1. Air Barrier Paper
Air Barrier Paper- A material that is used
as both a vapor retarder and an air barrier
2. Attic Ventilation
Soffit Vent- An opening under the
eave of a roof, used to allow air to
flow into the attic or the space below
the roof sheathing.
Gable Vent- A screened, louvered
opening in a gable, used for exhausting
excess heat and humidity from an attic.
3. Attic Ventilation
Ridge Vent- A long, open
assembly that allows air to
circulate in and out of a gable
roof at the ridge.
Roof Turbine- Another tool used to
allow hot air to escape from attics.
4. Backhoe &Front End Loader
Backhoe- This piece of equipment is
used to dig holes on jobsites such as
footings , wide trenches etc.
This bucket is 18 inches in width.
Front End Loader- This is used to
scoop and move dirt around the
jobsite unlike a bulldozer that
just pushes dirt around. It
doesn’t dig trenches like a
5. Batter Boards
Batter Board- A temporary frame built
just outside the corner of an
excavation to carry marks that lie on
the surface planes of the basement
that will be built in the excavation.
In this picture they are used to square
a pole barn.
6. Brick Arches
Flat Arch with Keystone
7. Brick Bonds
Running Bond- Brick work consisting
entirely of stretchers.
Flemish Bond- Brick
work consisting of
Bulldozer- A piece of equipment
on tracks with a blade in front
used to push dirt around jobsites
or clear land.
EFIS Clad Structure
Brick Clad Structure
Wood Shingle/ Shake
Wood Shingles are
Stone Clad Structure Wood Clad Structure
12. Concrete Joints
Control Joint- An intentional, linear discontinuity in a
structure or component, designed to form a plane of
weakness where cracking can occur in response to
various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking
elsewhere in the structure.
Isolation Joint- A joint in a concrete
structure that allows it to expand and
contract without damaging the structure.
Here a concrete column is isolated from
a concrete slab.
13. Concrete Masonry Unit
CMU- A block of hardened concrete, with or
without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the
same manner as brick or stone; a concrete
One block of CMU equals 3 courses of
brick which makes incorporating these
two materials in the construction
Typical Dimension- 8”x8”x16” nominal
7 5/8” x 7 5/8” x 15 5/8” actual
10” x 8” x 16
8” x 8”x 16
Exterior Flush Door
Transom- A small window directly
above a door
Sidelight-A tall, narrow window along
side a door.
15. Electrical Components
Underground transformer box-
converts high current direct voltage
of several thousand volts to
110/220 alternating current before
it goes to the service head.
Service Head- Routes power from
transformer bow to the power meter
16. Electrical Components
Power Meter- Records the amount
of electricity used.
Duplex Receptacle- (power plug) Point
where appliances can be plugged in. Final
step from service lines to house.
Service Panel- Control center for all
17. Framing Elements
Anchor Bolt #1
18. Framing Elements
Sill Plate #2
Floor Joist #3
This one is a rim floor joist.
23. Front End Loader
Front End Loader- This is used to scoop
and move dirt around the jobsite unlike
a bulldozer that just pushes dirt around.
It doesn’t dig tranches like a backhoe.
24. Gypsum Board
Gypsum Board- An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched
between paper faces; also called drywall, or plasterboard.
25. Heat Pump
Air Handling Unit- Return air
enters back into the system here,
is filtered, and is recirculated
with fresh air.
Compressor/condensor- refrigerant is
heated by the outside air. This air is then
blown across a fan and the refigerant
condenses and cools. From here its
blown into the house.
Disadvantage- Often noisy
Advantage- Can use this system to
Insulation- Reduces the amount of radiant
heat from the sun that enters a building. On
interior walls it can be used as a noise barrier.
Blanket Insulation with vapor
Loose Fill Insulation
Integral bathroom sink
Roof Vent- allows air into the
plumbing system so solids and
liquids can flow through the waste
Plywood- A wood panel
composed of an odd number of
layers of wood veneer bonded
together under pressure.
Veneer- A thin layer, sheet, or
#4 rebar- ½” in
create more surface
area for concrete to
bond to the rebar.
35. Steep Roof Drainage
Gutter- A channel that
collects rainwater and
snowmelt at the eave of a
Downspout- A vertical pipe
for conducting water from
a roof to a lower level.
Splash block- A small
precast block of
concrete or plastic used
to divert water at the
bottom of a
36. Steep Roof Materials
Underlayment- A layer of
waterproof material such as
building felt between roof
sheathing and roofing. This keeps
water from leaking onto the
sheathing and eventually into the
Shingle- A small unit of water resistant
material nailed in overlapping fashion
with many other such units to render a
wall or sloping roof watertight.
37. Steep Roof Materials
Metal panel roof
38. Steep Roof Shapes
39. Steep Roof Terms
Ridge- The level intersection of
two roof planes in a gable roof.
Valley- A trough formed by the
intersection of two roof slopes.
40. Steep Roof Terms
Rake- The sloping edge of a steep
Eave- The horizontal edge at the low
side of a sloping roof.
41. Steep Roof Terms
Soffit- The undersurface of a
horizontal element of a
building, especially the under
side of a stair or roof overhang.
Fascia- The exposed vertical face of an
43. Vapor Retarder
Vapor retarder- A layer of
material intended to obstruct the
passage of water vapor through a
Usually on the warm in winter
side of a wall
44. Weep Hole
Weep Hole- A small
opening whose purpose
is to permit drainage of
water that accumulates
inside a building
component or assembly.
Allows water to escape
from behind a brick wall.
Single Hung Window
Here the bottom of the window is
the only part that opens by sliding