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Oracle UCM: Web Site Performance Tuning
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Oracle UCM: Web Site Performance Tuning


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A talk on how to optimize the Oracle Content Management System, and Site Studio in particular, for faster pages.

A talk on how to optimize the Oracle Content Management System, and Site Studio in particular, for faster pages.

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  • 1. Site Studio Performance Tuning Brian “Bex” Huff Chief Software Architect
  • 2. Agenda
    • General web-site tuning tips
      • The complex basics
    • High-performance architecture
      • Tune your system, network, and servers
    • Tuning Site Studio pages
      • Oracle UCM specific tips
  • 3. Philosophy of Performance Tuning
    • “ We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil ”
    • -- Donald Knuth
    • Need a holistic view of your systems and processes
      • Use data-flow analysis and diagrams
  • 4. Why Are Network Applications Slow?
    • Not enough CPU
      • Needed for text processing, number crunching, cryptography
    • Not enough memory
      • Needed to cache temporary data for faster processing
    • Not enough bandwidth
      • Needed to support large data transfers, large user bases
    • Too much latency
      • Multiple round-trips to servers makes any single request slow
    • Most web applications are slow because of bandwidth/latency
      • extra CPU and memory help, but usually are not enough
  • 5. Bandwidth and Latency in Real Life
    • 48 inches wide
    • Bandwidth:
      • 2,000,000 barrels per day!
    • 800 miles long
    • Latency:
      • 15.8 days!
  • 6. Bandwidth and Latency On The Web
    • Bandwidth:
      • Number Of Simultaneous Requests You Can Support
    • Latency:
      • Time Added To Each Request Due To Network and Distance
    • A web page with 50 images means 51 HTTP requests !
    • High bandwidth and high latency? Pages “feel” slow
    • 80-90% of response time spent in downloading web resources
      • Images, CSS files, JS files, AJAX requests
      • Source: http://
  • 7. Analyze The Flow Of Data
    • How does the data get to the client?
    • How many applications are involved?
    • Where is the bottleneck?
      • Latency: ping , traceroute , or tracert
      • Bandwidth: mrtg, wget , or ask your ISP/IT department
      • CPU and Memory: top or taskmanager
    • On the web, latency is usually a bigger problem than bandwidth
      • Distance and network health between web client and web server
      • Assume New York to San Francisco latency is ~100 ms
      • if your page has 100 images, that's 10 seconds for just latency!
    • In practice, browser caching and multiple downloads help
  • 8. UCM Data Flow Diagram
    • How do the actual bytes flow from client, to server, and back?
  • 9. Reduce CPU Needs of Web Pages
    • General tip: simplify your web pages so they render faster
    • Use fewer DOM elements
      • tables within tables within tables
    • Put CSS at the top, and JS at the bottom
      • CSS is rendered immediately
      • JS must be 100% loaded before it executes
    • Avoid complex CSS
      • AlphaImageLoader filter
      • CSS expressions
  • 10. Reduce Bandwidth Needs of Web Pages
    • General tip: use smaller web resources
    • Compress your HTML, CSS, and JS files
      • minimize their size in general
      • inline GZIP compression works well
    • Use small, web-optimized images
      • avoid scaling them in HTML
    • Use GET for AJAX
    • Reduce use and complexity of cookies
      • cookie state is sent with every request
  • 11. Reduce Latency Of Web Pages
    • General tip: use fewer web resources
      • eliminate images when CSS works just as well
      • consolidate CSS and JS into fewer files
      • correct any 404 error for missing images
      • Like Google does
  • 12. Reduce Latency Of Web Pages (cont.)
    • Make fewer network requests
      • Avoid multiple DNS lookups on the same page
      • Minimize URL redirects
    • Serve static files from multiple servers
      • Browsers download 2 web resources at a time from one domain
      • So, make more domains: img1, img2
    • Use content delivery network
      • Amazon Cloudfront : cheap, but mainly North American
      • Akamai : expensive, but global
    • Make content “ cacheable ”
  • 13. High-Performance Architecture
    • Web Page Cache / Reverse Proxy
      • Cache rendered web pages to take load off of Site Studio
      • make sure it understands cookies and GZIP compression
    • Contribution / consumption environment
      • Optimize contribution for read/write
      • Optimize consumption for read (mostly)
    • Use a dedicated server for each Oracle UCM instance
      • Do not share with other applications
    • Schedule resource-intensive behavior in the off-hours
      • Virus scanners and web spiders
      • Backups, archives, batchloads
  • 14. High-Performance Architecture (cont.)
    • Create a cluster
      • in most cases with 10gr3, significantly improves performance
      • general best practice for failover, high reliability, and uptime
    • Minimize latency in local network
      • keep database, LDAP, and other resources on same subnet
      • keep filesystem speedy: attached storage, SAN, NAS
    • Monitor CPU and Memory usage
      • bandwidth, and latency are usually the culprits
      • CPU and memory can be a bottleneck for heavy consumption servers
    • If you use UCM 7.5 with Verity search, CPU can be an issue
      • if you use database search, database CPU may be an issue
  • 15. Sample High-Performance Architecture
  • 16. Make Static Content Cacheable
    • Web caches will store static content (JS, CSS, images)
      • Modest performance gains by keeping them in-memory
      • Caching dynamic content is better, but harder…
    • Add Expires or MaxAge HTTP header to content
      • allows a cache to know how long to store content
      • for static content, set this in the web server
      • for dynamic content, set it in Site Studio
    • Properly configure ETag HTTP headers on clusters
      • If you're not using them, just remove them
  • 17. Make Dynamic Content Cacheable
    • Dynamic HTML pages might be different per user
      • Multi-step forms and personalization are cache-killers
        • Different users see different things at the same URL!
      • Not all caches work when cookies are present
      • Need smart caches, and smart personalization
    • Drive customization with static CSS and JS files
      • Read cookies from JS, use AJAX to alter pages
      • Configure cache to ignore cookies, or
      • Configure web server to omit cookie header
    • Security checks can be slow
      • How far away is your user database?
      • Is it cached locally, or do we need to check ActiveDirectory or LDAP?
  • 18. Site Studio Specifics
    • UCM performance rule-of-thumb
      • 20 read-only service calls per second per GHz CPU
      • 5 read/write service calls per second per GHz CPU
    • Problem: some Site Studio pages are multiple service calls!
      • Each calls at least the SS_GET_PAGE service
      • Many fragments and templates call GET_SEARCH_RESULTS
      • Many also call DOC_INFO
    • Not uncommon for one page to have 4 UCM service calls!
      • Reduces performance to 5 page views per second per GHz CPU
  • 19. UCM Specifics
    • Minimize number of queries per page
      • Use static lists instead of dynamic lists when possible
    • Optimize search queries
      • Use <matches> or <contains> instead of <substring>
      • Note: <contains> only works in &quot;zone indexed&quot; metadata fields
      • Avoid time stamps in queries
    • Tune Java VM to have as much memory as you can give it
      • JAVA_MAX_HEAP_SIZE=1024
    • Optimize the Oracle Database
      • Install the OracleQueryOptimizer component
      • Cursor_Sharing=SIMILAR
      • optimizer_mode=first_rows
  • 20. Finding Slow Pages: Passive
    • Configure web server logs to measure page creation time
      • Apache: use mod_log_config and the LogFormat directive
      • IIS: use W3C extended log file format, and the &quot;Time Taken&quot; field
    • Enable UCM System Audit Information flags
      • requestaudit
      • pagecreation
      • searchquery
      • systemdatabase
    • Parse log files to find slow pages and slow queries
  • 21. Finding Slow Pages: Active
    • Run a web spider on your system
      • Caution: this can crash your server!
      • Use web logs or spider logs to find slow pages
    • Test slow pages once with auditing turned on
      • You may be surprised how many database calls there are!
    • Test slow pages with a load tester
      • How many users can do this simultaneously?
  • 22. Finding Slow Pages: Active (cont.)
    • Bandwidth:
      • How fast can you download a static 1MB HTML file?
      • How many users can do this simultaneously?
    • Latency:
      • How fast can you download a 1k HTML file with a hundred 10k JS files?
      • How many users can do this simultaneously?
    • Keep excellent notes!
      • Only way to measure performance improvement
  • 23. Making Pages Faster
    • Reduce number of service calls
    • Reduce number of database calls
    • Optimize IdocScript
      • Minimize eval and executeService calls
      • Instead use setValue , setResourceInclude
      • Eliminate all IdocScript errors: these are performance drags
      • Use cacheInclude for slow sections of pages
    • Optimize JSP/ASP/Java code
      • In general, same rules apply
      • Reduce complexity, reduce number of service calls
  • 24. Making Pages Faster (cont.)
    • Consolidate JS and CSS files
      • Place them into a global fragment, or global region template
      • Standard best-practice for maintainable code
    • Set flags to cache pages
      • Built-in with the custom section property &quot;ssMaxAge&quot;
      • Passes the cache control header
      • Watch out for cookies!
    • Disable unnecessary JavaScript files
      • Requires custom component
      • On consumption environment, disable contributor JS files
      • Most sites don't need the JS files that contain navigation
  • 25. Review
    • General web site performance tuning is critical
    • Data flow diagrams can highlight bottlenecks
    • Some architectures scale better than others
      • Size CPU and Memory appropriately
      • Cluster your servers
      • Include a reverse proxy
      • Keep network resources close, and fast!
    • Understand why specific Site Studio pages are slow
      • Reduce number of service requests per page
      • Focus on making “cacheable” content
  • 26. Useful Tools and References
    • Yahoo YSlow plug-in to Firefox: a must have!
      • http:// /
    • JMeter load tester
      • http:// /
    • Heritrix web crawler
      • http:// /
    • Varnish HTTP Accelerator
      • http:// /
    • Yahoo web site performance tuning best practices
      • http://
    • Oracle UCM performance tuning guide:
  • 27. Now Available…
  • 28.
    • My Company: http://
    • My Blog: http://
    • My Self: [email_address]