At its peak in the 1920s, the Klan‘s anti-immigrant activities were as important as its program of white supremacy . 白人至上主义
“ Jews dominate the economic life of the nation, while the C atholic s are determined to dominate the political and religious life... the vast alien immigration is , at the root, an attack upon Protestant religion with its freedom of conscience , and is therefore a menace to American liberties .” Ku Klux Klan, the Fiery Cross ，血十字
“ This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed - why men and women and children of every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall, and why a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. ” 这是我们所崇尚的自由与信念的真谛 —— 这就是为什么今天，不同肤色，不同信仰的男女老少在此汇聚一堂；这就是为什么六十年前， 一位父亲走入餐厅甚至无人理睬 ，而今天他的儿子可以站在这里，在你们面前许下最庄严的誓言。
Through much of the last century, America‘s faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. Our democratic faith is more than the creed of our country, it is the inborn hope of our humanity, an ideal we carry but do not own, a trust we bear and pass along.
The first movement began probably 25,000 years ago when Siberian tribes, in search of new hunting grounds or of refuge from pursuing enemies, crossed over the Bering Strait to Alaska.( only a hypothesis, Chinese, subjects of Shang Dynasty.)
In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed on one of the Bahama Islands and “discovered” the New World and mistakenly called the inhabitants Indians. He was inspired by Moco Polo’s book to find the rich China Empire.
When the first European explorers arrived on the eastern seaboard in the very late fifteenth century, Indian culture was flourishing over all of the Eastern Woodlands. In the succeeding 350 years, many of the tribes were annihilated by disease and warfare, others were driven west of the Mississippi River.
Later, a few tribes were assigned to reservations in their aboriginal territories. Although the bulk of Eastern woodlands culture has vanished, the modern Indians still maintain some of their old customs and ceremonies which serve as remainders of an ancient and proud heritage.
Areas occupied by Indians in the 19 th century
The English permanent settlements in North America began in the 17 th century when Western Europe was undergoing great changes. Why, then move to a new strange world?
For one thing, the growth of capitalism produced two new classes- the bourgeois class and the working class. They wanted to have more power from the King, not to rely on the King. (the expansion of the Pope, the kings and the bourgeois class)
The second major force, the Renaissance . The God-centered world was challenged by the great progress in natural and social science. People began to be more confident in themselves.
The third influential force was the Religious Reformation , a movement starting from Germany.
Martin Luther, protested against the abuses and corruption in the church. He believed that sinful men could win salvation neither by good works nor through the church or the Pope, but only by faith in Jesus Christ and through a direct relationship to God.
Then the Calvinism, another reform movement by a Frenchman John Calvin, who had many followers in England.
These reforms reflected the rise of nationalism in Europe, represented the demand of the bourgeois class for free development.
Against the background , the 13 English colonies that would become the United states were planted in North America.
The first English permanent settlement was founded in 1607 in Virginia .
In 1619, two events took place in Virginia, which would influence the shaping of American culture a great deal.
The first example of self-government of Americans.
T he delegates elected from various communities in Virginia met as the House of Burgesses 下议院 to discuss, along with the governor and his council members who were appointed, the enactment 通过 of laws for the colony. ( 英国政体 )
Second ,a Dutch ship brought in over 20 Negroes, to be held as servants for a term of years, thus starting the enslavement of Africans.
The two events combined constituted a unique American phenomenon.
The English and other Europeans went to North America for seeking freedom . But these very white people deprived black Africans of their freedom. The founding fathers, G. Washington and Thomas Jefferson, an author of the Declaration of Independence , both were slave owners.
In 1786, five years before he became president of the United states, George Washington ,52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw-- having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves. That’s a far different image from the cherry-chopping George most people remember from their history books. The DNA evidence made available in 1998, almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings.
According to Wiencek, author of an Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America , the southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution,” including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation.
Also the three-fifths formula handed Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 by inflating the votes of the southern states in the Electoral College. Once in office, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase 印第安纳购买案 ( 购买法国殖民地 ) in 1803; the new land was carved into 13 states, including three slave states.
The second enduring English settlement was established in Massachusetts Bay in 1621 , by English puritans who separated themselves from the Church of England. ( 图片 mayflower puritan, who were the pilgrims )
Puritan New England (Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine and Rhode Island)
Why moved to the new land : King Henry VIII cut off the political relationship with the Pope in Rome and set up the Church of England, but there was no reform in religious beliefs and practices. Some people thought it was too Catholic and wanted to “ purify” the church.
different beliefs from the Catholic Church. Catholics believed that god could be reached through his representative on the earth – the Pope. A person could confess his or her sin, do good works and give money to the church and buy back his or her soul.
But Puritan salvation was different. They believed that human beings were destined by God before they were born. Some were God’s chosen people while others were predestined to be damned to hell. Nobody knew if he or she was God’s elect. But the success of one’s work or prosperity was the sign of God’s elect . Therefore everyone must work hard, spend little and invest for more business. Working hard and living a moral life were their ethics. ( 马克思 · 韦伯，《新教伦理与资本主义》 )
E very Puritan must read the Bible in order to find God’s will and search for one’s individual contact with God.
To be able to read the Bible and understand God’s will, education was essential for Puritans .
Such Puritan beliefs were heretical to the Church of England, so they were cruelly persecuted.
Some of them fought back and started the English revolution. Oliver Cromwell, one of the Puritans, became the revolutionary leader, overthrew the monarchy, had King Charles I beheaded and founded a republic.
Since then, Americans have viewed their country as a great experiment , a worthy model for other nations. This sense of mission has been very strong in the mind of many Americans.
ethnocentrism / patriotism
Evangelism in both religion and cultural imperialism
Evangelism in both religion and cultural imperialism
For over 250 years, this Bell has been linked to important events in American history. B ut increasingly it has become a symbol without national boundaries. T he inscription on the Bell is in English, but its words touch lives all around the World.
Once identified, the symbolic power of the Bell multiplied, first here in the United States and then around the world. After the American Civil War, the Liberty Bell - a reminder of a shared heritage and common values - traveled to cities and towns all across the country.
Reformers dedicated to a variety of causes used the Bell's growing fame to gain support. Liberty, they argued, just as the words on the Bell suggested, must be for all- for workers, for women, and for the disenfranchised and powerless whoever they might be. In the 20th century, as political democracy spread around the globe, the Bell, with its recognizable shape and inclusive message, became a partner in the international quest for freedom.
New England also established another American tradition—a strain of often intolerant moralism .
The Puritans believed that governments should enforce God’s morality. They strictly punished drunks (Arlington, a dry town for 40 years) , adulterers ( 《红字》 ) ,violators of the Sabbath (Sunday closing law ) and other religious believers different from themselves (Bush, the nation under one God )
Roger Williams, one of the Puritans who protested that the state should not interfere with religion, was driven out of Massachusetts. In 1635, he set up Rhode Island colony, which guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
By the early 1760s, the 13 English colonies in North America had developed a similar American pattern in politics, economy and cultural life and enjoyed the same frontier environment.
In 1756, England and France began to fight for larger colonies in the new land, the Seven Years’ War. However, the British victory led directly to a conflict with its American colonies. The British government charged more taxes and the British troops stationed in the colonies （ New York , Boston ） . The colonists refused to obey the British laws, so British soldiers were sent to Boston.