Narrative themes...• Good versus evil• Religion• Revenge• Supernatural• Science gone wrong• Nightmares• Insanity• Lust• Envy• Childhood issues• Depression• Making you question what is real and what is not
Narrative structure...• Like most films, not just horror, the films normally start in a state of equilibrium, then go into a state of disequilibrium and then end in a newly made state of new equilibrium.• Most horror films do follow these conventions however, some horror films are starting to break the normal structure and could start in disequilibrium or some films are now beginning to end with no new equilibrium being restored (Eden Lake, The Descent) these films are more shocking to a audience that is expecting the normal horror structure.• Scenes that normally occur in horror films are chase scenes, stalking scenes, abandonment, searching for the ‘noise’ and venturing into the unknown.
Character types...• Main antagonist, normally a monstrous other,(mutated human, alien, monster, serial killer)• Main protagonist (normally a ‘heroic’ male)• Final girl (normally the weakest most maternal female who will end up as a prize for the heroic male)• Teenagers (normally ‘stupid’, drunk or ‘sexually promiscuous’• Creepy children (normally with mutated power)• Police officers (can be both good and bad)• Supernatural presence (ghosts)• Stalker• Vampires, clowns, werewolves, cheerleaders, ‘loner’ or psychopath
Locations...• Horror films are often set in isolated areas such as villages or small towns• They are often set in places representing isolation and loneliness such as abandoned houses or places with a ‘dark’ background such as old hospitals or mental asylums.• A main theme in horror films is taking people from a civilized urban environment and taking them into a rural environment that there not used to and having the disequilibrium begin there.
Mise-en-scene...• Horror films all often carry the same repertoire of elements such as often having the colours red and black as signifiers of danger and death, all other dark colours present throughout• Lighting is often low key and dark, and helps to make any abnormal shadows and shapes stand out• Lighting in films often comes from dangerous sources such as fire ( candles, fireplaces, bonfires)• Characters are often in normal basic clothing to make them more relatable, which makes it scarier for the audience, often protagonist character and potential victims are wearing white to represent there innocence in comparison to the antagonists who will often wear dark colours representing danger.• In horror films there are a number of props often used such as, religious symbols, symbols of the supernatural, masks, weapons( guns, knives, chainsaws)
Camera work...• In horror films camera work places a big part in create the horror, suspense and drama portrayed in horror films.• Horror uses alot of extreme high and low angles to represent characters being more dominant then others.• Horror also uses alot of shot-reverse-shot so you can see how the character react to one another such as when the protagonists and antagonists meet.• Extreme close ups are often used as they help build up anticipation, such as a close up a gun before someone pulls the trigger.• Handheld camera shots are used to make the film seem more realistic and it makes it difficult for the audience to work out what is happening, films such as Cloverfield and the Blair Witch Project do this as it makes it seem as if the audience is watching something which someone has filmed and actually happened, making it all the more scary.• Point of view shots are often used to see things from a characters prospective to really immerse the audience into the film, POV shots are mainly used when either the antagonist is chasing its victim or when the protagonist is looking around• Depth of field is valuable in horror films as the focus can be shifted so that the background around the victim is blurred so you cant really see whats going on behind them so that its more shocking when the antagonist appears.
Narrative themes...• Boys meets girl• Two people who arent allowed to be together fall in love (Romeo and Juliet)• Genre is often spliced with other genres (rom- com)• Normally realistic• Normally quite predictable• Traditional ‘happy ever after’
Narrative structure... who• Romantic films often start with two people dont know each other being somehow forced together (forced roommates, stranded together, forced to work together)• The two will then begin to disagree with each other but start to fall in love• A big argument will occur and throw the couple into a state of disequilibrium• The two will reunite, live happily ever after, new equilibrium restored.
Character types... or poor• A male ( usually either a gentlemen, with not much to offer)• A female (normally thought to be either to good or not good enough for the man)• Some one who tried to come between them (the female character may be being forced to marry someone else)
Locations...• True romantic films with very little splicing from other genres are often periodic films set in the past in big mansions and houses• Modern romantic films are often set in normal everyday surroundings to make the more realistic and simplistic and so that the locations dont overpower the love story.
Mise-en-scene• Colours used in romance films are often reds and pinks associated with lust and love, brighter colours are normally used however in the drama of the films colours seem to darken.• Lighting in film is normally realistic and your everyday light sources (sun, lights) however in more romantic parts of the film light sources can come from candles or fireplaces (again red to symbolise love)• The characters are normally dressed as the point of romantic films is to keep them realistic and relatable to provoke a reaction from the audience.
Camera work...• Camera work in romance films is more realistic and not to complex and the whole part of romantic films is making them seem realistic and relatable and this will make the audience (largely female) emphasise with the situation and this will have the most effect on the audience.• Low and high angles may be used to show the characters being more dominant then each other
NARRATIVE THEMES...• CHASE SCENE• SUSPENSE• ANTICIPATION• DARKNESS• FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN• MONSTEROUS OTHER• CRIME• DEATH• STALKING
NARRATIVE STRUCTURE...• Thriller films usually offer the same narrative structure as horror films and also share similar conventions and similar a similar repertoire of elements.• They usually start off in a state of equilibrium and the audience will be aligned with a character who they will be made to emphasise with for the entirety of the film, usually the main protagonist or a final girl.• The film will then be thrown into a state of disequilibrium due to a series of unfortunate events such as a death or some form of mystery.• The film will then end in a new state of equilibrium with order being restored.
CHARACTER TYPES...• MAIN ANTAGONIST (in a thriller it is more likely that the antagonist will be a realistic antagonist compared to a monstrous other that may feature in a horror film)• MAIN PROTAGONIST (normally a male or female, with final girl qualities, that we will be made to align with from the start of the film)• VICTEMS normally unimportant characters with who we dont really get to know or care about to much, but there deaths would be necessary for the film• Stalkers, police, private detectives, people with mental illness’s, loners
LOCATIONS...• The locations of thriller films are similar to those of horror films as the two genres are often spliced together as they are so similar in their conventions and narratives, thrillers however tend to be slightly more realistic as this adds to the ‘thrill’ of the film and makes it all the more scary.• Locations are normally busy places such as big towns and cities as there is lots going on and can be shown as a stressful environment.• The disequilibrium in thrillers would normally occur in a dark location at night such as a alley way, or a someones home were it is unexpected as this is more shocking and unexpected.
MISE-EN-SCENE• Usually consists of dark harsh colours such as red and black, in comparison to a romance film which would use more bright pastel colours such as pink.• Like horrors the antagonists would wear dark clothing such as black to represent danger, where as the antagonist would wear a light colour such as white to represent their innocence in comparison.• Lighting is low key and dim, lighting would be used to create shadows which are used alot in thriller films in sequences such as chase scenes to show someone being followed.• Props used are normally religious symbols, symbols of the supernatural, weapons.
CAMERA WORK...• In thriller films camera work plays a big part in create the horror, suspense and drama portrayed in thriller films.• Thriller uses alot of extreme high and low angles to represent characters being more dominant then others.• Thriller also uses alot of shot-reverse-shot so you can see how the character react to one another such as when the protagonists and antagonists meet.• Extreme close ups are often used as they help build up anticipation, such as a close up a gun before someone pulls the trigger.• Point of view shots are often used to see things from a characters prospective to really immerse the audience into the film, POV shots are mainly used when either the antagonist is chasing its victim or when the protagonist is looking around.• Depth of field is valuable in thriller films as the focus can be shifted so that the background around the victim is blurred so you cant really see whats going on behind them so that its more shocking when the antagonist appears.
Narrative themes...• Science• Social concerns• Technology• Politics• Ideology• Human vs. science• The future
Narrative structure...• Sci-fi films normally start showcasing normal every day life in a state of equilibrium• Then disequilibrium will occur, such as a science experiment goes wrong or theres a alien/mutant invasion and man kind is threatened.• A state of new equilibrium is usually restored when man kind defeats science either throw ridding earth of the monstrous others (aliens/mutants) or fixing the failed experiment.
Character types...• Like all other genres sci-fi films normally consists of a main protagonist, victims and a antagonist.• In sci-fi films however it isnt always just one main antagonist but could be instead a group of antagonists, such as a alien invasion.• Sci-fi films normally consists of character types such as scientists, people craving recognition for their work which normally backfires, police and then a loner or ‘geek’ whose scientific knowledge helps save man kind.• There is also sometimes a female character who us used as a ‘prize’ for the protagonist for saving man kind.
Locations...• Locations in sci-fi films are usually earth, a other planet (where the monstrous others come from).• Big buildings and warehouses are normally featured as places where man kind go to get away from the monstrous other.• Science labs are often featured or science convections which is usually where a science experiment goes wrong.
Mise-en-scene...• Colours are usually dark such as black and grey, colours can also be ‘earth like’ such as greens and blues.• There are usually lots of scientific props featured such as science experiments and science equipment.• Lots of technology is featured in sci-fi films as sci-fi films tend to focus on the future, especially the future of mankind and technology is thought to be a big part of that.• Vehicles are often used in sci-fi films, especially lots of hi- tech expensive vehicles.• Weapons are also features as a way to fight off whatever is threatening man kind, weapons sometimes arent the norm however such as light sabers in star wars in comparison to a knife being used in a horror film.
Camera work...• Camera work in sci-fi is similar to that of horror and thriller and camera work is often used to shock and scare the audience.• Popular camera shots would be a long shot of a abandoned room(such as a science lab) and than a close up on a monstrous other being in the room that the protagonist is unaware of creating dramatic irony.• Some sci-fi films, such as clover field, use hand held camera shots as it makes it more realistic and frightening to the audience.