HistoryAS Skillsoverview
This is what you are going to be studying and                                        learning for the first two weeks of t...
8. develop their use and understanding of historical terms, concepts and       skills   9. make links and draw comparisons...
What does the examiner expect the student tounderstand?Historical interpretationThe Edexcel Advanced GCE specification req...
Source B Joseph Goebbels, speech in Munich (1939)Women has the task of being beautiful and bringing children into the worl...
You should write you answer makingsure you look for the followingpointsPOINT:EVIDENCE: EXPLANATION                        ...
3. As you read through the sources, you should be looking for areas where they      support or contradict each other.   4....
How to write a timed essay in an exam10 minutes - You will have a specified time to write each essay. Aim to spend roughly...
Catch the examiners eye - Your essay will beone of possibly hundreds that an examiner has to read                         ...
•   Catch the examiners eye   •   Know your stuff!   •   A good essay style will help you make the most of what you know a...
How are you going to be assessed? AO1   a Recall, select and deploy historical knowledge       appropriately, and communic...
will ask candidates to address an historical view or claim using two sources inconjunction with their own knowledge. A cho...
Unit grade                                A         B        C         D      EMaximum uniform mark = 120                9...
What will the exam paper look like?There will be three questions on the paper.   (a)     Compulsory: everyone has to do th...
Now answer the question belowStudy sources A, B and C How far do Sources A-B and C agree on the characteristics that marke...
How to use sources?
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Skills overview dns

  1. 1. HistoryAS Skillsoverview
  2. 2. This is what you are going to be studying and learning for the first two weeks of term before we start on the main subject area.Unit number Level Assessment information Number of marksand unit title allocated in the unit Unit 1 AS Written examination: 1 hour 20 minutes. 60 marks Historical Candidates must take one of the option papers A-F. Each option Themes in paper will include seven topics, except for Option E which includes Breadth six. Students are required to study two topics from the same option paper. Candidates will be required to answer two questions worth 30 marks each and these must be taken from different topics within the same option paper. A choice of two essay questions will be set on each topic. Candidates must not answer two questions set on the same topic. The questions will require candidates to present historical explanations and assess their significance in the historical context of events, individuals’ ideas, attitudes and/or beliefs, and the ways in which they influenced behaviours and action. Unit 2 AS Written examination: 1 hour 20 minutes. 60 marksBritish History Candidates must take one of the option papers A-E. Each optionDepth Studies paper will include two topics. Candidates are required to study one topic. Within each option paper, candidates are required to answer two source-based questions for their chosen topic, question (a) and question (b). Candidates will be provided with seven to nine unseen sources of approximately 550 words in total per topic. These sources will be made available with the examination paper. The first question (a) on each topic is worth 20 marks and will focus on reaching a judgement by analysis, cross-referencing and evaluation of source material. The second question (b) on each topic is worth 40 marks and will ask candidates to address a historical view or claim using two sources in conjunction with their own knowledge. A choice of questions, (b) (i) and (b) (ii), will be provided for each topic. What are the aims of this Unit? 1. develop their interest in and enthusiasm for history and an understanding of its intrinsic value and significance 2. acquire an understanding of different identities within society and an appreciation of social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity through the study of aspects of British and non-British history 3. build on their understanding of the past through experiencing a broad and balanced course of study 4. improve as effective and independent learners and as critical and reflective thinkers with curious and enquiring minds 5. develop the ability to ask relevant and significant questions about the past and to research them 6. acquire an understanding of the nature of historical study, 7. for example that history is concerned with judgements based on available evidence and that historical judgements may be provisional
  3. 3. 8. develop their use and understanding of historical terms, concepts and skills 9. make links and draw comparisons within and/or across different periods and aspects of the past 10. organise and communicate their historical knowledge and understanding in different ways, arguing a case and reaching substantiated judgements.What skills are you going to learn about in AS History for the next twoweeks?A2 students will build on their learning at Advanced Subsidiaryby drawing on and evaluating a greater depth and rangeof increasingly more sophisticated content and evidence,demonstrating a more complex understanding of historicalconcepts, producing responses that are more analytical, andjudgements that are more effectively substantiated.1. demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the historicalthemes, topics, periods and debates2. demonstrate their breadth of historical knowledge andunderstanding by making links and drawing comparisons betweendifferent aspects of the period, society, topic and theme studied3. demonstrate their understanding of key historical terms andconcepts4. analyse and evaluate the causes and consequences of historicalevents and situations, and changes and developments in theperiods and themes studied5. assess the significance of individuals, societies, events,developments and/or ideas in history6. develop an understanding of the nature and purpose of history asa discipline and how historians work.
  4. 4. What does the examiner expect the student tounderstand?Historical interpretationThe Edexcel Advanced GCE specification requiresstudents to: comprehend, analyse and evaluate howthe past has been interpreted and represented indifferent ways, for example in historians’ debatesand through a range of media such as paintings,films, reconstructions, museum displays, theinternetHistorical enquiryThe Edexcel Advanced GCE specification requiresstudents to: investigate specific historical questions,problems or issues use historical sources critically intheir context, deploying appropriate information andreaching substantiated conclusions.Organisation and communicationThe Edexcel Advanced GCE specification requires students to:organise and communicate their historical knowledge andunderstanding in different ways, arguing a clear, logical andprecise case and reaching substantiated judgements.(taken from the Edexcel Specification 2008)Skills foot steps 1Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of thehistorical themes, topics, periods and debatesWhat can you learn about the Nazi beliefs about womenusing the sources below?Source A Adolf Hitler, speech on 26th January, 1942.I detest women who dabble in politics. And if their dabbling extends to military mattersit becomes utterly unendurable. In no section of the Party has a woman ever had theright to hold even the smallest post.In 1924 we had a sudden upsurge of women who were interested in politics. They wantedto join the Reichstag, in order to raise the moral level of that body, so they said. I toldthem that 90 per cent of the matters dealt with by parliament were masculine affairs,on which they could not have opinions of any value. Gallantry forbids one to give womenan opportunity of putting themselves in situations that do not suit them.
  5. 5. Source B Joseph Goebbels, speech in Munich (1939)Women has the task of being beautiful and bringing children into the world, and this isby no means as coarse and old-fashioned as one might think. The female bird preensherself for her mate and hatches her eggs for him. In exchange, the mate takes care ofgathering the food and stands guard and wards off the enemy Source C Adolf Hitler, speech to the NSDAP Womens Organization (September,1934)The slogan "emancipation of women" was invented by Jewish intellectuals. If the mansworld is said to be the State, his struggle, his readiness to devote his powers to theservice of the community, then it may perhaps be said that the womans in a smallerworld. For her world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home. But whatwould become of the greater world if there were no one to tend and care for the smallerone? The great world cannot survive if the smaller world is not stable. We do notconsider it correct for the women to interfere in the world of the man. We consider itnatural if these two worlds remain distinct.Source D Nazi Racial Policy Bureau, ten rules to be observed when considering amarriage partner (1934)Remember you are a German.Remain pure in mind and spirit!Keep your body pure!If hereditarily fit, do not remain single!Marry only for love.Being a German, only choose a spouse or similar or related blood!When choosing your spouse, inquire into his or her forebears!Health is essential to outward beauty as well!Seek a companion in marriage, not a playmate.Hope for as many children as possible! Your duty is to produce at least four offspring inorder to ensure the future of the national stock.This skills is to demonstrate knowledge and historical understanding
  6. 6. You should write you answer makingsure you look for the followingpointsPOINT:EVIDENCE: EXPLANATION Source Skills Explaining the Source If you are called upon to evaluate a source - to consider its reliability and/or its usefulness for a particular historical enquiry - there are a number of questions to ask of it. 1. Who is the author? 2. When was it produced? 3. What was the intended audience - a colleague or the wider public? 4. Can you work out the purpose of the source? 5. If it is a primary source it may be a piece of propaganda, designed to persuade an audience of a particular point of view. If the author was involved in the events described, there is likely to be bias, either conscious or unconscious. He may be seeking to justify his own role, to impress others or to exaggerate his own importance. 6. Note the content of the source and also the language and tone. Is the author using loaded words, in order to arouse a particular response? 7. Think also about its possible limitations - about what may have been omitted, as well as what it contains. This is where a secure knowledge of the context is indispensable. By familiarising yourself with the period you will be able to judge the usefulness of the source. 8. Is it credible? 9. Is it typical? 10. Could you test it with reference to other contemporary evidence? Comparing sources 1. Most source-based questions will ask you to compare two (or possibly more) written extracts or other types of evidence. 2. You should not fall into the trap of extracting information from one source, and then doing the same for the other, without any point of contact between the two.
  7. 7. 3. As you read through the sources, you should be looking for areas where they support or contradict each other. 4. Your answer should contain constant cross-references between the two. There may be some basic similarities between them, but also important differences in matters of detail. 5. These must be noted and possible explanations put forward. Look at the authors and dates of the documents for clues. 6. Again, appropriate contextual knowledge should be used to support your answer.Taking an overview 1. Typically, the final part of a source-based question will call for an assessment of the whole set of sources in relation to a particular issue. 2. Candidates studying Nazi Germany, for example, might be asked something along the following lines: Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, consider the view that effective propaganda was the main reason for Nazi control of Germany after 1933. 3. It is important to maintain a balance between using the extracts and bringing in your own knowledge of the topic. They are both important. A candidate who concentrates exclusively on the sources, or exclusively on outside knowledge, cannot hope to do well on this type of question. 4. How adequate is the particular selection of sources for explaining the issue under consideration? 5. Do not simply summarise the sources. Read them critically, with an eye to the ways in which they could help a historian, and with an awareness of their limitations. In the above example, assume for the sake of argument that all the sources are concerned with the impact of propaganda. 6. You would therefore need to think about the other ways in which the Nazis maintained their power - through police repression, control of the labour force, youth movements and so on. 7. There is no need for lengthy description; rather you should aim to support your argument with brief but relevant points drawn from your own study of the topic.
  8. 8. How to write a timed essay in an exam10 minutes - You will have a specified time to write each essay. Aim to spend roughly 10minutes (or more) planning and thinking. You may think that this is a huge chunk out ofthe time available but it is time well spent. It will save you time overall and will mean youdo most of the thinking at the start, allowing you to spend the rest of the time writing.Study the question - The first thing is to study the question. You are not being askedto write everything you know about …. You are being asked a specific question thatneeds an answer that is directly related to it.Brainstorm - Once you are sure what the question is asking of you, the next thing youshould do is brainstorm. Simply write down everything you can think of in brief notes andin no particular order just to get it out of your mind and on to paper. You can organise itlater but initially you will have a record of relevant points and information to include.They might remind you of other things too.Answer the question - Now that you are aware of the demands of the question andhave some ideas, you have to think about your answer. You need a main line of argumentthat will form the backbone of your essay. Once you have this, jot it down as it will formpart of your introduction.Plan - Now you have to organise the mess that was your brainstorm into a wellstructured essay. Decide whether the question is asking for a thematic approach, orchronological. Is it asking for causes to be evaluated or for a discussion of two sides ofan argument? Once you have a general approach, you need to decide what each paragraphis going to include. Look at your brainstorm and begin to group ideas, include any morerelevant factors or points that may come to you as you are planning. Start to order theparagraphs and try to see natural links between points or paragraphs to help the flow ofthe essay.A rough guide to your plan should be:Introduction - Introducing your understanding of the question, how you plan to tackle it,what you are going to include and what your main line of argument is(optional)1 paragraph - Providing context (linking intro to rest of essay)4 paragraphs - Each of a reasonable length discussing a single issue/factor (orcombination of)Conclusion - Summarising the main arguments made in your essay and ending with yourmain argument.
  9. 9. Catch the examiners eye - Your essay will beone of possibly hundreds that an examiner has to read andmark. No doubt examiners are all very professional and read each onethoroughly, but it doesnt hurt to give them a hand by making it easier for themto mark (and easier for them to give you more marks). So here are some ways todo this: • Have a really good introduction. Have a snappy first sentence, show you have a firm grasp of the question and that you have a main line of argument. This tells the examiner where you are headed and also what to look out for. • Have a good plan. If each paragraph deals with the factors, points or issues raised in your introduction, the examiner sees that you are fully in control. • Sign-posting - Make every paragraph catch the eye by beginning with a strong argumentative point that is linked to the main argument (backbone) of your essay. Then you can go on to explain and prove it. • Try to make your essay fluid and easy to read. Ideally the points you make within a paragraph should flow from one to the other and each paragraph should link well with the next. • Have a snappy ending. Summarise your main points and end with a clear and well thought out main argument. A strong ending will remind the examiner of what you have proven and show that you have been in control of the essay all the way through.Know your stuff! - Writing a good essay requires the writer to know what towrite. When you brainstorm there should be lots of things jotted on the page.When you write the essay itself, you need to have clear arguments, to be awareof the issues and be able to back up analytical points with appropriately selectedinformation and evidence and some historians views. So you will need to haveworked hard in your studies, and done some effective revision.But - A good essay style will help you make the most of what you know. If youknow a bit about the essay topic, a good essay style can hide some of yourinadequacies. If you really know your stuff, you should end up writing anexcellent essay rather than just a good essay.In summary: • 10 minutes - is time well spent • Study the question • Brainstorm • Answer the question • Plan
  10. 10. • Catch the examiners eye • Know your stuff! • A good essay style will help you make the most of what you know and help you to write an excellent essay not just a good essay.(taken from History Today) What skills do Historians have?1] Communication Skills: writing reports, essays, and correspondence in plainlanguage; speaking effectively to groups and individuals; listening carefully andempathetically; portraying ideas clearly and imaginatively in a variety of formatstailored to particular audience, such as visual media. (From William Zinsser,Writing to Learn)[2] Problem-Solving: defining a problem clearly; critically evaluating alternativecourses of action; creating divergent solutions to a problem when more than oneanswer is possible.[3] Investigative Skills: identifying and locating people who have informationrelevant to a task or problem. Identifying source materials necessary to thesolution of a problem.[4] Interpretive Skills: ability to sense the worth of an idea, to determine howto capitalize on it, and to sell the idea to the right people. Ability to assess anarea of work in terms of its effect on an entire organization.[5] Human Relations: interacting cooperatively with others; communicatingorders, instructions and feelings with openness and empathy; delegating tasks inways that show respect for others and receptivity to new ideas; acquiringinformation from people who may be hard to reach or reluctant to divulge suchinformation.[6] Learning Skills: By emphasizing the connection between formal educationand work, higher education has advanced the idea that job success correlatesdirectly with what one knows. Actually, the reverse is more often true. Personssuccessful in their work are mostly engaged with what they do not know. Thus,they have to be adept learners, which liberal arts majors invariably are, becauseof the breadth of their education.
  11. 11. How are you going to be assessed? AO1 a Recall, select and deploy historical knowledge appropriately, and communicate knowledge and understanding of history in a clear and effective manner. b Demonstrate their understanding of the past though explanation, analysis and arriving at substantiated judgements of: • key concepts such as causation, consequence, continuity, change and significance within an historical context • the relationships between key features and characteristics of the periods studied. AO2 a As part of a historical enquiry, analyse and evaluate a range of appropriate source material with discrimination. b Analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, how aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.What are you studying?Unit 2: British History Depth Studies Option E: Britain in the Later 20th Century: Responding to Change Students entered for Option E arerequired to study ONE topic: E1 or E2 E1 British Political History, 1945-90:Consensus and ConflictBritish History Depth StudyIn this unit, students will study British history in some depth. Grounded in anexploration of source material in its historical context, this unit enablesstudents to develop an in-depth understanding of the attitudes, beliefs andstructures of the societies they study. In working with selected sources,students will be required to demonstrate evidence skills which enable them tomake reasoned and supported judgements and to address a historical view orclaim.Assessment informationWritten examination: 1 hour 20 minutes.Candidates must take one of the option papers A-E. Each option paper willinclude two topics. Candidates are required to study one topic. Within eachoption paper, candidates are required to answer two source-based questionsfor their chosen topic, question (a) and question (b). Candidates will beprovided with seven to nine unseen sources of approximately 550 words intotal per topic. These sources will be made available with the examinationpaper. The first question (a) on each topic is worth 20 marks and will focuson reaching a judgement by analysis, cross-referencing and evaluation ofsource material. The second question (b) on each topic is worth 40 marks and
  12. 12. will ask candidates to address an historical view or claim using two sources inconjunction with their own knowledge. A choice of (b) questions, (b) (i) and(b) (ii), will be provided for each topic.Option E: Britain in the Later 20th Century: Responding to ChangeFocusGrounded in an understanding of the relevant chronology, this optionconcentrates on key developments in the political, social and culturaldevelopment of Britain in the second half of the 20th century, with a particularemphasis on understanding in some depth the key issues that challengedLabour and Conservative politicians, including the extent of consensusbetween them, why consensus was fractured and with what consequences. Italso gives students the opportunity to understand key cultural developmentsin the second half of the century, including the developments that challengedexisting perspectives, attitudes and beliefs.History Depth StudiesBritish Political History, 1945­ 90: Consensus and Conflict The Labour election victory of 1945: reasons for it and keyfeatures of domestic policy of Labour governments of 1945-51;extent to which this was ‘an age of austerity’.The Conservative governments of 1951-64: extent of continuitywith Labour objectives; key features of domestic policy (economicmanagement, housing, unemployment); rising living standards.Labour and Conservative governments, 1964-79: reasons forgrowing domestic problems (inflation, wages policy, relations withtrade unions).The Conservative election victory of 1979: reasons for it andkey features of the domestic policy of Thatcher governments;domestic achievements; reasons why the Thatcher era wascontroversial; reasons for her fall in 1990.compulsory unitAssessment grade Unit 1Unit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 100 80 70 60 50 40History Depth Studies Unit 2 compulsory unitUnit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 100 80 70 60 50 40Unit 3 
  13. 13. Unit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 120 96 84 72 60 48Unit 4 Unit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 80 64 56 48 40 32Advanced Subsidiary Cash­in code 8HI01Unit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 200 160 140 120 100 80Advanced GCE Cash­in code 9HI01Unit grade A B C D EMaximum uniform mark = 400 320 280 240 200 160Course Books GCE AS History: British Political History, 1945-90 - Consensus and Conflict
  14. 14. What will the exam paper look like?There will be three questions on the paper. (a) Compulsory: everyone has to do this. (b) (i) and (b) (ii) You will have a choice here and will only have to answer one (b) question.There will be nine sources on the examination paper. You will not be usingthem all the exam. You’ll only be dealing with six of them, three for eachquestion that you answer.The source will be shorter in length because you only have 1hour and 20min to answer two questions so the length of the sources will add up toaround 550 words.Question 1: You will only be focusing on reaching a judgement by analysisand cross referencing and evaluation of source material. The maximumnumber of marks you can get is 20 Level 1 (1-5 marks) Level 2 (6-10 marks) Level 3 (11-15 marks) Level 4 (16-20 marks)Is your answer mostly Have you selected Have you shown how Have you discusseddirect quotation from from the sources in you weigh up evidence the viewpoint in the the sources and you order to support or by looking a the and have you takenhave rewritten them challenge the view nature origins, into account the given in the question purpose and audience different qualities of the source that source has to offer
  15. 15. Now answer the question belowStudy sources A, B and C How far do Sources A-B and C agree on the characteristics that markedMargaret Thatcher’s political leadership?Question (B)You will have to analyse and evaluate a historical view or claim using two or three sources and yourown knowledge. There are 40 marks for this question.You will get 24 marks for your own knowledge and 16 marks for your source(Marks out of 24 knowledge) Level 1 (1-6 marks) Level 2 (7-12 marks) Level 3 (13-18 marks) Level 4 (19-24 marks) Have you limited Have you made limited Have you shown how Is the material yousupport fir the points links between the the key issues involved have used factually you are making statements you have Have you begun to accurate Is what you have written integrate your own Is your answer clear written mostly Is your answer telling knowledge with the and coherent generalisations a story and not source analysing what happened(Marks out of 16 source) Level 1 (1-4 marks) Level 2 (5-8 marks) Level 3 (9-12 marks) Level 4 (13-16 marks) Have you shown that Have you used the Have you developed Have you weighed the you understand the source a mainly as a these points using the evidence in order to source source of information source material reach a judgementNow try this questionRead sources D, E and F and use your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that the 1950sand 1960s were marked by steady and substantial progress in the provision of education?
  16. 16. How to use sources?

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