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Curt Lindberg, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute 05-19-09 Interview
 

Curt Lindberg, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute 05-19-09 Interview

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Complexity: Science of the 21st Century ...

Complexity: Science of the 21st Century
Curt Lindberg, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute shares is insights about the role of complex systems in communities and countries today. Learn more about the Plexus Institute's work in health care around the world here http://www.plexusinstitute.org/stopmrsa/ Learn about Open Source Economic Development at http://www.i-open.org

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    Curt Lindberg, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute 05-19-09 Interview Curt Lindberg, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute 05-19-09 Interview Document Transcript

    • 1 Interview and transcription May 19, 2009 Curt Lindberg, President, Chief Learning and Science Officer, Plexus Institute Complexity Science: The Science of the 21st Century INTRODUCTION What are you passionate about now? I’m Curt Lindberg, I’m the Chief Learning and Science Officer of Plexus Institute, its an organization devoted to helping people understand complexity science and to use insights from that science to improve the health of people, organizations, communities and our natural environment. I’ve had an interest for many years in how change happens in systems of all types and with my background in healthcare I’m especially interested in how healthcare organizations change and don’t, and how they improve and how they work. Some of the activities I’m involved in now I’m most excited about involve working with a growing network of hospitals in this country, and with several other countries who are interested in addressing the prevention of some of these ‘super bugs’ that are killing patients and leaving a great deal of suffering around the world. So, we are using some complexity informed processes like positive deviance to help hospitals reduce specifically, MRSA infections. What would you like people to know, think, feel and do? [01:33] One of my real hopes is that more and more people can come to understand what the scientists are discovering about how complex systems change and work, as well as some of the kind of common principles that seem to under gird the performance and dynamics in complex systems of all types. Our view is that with that understanding people can make different choices and hopefully better choices, which can then lead to improved performance in systems of all types. The science is growing very rapidly and we kind of see it all around us with the attention to networks, you see terms like ‘emergence’ more and more showing up, ‘collective intelligence’ – many of these are new examples of new insights that are emerging from the scientific community, which more and more people are picking up and using in very practical ways in their organizations and communities. So, my real hope for the future is that this kind of keeps Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 2 growing and there are more and more connections made between the scientific community and people in society looking for better ways to work. What do you see for the future? [03:07] One of my hopes, is that people will take the time to learn about complexity science and use it to rethink some of the assumptions they bring to their understanding of how the world works and how organizations work and then try to apply those insights in what they do and also to probably reflect on their experiences in organizations and communities using complexity science insights and probably come to some different conclusions than are traditional. [03:56] I guess as you think about the future, my experience with complexity suggests that to generate, potentially, better futures, with no guarantee, but better futures, what you need to do is focus on the present, and by that I mean, the kind of everyday interactions that we have with other people and every organizations, and see those routine interactions as the kind of source of improvement, because, as the scientists tell us, it’s really the interactions in complex systems that are most prominent and most significant in producing outcomes, what they call, the process is called ‘self-organization’ and the outcome of self-organization is ‘emergent’. But, it is the interactions that produce those, and it’s the day-to-day interactions that produce what we have now. If we’re interested in producing a different present I guess we need to interact differently, we need to connect with new people, and perhaps use some different processes in how we interact. CATEGORY What category of the Innovation Framework do you primarily invest your time and attention? Brainpower? Networks? Quality, Connected Place? Dialogue and Inclusion? or Branding Stories? [05:30] Well, from your Innovation Framework, I would say the work of Plexus is centrally devoted to building connections among people who wouldn’t ordinarily be connected. So, it is all about building networks and healthy relationships within those networks. The second area of focus is to help people within those networks use different processes to help foster healthier and more creative conversations. In Plexus we use the term, ‘liberating structures’ which include a wide variety of interactive processes that engage people in creative conversations which many times lead to very innovative solutions. What secondary categories are you interested in? [06:32] We’re always interested in connecting with both scientists doing original, pioneering work in the field of complexity science and also people who are early adopter type who like to experiment and use new ideas in their everyday work. So, I guess that’s the Brainpower category. Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 3 [07:05] A wonderful example of the work we’ve done in MRSA prevention comes from Bogotá, Columbia. I was there last week and met with many of the staff from a public hospital called Hospital El Tunal, and they have been working over the last couple of years to reduce MRSA infections through a process called Positive Deviance, which fundamentally is based on the belief that in most organizations and communities there are individuals or groups who are already achieving better outcomes than the norm or their peers. So the process seeks to have folks in the organization whose behavior can benefit from a change in practice to discover some colleagues in their mists doing something different and getting better outcomes. In that process which brings all sorts of people together who ordinarily would not be interacting – brain surgeons and housekeepers, for example – they come to appreciate that they all bring new knowledge and different perspective to the very complex problem of preventing infections and together they can get better results. They told me over at the hospital that over the last year there have been five months in which they have had not MRSA infections, which is a dramatic improvement. To give you a sense I think for the scope of the kind of culture change that has happened at Hospital El Tunal, a couple stories come to mind. One was from a Dr. Solomon who was the brand new Director of the Emergency Department at the Hospital. He came on board and he said within minutes the staff in the emergency department said, “Dr., this is how we do infection prevention around here and we’re not quite sure your practices are up to our standards so you need to get with it!” Another was a Chief of Neurosurgery, his name was Dr. Augustus, and he told this little story about how proud he was of a nurse who came up to him the week before and said, “Dr., you’re forgetting to wash you hands, put gowns and gloves on” which he of course then did. Those two stories speak to me of the magnitude of the change that this hospital has achieved through this process when people in very, very powerful positions are recognizing that those in less powerful, but different positions have the courage to suggest that they change some of their practices. [10:21] A second set of stories comes from Billings Clinic, which is a large integrated healthcare system in Montana. That hospital is also using positive deviance to address MRSA and they did some social network mapping and they asked staff in the hospital, “With whom are you working on MRSA prevention?” before the positive deviance project started and then with a year’s experience with positive deviance. When they saw the maps that were generated they were quite astounded, it showed that over time and through the process many, many more people were connected, departments and nursing units became more connected, there was probably double or triple the number of people involved. They also realized that when they did the mapping there were some experts they had not known about: a housekeeper in the Intensive Care Unit, a very young nurse on their medical surgical unit, what the staff saw as real experts. So, as the network expanded and more connections were made, as more diverse people were brought in they also saw real changes in behavior. Hand washing went way up, the use of prevention infection supplies like gowns and hand gel went up dramatically and what went down were they’re MRSA infections. This hospital recorded in 2008 about an 80% decline in their MRSA infections, which is very dramatic because in most places in the country these infections are rising very rapidly. Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 4 TOPIC STRATEGIC DOING Research What research areas interest you? Why? [12:23] With the success that a number of hospitals have had in MRSA prevention, we’re very interested now in trying to understand the changes in the dynamics or the complexity of the efforts in these hospitals, so that kind of suggests a research agenda that explores how people are interacting differently, who they are interacting with, the dynamics of their interactions and the kind of research that’s not typically done. I’m really interested in working with some complexity science scholars who are using complexity science to guide and develop new research methods. Some of the folks who are very prominent in that field include Ruth Anderson from Duke University, Reuben McDaniel from the University of Texas at Austin, and Ben Crabtree who is a medical anthropologist who works at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Jersey. All of them are using complexity informed approaches to research, which help them to focus on what they believe are the essential dynamics in human systems; connections, the flow of information, the degree of diversity, of thinking, of people in ways of doing things and focus on the day to day human interactions that really produce what we see in organizations both good and bad. What I really think needs to be added to the research that’s being done in social network mapping is actually what is happening in the network. [14:22] The networks kind of give you the basic architecture of whose talking to whom. But I think more fundamental than that is what are they talking about? How are they working together? Because networks can produce very unhealthy outcomes too; so, the dynamics and the changes and the nature and quality of the interactions, I believe, need more and more attention as we go forward and seek to understand communities and organizations better. When that kind of research can be pursued more actively and at a higher level, I think that that can then be published of course and then become more credible in the eyes of the public and the scientific community and then encourage others to use that research in how they understand and how they address very complex problems. Who would you like to be connected to that you are not? (The opportunity to connect researchers to advance the development of complexity science.) [15:39] In the early studies of complexity science as it relates to human activities there was a really strong tendency to import insights from the natural sciences related to complexity. Those insights proved very helpful, but were incomplete, because coming from the natural sciences they did not take into consideration human behavior and social activities. So, on the forefront of this science as it relates to human affaires you can really anticipate a coming together of natural scientists with social scientists and some Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 5 particular branches in the social sciences, particularly psychology and social psychology and researchers like Mead and Gilliss to create a complexity informed theory of human behavior and human interactions and that kind of work is just beginning to happen so I can really see lots of developments coming from that intersection of the natural and social scientists, which permit then people in organizations and communities through their experiences and their work literally contribute to the science. What information do you share with others? (How information sharing can influence the development of complexity science.) [17:24] In some of the principles that the natural scientists have uncovered in complex systems deal with connections, self-organization, emergence, what they call ‘simple rules’ which are applicable in many complex systems. They don’t account for certain human qualities, like emotion, like power differences, like fear and anxiety. To really understand complex human systems we need to kind of factor in our ‘human-ness’ and our attributes. There are some researchers based at the University of Hertfordshire in England at a Complexity in Management Center that have developed a theory of complex responsive processes. Those researchers and the students connected with that Center are trying to build this marriage, if you will, between some fundamental complexity concepts, like self-organization and emergence, with the human qualities that I mentioned before. How will your research serve the sustainability of communities and their regions 50 years from now? [18:56] Complexity science is really in its youth. It’s roots go back several decades but its just now being appreciated more and more both in the scientific world and in society at large. Edward Wilson, the prominent Biologist at Harvard, and also Stephen Hawking have called complexity science the science of the 21st Century, suggesting that its young and much needs to be pursued and learned. Fortunately, this science is coming along at a time when our world is much more connected and complex and hard to understand. The hope is that insights from the science will help as a society deal with this increasing complexity and lead us perhaps to some better choices than would have been made without this understanding. [21:08] One of the fundamental principles that complexity emphasizes is, “non-linearity.” What that really means is that there is not necessarily a proportional relationship between cause and effect. What that means in practical terms is that large change in these complex systems fundamentally comes from small actions. Typically, we think if we want to make a large change, make a big difference, we have to have a very large and a very well planned action. Complexity kind of questions that assumption seriously and invites more and more people to take small actions because there are times when those small actions will kind of amplify and reverberate through a system and make a very large difference. In that sense, it invites participation, it invites engagement, it helps people to let go of the notion that there is a system out there that’s unchangeable, that’s doing things to them in which they are totally hopeless. It kind of says that every once in a while that little thing Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 6 you do in your every day life can end up making a big difference. I think if we all look back at our lives we can find good examples of that in play. Networks What networks are you building? Why? How? What are your criteria for mapping knowledge networks? What criteria do you use to identify best practices in those networks? [21:46] In Plexus, we’re actively building networks in healthcare around infection prevention in both hospitals in the U.S., and Columbia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and with organizations like the CDC who have a real interest in improvement in this arena. We also have networks in Plexus in healthcare, particularly in the area of nursing, we’re building networks with organizational development consultants with an interest in complexity science and some of the methods that come along with it. We’re always interested in working with new groups of people who are very anxious to bring complexity insights into their work and practice. So, we try to stay very open and alert for little opportunities. The larger framework for networking in Plexus is as I mentioned before, the bringing together of the scientific community and those in organizations and communities interested in doing things differently and doing things better. There’s a question here that deals with the concept of ‘best practices’ in these networks. That’s a concept we strongly question. I think its becoming increasingly known that the importation of practices from one organization and one culture to another organization is generally ineffective, because they developed in the context of a different organization and a different culture which generally don’t marry well or respect the culture in a new organization. So, we’re very much about helping people to understand the unique characteristics of the system or the organization or community they’re a part of and the importance in building ways of working together and processes that fit and emerge from the local community. We actually think the notion of best practices is rather simple and is based on the assumption that organizations and communities are very, very similar and mechanical in nature. You can take one oil filter from one car and use it in another car, but that’s because cars are very similar. Families and countries and communities are not like that so our attention needs to be on helping organizations both uncover and create their own practices that work for them and produce good outcomes. [25:09] When you look at the differences across organizations and across communities, across countries, if you will, one thing that becomes very obvious is the differences in the cultures in these places. If you look at culture from a complexity perspective the kind of language you would use would suggest, or assert, that culture is an emergent outcome of a self-organizing process that takes place in an organization or in a community. So, it’s the everyday interactions and habits of people in these communities, countries or organizations that produce a culture. So to change a culture, you really need to be working at that very human, at that very interactive level. It’s not something you can control, it’s not something you can plan, and it’s not something you can impose because Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 7 how people react to those moves and actions are actually going to determine the outcome and no one, no matter how powerful, can be in charge of that self-organizing process or be the kind of Chief Culture Officer, if you will. Enterprise What is the next enterprise opportunity that you see? Why? [26:43] [26:40] One of the experiences that we’re having in the hospitals that relates to culture, is that by focusing on a very particular issue, and in this case, MRSA prevention, and using complexity based processes to encourage greater engagement of staff, more interaction, and acceptance of more diverse people into the equation and into the conversations, is both producing lower MRSA rates and as a consequence, a healthier culture, with more people connected to the organization and to each other using new ways of interacting in their work, I would say that many of these organizations would say that they’re better places to work, they’re more creative, they’re healthier and in many cases the staff feel more rewarded and satisfied in their work. The work on MRSA is helping to create better and more resilient organizations and cultures. Whose insights and guidance do you/would you engage? [28:05] When I think of using social network mapping to understand what’s going on in a community or organization, my interests take me to what is actually happening within those networks? What are people talking about? How are they interacting day in and day out? What are their patterns of interaction? Are they creative or not? Are they stuck? Are they free flowing? What does it feel like to be in those networks? So, its really more about the dynamics of the human, kind of social interaction that I think needs more of our attention in this science and communities and organizations. What benchmarks and measurements do you use in your work? [29:04] I guess I am imagining and hoping that the work on the hospitals with MRSA prevention can be viewed in a larger light as some examples from complexity science that can be used in this and other countries, to address serious health and other social problems. So for instance, in MRSA prevention, typically, as I mentioned before the strategy is best practice, or pass legislation and tell people what to do, I‘d rather that government and business and health insurers come together and appreciate that it’s the daily interaction and patterns in these complex systems that produce both good and bad results. So, respecting the culture and local nature of organizations and communities, and finding ways for them to work better internally, and also across communities and organizations because you can apply these ideas at various scales. So, you could think of a network for quality improvement around MRSA prevention that is very local – a nursing unit, a hospital, a healthcare system, you can also envision networks that span different kinds of organizations where health insurers and businesses and government and healthcare organizations come together to address intractable problems and look at their own processes for interacting and seeing if those can be improved, and more voices can Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 8 be brought in, if different processes can be used to foster better, more creative conversations, it’ll give us the capability as a society to tackle some of the toughest problems we face. [31:32] Well, there are two fundamental properties of complex systems: one is called ‘self-organization‘ and the other is ‘emergence’. So, an example of the hospital work I’ve talked about: there are healthcare workers interacting with each other and patient’s day in and day out. That’s what would be called ‘self-organization.’ No one, no matter how powerful can control that process because everyone’s a part of it and his or her actions are impacting the self-organizing process. Those self-organizing processes produce outcomes and the example of hospital infections; an outcome is an MRSA infection and infection rates. So, to change those outcomes, those emergent outcomes, you really need to change the nature of the self-organizing process, which means affecting who is involved, and how they’re interacting together. You as an individual can’t of course control that, but you can through the way you participate in that system and through the ideas and processes that you might bring into that system may have an impact on that self-organizing process and ideally, and hopefully, it’s a good impact, but it may not be and you can’t know that in advance. Education What information do you share with others? [33:20] As I look forward to the use of complexity science insights and complexity based processes in this country and around the world, one of the… I guess it’s a gap and it’s also an opportunity is that to embrace new ways of thinking and new ways of working – and of course you have to have an understanding that you need them and you can benefit from them, there’s a real significant gap in the awareness of this new science and its relevance to work and organizations and communities, so if someone could help create a much broader awareness I think we could actually move a little faster in improving life and performance. Another gap is there are not very many practitioners, consultants who are terribly knowledgeable about this field, there’s a handful, it is growing, but to work with communities and more and more organizations we are going to need more people and more Brainpower, if you will, to bring to bear on these complex problems. What next steps do you envision to pro-actively respond to the powerful topics affecting communities and their regions, such as: climate change, green job creation, water, land, energy, technology, and healthcare? (Addressed above) What guidance do you have for education, economic and workforce development leaders? What about big problems, like climate change? [34:55] I guess my guidance would be to concentrate on building relationships with people and organizations that can bring in different ideas and different experiences. I’d also bring an action orientation to those networks, because you can never really predict the future performance of a complex system, what you can do is learn your way forward Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 9 by taking small actions, reflecting on those experiences, taking more actions informed on those experiences, so I would bring diversity and more connections and small actions to the equation recognizing that in some cases those little actions can trigger more significant results. [36:05] One of the perspectives, findings, that scientists bring to us is that no matter how smart you are, no matter how big your computers are, there is no way of predicting with certainty, the future behavior and outcomes of complex systems. So, you need to give up this idea that we can always know what the future will be, that we can forecast what will happen, because we will be continually surprised. In the face of that, these insights help us let go of the notion that we can plan in a very detailed way and with certainty our next steps and our long-term future. This helps us realize a more effective way forward is to take small steps, little actions and learn from that, because you are then actually interacting with this complex system, you’re seeing how the system reacts to a new idea, a new way forward, that then affords you the opportunity to reflect on what happened and to inform your next steps. So in complexity, it would suggest that long-term grand plans are not as useful as we thought and in many cases if pursued produce many unintended consequences that are generally not positive. So, small steps, learning and connecting seems to be a better way forward and a more hopeful way forward in the complex world in which we live. How will your research serve the sustainability of communities and their regions 50 years from now? [38:15] The strategy that is most used in Plexus and most appealing to me is the use of stories. Because a story can represent the, or better represent the complexity of the issue, of the intervention, or an experiment, better than a memo, better than a lecture, better than a power point presentation. Stories also, if well done and well crafted, respect the local context and dynamics that are so much a part of a rich story. We work hard to write and capture the stories of people using complex systems ideas in their work and share those very freely. We populate our website heavily with stories from all comers. [39:23] Well, really good stories have people in them and with our complexity perspective in mind we’re also looking in these stories to kind of capture some of the small changes that end up making a significant difference. One that comes to mind: there’s a story about Albert Einstein Medical Center and their MRSA prevention work. In that story is a little vignette about a transport worker, named Jasper Palmer. One day a nurse noticed the manner in which he was putting on gowns and gloves and then disposing of gowns and gloves in a very safe way. He was concerned about the proliferation of gowns because the use was going up and he was concerned because they were not being disposed of properly. So, Jasper developed this method of taking off a gown, rolling it up very tightly into the size of a baseball and then in a very elegant way pulling his gloves off in a way that covered up the gown and then protected, enclosed, any of the bacteria that might have been on that gown and then disposing of it properly. That method is now in widespread use at Albert Einstein Medical Center and it’s called the ‘Palmer Method’ and recognizing that’s a very important procedure now for Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 10 preventing infections. So, that nurse noticing Jasper allowed that story to spread and inspired other actions across the organization and better infection control. It’s looking for those small moments that make a difference. [41:26] In complex systems, every one of us is a part of many of them. What we do day in and day out, the choices we make in those systems affect that self-organizing process and because of that they give us all the opportunity to affect that process and sometimes contribute to better outcomes. Those outcomes not only come through what we do but how we do it in interaction with each other. Is there anything you would like to add to this interview information? [42:20] I’d like to close with an invitation, there is a growing community of people and organizations interested in understanding and adopting complex ways of seeing and doing and Plexus is a part of that movement and we’re always on the look out for people with a twinkle in their eye who are curious, searching for a deeper understandings about nature and life and how human organizations work and using those new learning’s to good affect. My invitation would be if you are interested in complexity science and what it means to us and how the insights can be used for good practical affect, we’d love to connect with you and see where those connections take us. Our generous thanks to Curt Lindberg Plexus Institute http://www.plexusinstitute.org The Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Floor Cleveland Ohio 44103 USA Copyright 2009 I-Open http://i-open.org Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivative Works 3.0 United States Related Interviews Generate better futures: focus on the present [08:23] You Tube, Vimeo, Livestream Small actions for profound change [22:16] Vimeo, Livestream Learn your way forward: complexity science in leadership [15:29] Vimeo, Livestream Complexity: Science of the 21st Century [43:44] Livestream Quotes from Curt Lindberg about Complexity Science • “Learn your way forward” • “Large change in large systems comes from small actions” • “Culture is the outcome” • “Every one of us is a part of them” • “Complexity insights improve how we generate better futures” • “To generate better futures, focus on the present” Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 11 • “Routine interactions are the source of improvement” • “Complexity science is the science of the 21st Century” – Edward Wilson, Biologist, and Stephen Hawking • “Culture is an emergent outcome that takes place in an organization of community from the everyday habits and interactions of people in communities and countries.” • “Complexity science, formerly thought of in natural science terms, presents a new opportunity for people to participate in science today by adding human-ness.” Articles Research in Psychology and social psychology research Catherine Lynch Gilliss, DNSc, RN, FAAN, Dean of the Duke University School of Nursing http://www.dukemedicine.org/Leadership/Administration/GillissCatherine Ruth A. Anderson RN, PhD, FAAN Professor Chair, Doctoral Program, Duke University School of Nursing http://nursing.duke.edu/modules/dukefaculty/viewDetails.php?u=0205271&t=1 Reuben R. McDaniel, Jr., University of Texas at Austin http://www.mccombs.utexas.edu/faculty/reuben.mcdaniel/ Ben Crabtree, PhD, Professor and Director, Department of Family Medicine, medical anthropologist, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey http://www2.umdnj.edu/fmedweb/research/message_director.htm (CMC) Complexity and Management Centre, Business School of the University of Hertfordshire http://www.herts.ac.uk/courses/schools-of-study/business/research/complexity-and- management-centre/home.cfm George Herbert Mead, American philosopher and social theorist http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/ E.O. Wilson, Biologist, Harvard University, http://bigthink.com/edwardowilson Stephen Hawking, Physicist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking Examples of Work The Plexus Institute website http://www.plexusinstitute.org/ Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA
    • 12 The Plexus Institute has developed activities and services to promote health and make a lasting impact on the well-being of people, families, communities and the environment by understanding and promoting the self-organizing principles of nature. The Institute's website presents a collection of resource materials relating to complexity and organizations, providing clear stories, concepts and practical applications of complexity science. Aides for Complexity http://www.plexusinstitute.org/edgeware/archive/think/main_aides3.html Positive Deviance Initiative http://www.positivedeviance.org/projects/healthcare.html?id=49 Stop MRSA – A Plexus Institute Blog http://www.plexusinstitute.org/stopmrsa/ Contact Information Curt Lindberg, President Chief Learning and Science Officer Plexus Institute Mobile: 609-298-2140 E-mail: Curt@PlexusInstitute.org Biographical Information Plexus Institute 101 Farnsworth Avenue, 1st Floor Bordentown, New Jersey, 08505 Phone: 609-298-2140 Fax: 609-298-2168 Email: info@plexusinstitute.org http://www.plexusinstitute.org/ Copyright 2009 Betsey Merkel and I-Open. Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Institute for Open Economic Networks (I-Open) 4415 Euclid Ave 3rd Fl Cleveland, Ohio 44103 USA