远奴役黑奴的借口。）
The whip or the lynch mob served to assert social control over slaves who challenged the established order. 他们使用鞭子或死刑实行对社会的控制，控制那些敢于向奴隶制挑战的奴隶。
A much larger number of northern whites believed that freedom and equality of opportunity needed to be protected for white people only, but they were afraid that black slavery would eventually take away their economic freedom.
If , for example, the salve system of the South were allowed to spread into the frontier regions of the West, the poor and middle-income whites would have to compete with unpaid slave labor, a situation that they believed would degrade their work and lower their social status.
Abraham Lincoln was able to become president of the United states by appealing to both the white idealists who saw slavery as an injustice to African Americans and to the larger numbers of northern whites who saw slavery as a threat to themselves.
林肯的就职演说和他的葛底斯堡（ Gettysburg ）演讲不一样：“ Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection.
Shall fugitives from labor be surrendered by national or by State authority? The Constitution does not expressly say. May Congress prohibit slavery in the Territories? The Constitution does not expressly say. Must Congress protect slavery in the Territories? The Constitution does not expressly say.
When Lincoln won the presidency in 1860, the southern states left the Union and tried to form a new nation of their own based on slavery. A civil War (1861-1865) between the North and South resulted, which turned out to be the bloodiest and most destructive of all the nation’s wars.
The Northern states had all outlawed slavery by 1830, but the southern states, in which slaves had become the backbone of the economy, maintained the institution until it was finally ended by the Civil War, Lincoln’s emancipation of slaves in 1863, and the 13 th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.
A variety of methods, such as rigged “literacy” tests, were used to keep blacks off the voters’ rolls and thus prevent them from exercising their political rights .(Yale, the height, limit the Jewish students, now, quota 地区配额 )
Segregation laws continued to be enforced in Southern states until the 1950s; in the North informal methods were used- often just as effectively.
Segregation laws in southern states prevented black and white people from sitting together in movie theaters, eating in the same restaurants, drinking from the same water fountain, using the same washrooms, or riding together on buses or trains. Black and white children could not go to the same schools, and most Negroes were not allowed to vote.
Although these segregation laws were illegal under the 14 th Amendment to the United States constitution, the US government would not declare the Southern laws unconstitutional until there were cases brought in federal courts.
On February 1, 1960, 4 freshmen from a black college in North Carolina, went to a store and asked for coffee, the waitress said she could not serve people like them. The student did not move and the policeman walked up and down behind them, holding his stick. The next day, a greater number of students came to the store and sat down at the lunch counter.
This quiet “sit-in” by black students began the civil right movement in the 1960s, the first of several social movements during the decade. In the next twelve months, more than fifty thousand people, mostly black, some white, participated in demonstrations of one kind or another in a hundred cities and over 3600 people were put in jail.
By the end of 1960, lunch counters were open to blacks in Greensboro and many other places.
Civil rights activists first used “sit-in” tactics to fight segregation and later, “freedom rides”. Black and white young people traveling together on buses to challenge segregation laws were badly beaten by white mobs in South Carolina and Alabama. Freedom riders rode buses into Mississippi, where they were beaten and arrested. An increasing number of students joined the freedom rides until the Mississippi jails had no more places for prisoners.
In September 1961, the federal government declared segregation illegal in all interstate bus stations which served buses travelling to another state.
Voting laws in southern states tried to prevent Negroes from voting. As antisegregation and voting registration work continued in 1962 and 1963, civil rights workers were beaten, jailed and murdered in Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. They continued to try to end racial segregation in all areas of American life.
The most important person is Martin Luther King, a black Protestant minister with a great gift for inspiring people. From the late 1950s until his assassination by a white gunman in 1968,King led thousands of people in nonviolent marches and demonstrations against segregation and other forms of racial discrimination.
In the summer of 1963, hundreds of thousands of peaceful demonstrators went to Washington, D.C., where Martin Luther King gave the famous speech “ I have a dream.“
Some black leaders , such as Malcolm X 马尔柯姆 · 艾克斯 , urged a rejection of basic American values and complete separation of blacks from the white culture. He believed that American values were nothing more than white men’s values used to keep blacks in an inferior position. Blacks must separate themselves from whites, by force it necessary, and build their own society based on values which they would create for themselves. １９６７年的黑人权力会议要求把美国分为两个独立的国家，一个是白人的祖国，一个是黑人的祖国。黑人组织的黑豹党，宣称美国面临的选择要么是黑人的彻底自由，要么是美国的彻底的毁灭。
However, most African Americans continued to look to King as their leader.
Largely as a result of King’s activities, two major civil rights laws were passed during the 1960s, one law made it illegal to segregate public facilities, the other law made it illegal to deny black people the right to vote in elections. And Martin Luther King was given the Nobel Peace Prize.
(Philadephia, Black church, and Jewish synagogue, celebrate King’s birthday every year.)
The civil rights laws of the 1960s helped to bring about a significant degree of assimilation of blacks into the larger American culture. And they also helped to reduce the amount of white prejudice toward black people in all parts of the country.
African Americans are now mayors of major cities and members of Congress; They hold offices in all levels of government – local, state, and national.
Cambridge Mayor Denise Simmons, black, Condoleezza Rice, Bush’s national security adviser , Colin Powell, his secretary of state.
After the disputed election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction, Whites in the South regained political control of the region, after mounting intimidation and violence in the elections. Systematic disfranchisement of African Americans took place in Southern states from 1890 to 1908 and lasted until national civil rights legislation was passed in the mid-1960s. For more than 60 years, for example, blacks in the South were not able to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government.
it is easy to catch the main characteristics of the post-Reconstruction period:
The first one was the racial segregation. By law [Birmingham Segregation Laws], public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate "white" and "colored" domains. Characteristically, those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality.
The civil rights movement's influence has been extensive and enduring. It has inspired movements to promote the rights and equality of women, gays and lesbians, Asian Americans, Indians, Chicanos and Chicanas, and the disabled. Decades after the peak of the civil rights movement, activists for a variety of causes continued to employ strategies such as sit-ins and other forms of civil disobedience popularized by civil rights groups.
The decade of Reconstruction from 1865 to 1877, then marked the end of paternalistic relations between blacks and whites and the beginning of competitive relations. But it was this competition that eventually led to the system of segregation as a means of controlling the black threat to white economic and social advantage. And to reinforce that control, a racist ideology was developed into a more sophisticated and generally acceptable belief system.
the prohibition of interracial marriage was one of the first formal measures enacted by southern states in the formation of the Jim Crow system.