The Soldareras Of The Mexican Revolution


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The Soldareras Of The Mexican Revolution

  1. 1. By: Karla Tadeo
  2. 2. <ul><li>The reason that I chose this topic is because… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to me as a woman to know how women contributed to world history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldaderas are not recognized as they should be in history of The Mexican Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I admire revolutionary women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This topic is part of my culture </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Women lived in the shadows of their husbands and lived for the church and the family. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican Civil Code of 1884 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many restrictions on women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single women had almost the same rights as males, but had to live with parents until the age 30. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married women had almost no rights: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not divorce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not make legal contracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not dispose of or administer her personal property, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not make decisions about the children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She could not engage in lawsuits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Mexican Revolution 1910 -1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican Revolution was brought on by the people of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>They were getting tired of the dictator rule of President Porfilio Diaz and American influence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans wanted the natural resources and the land of Mexico & the working class people of Mexico wanted it back. </li></ul><ul><li>People of all classes were fighting in the revolution: men, women, and children contributed to the fight for freedom and land. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Major Leaders during the Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franciso (Pancho) Villa - North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata - South </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Soldadera <ul><li>Soldadera were female soldiers that were sent into battle to fight along with the men during the Mexican Revolution. They were against Diaz regime. Women and men were fighting for their freedom. Some women were fighting for equal right. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Women joined the Revolution for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the Mexican Revolution began in 1910, the role of many women changed and the door for equality opened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the revolution took its course, women were needed and recruited in all parts of Mexico by both federal and rebel armies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The women were voluntarily enlisted and they came from rich and poor, educated and uneducated backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reasons for joining the war : follow husbands, while others enlisted to avenge the death or a husband or other relative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some women had no choice but to become soldaderas when soldiers raped and kidnapped them from their homes and villages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The revolution provided women with the possibility of altering their social status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many women wanted to join in hopes of being paid for their domestic and military services. However, if they were related to or accompanied soldiers, they did not receive pay for their work. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Major Duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forage for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cook meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurse wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought in battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military strategists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political thinkers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Endured miserable living conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laborious, difficult work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Childbearing under inhospitable surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried provisions long distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when pregnant, the women traveled with the troops, gave birth, rested a short while and then caught up with the forces that had moved forward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They moved with their children on their backs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The death of their husbands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women continued as Soldaderas in place of another soldier </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Female soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not many women allow to fight in battles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messengers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the women passed military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information, arms and supplies in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>their clothes or food baskets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms and munitions runners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamstresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretaries and journalists </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Some women dressed or disguised themselves as men to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Proved to be courageous in battle and superior soldiers and officers </li></ul><ul><li>Petra Herrera became “coronela” commanding 200 men, taking Torreon from Mexican Army </li></ul><ul><li>Women able to prove themselves in different areas of expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Women seen as military strategists & political thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Opened many doors for post-revolution opportunities for women </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Born in Aguascalientes on June 7, 1848 and died on October 15, 1925 in Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>School teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Jimenez y Muro attained the rank of colonel in the Mexican revolutionary army. </li></ul><ul><li>editor of La Mujer Mexicana – radical newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>president of Las Hijas Cuauhtémoc – radical community activist organization </li></ul><ul><li>arrested in 1910 for activism and speaking out against the Diaz regime </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dolores wrote Regeneracion y Concordia from her prison cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose was to “Improve the lot of indigenous races, rural people, workers; to unify revolutionary forces, and elevate women economically, morally and intellectually.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zapata was impressed with Dolores and her concerns for the Indigenous people and their land. In 1913 Zapata invited Dolores to join his forces. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Anti-Capitalist. Spoke on the behalf of the peasants and Indigenous in 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>She created a newspaper call “Justicia y Libertad”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This newspaper was against Porfirio Diaz and it defended the miner’s rights. It targeted the clergy and the major stereotypes of women. The newspaper was published in Guanajuato, which was a very conservative state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>She later became a supporter of Emiliano Zapata and a leader in his troops. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Co-founder & editor of feminist journal Mujer Moderna </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Carranza supporter </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed radical feminist issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sex education in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical of Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faced great deal of hostility, scorn & </li></ul><ul><li>ridicule form men and women for radical views </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Soldaderas influenced and continue to influence women's struggle for equality. Through their self-sacrifice and suffering, Mexican women today have gained their basic rights. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation to be educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to join military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of Pride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have the strength to not be in the shadows of men. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Hart John Manson, El Mexico Revolutionario , Editorial Patria,1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Soldaderas an important role in the Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Soldaderas in the Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Soldaderas to Comandantas </li></ul><ul><li>Poniatowska Elena, Women of the Mexican Revolution , Cinco Puntos Press, 2006 </li></ul>