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The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
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The Rise Of Turkey
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The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
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The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
The Rise Of Turkey
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The Rise Of Turkey

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  • 1. The Rise of Turkey Beth Hill-Skinner Spring 2012 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 2. The Rise of Turkey• These slides accompanied a lecture series given at University of California, Riverside Extension in spring of 2012.• Some of the material has been deleted to avoid misuse or misrepresentation of the material.• Due to the changing nature of international events, some of the information may not be accurate at the time of your viewing of these slides.I hope that you are able to discover the significanceof the nation-state of Turkey at this time in history.~ Beth Hill-Skinner Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 3. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is on the rise… – As a diplomatic presence in the world – As an emerging economic leader – As a democratic presence in the Middle East – As a labor force that is learning to anchor its future with increasing support for education and encouragement of the entrepreneurial culture – As a fulcrum of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa – As a supplier of goods to Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe – As a key ally of the United States Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 4. The Rise of Turkey• This beautiful nation-state has a rich history and a powerful future. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 5. The Rise of Turkey• Area: 780,580 sq. km. Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77 million).• Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir (3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million).• Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.• Turkey includes one of the more earthquake- prone areas of the world. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 6. The Rise of Turkey• Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish.• Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million.• Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other. Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.• Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.• Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.• Health: Infant mortality rate--23.94/1,000. Life expectancy- -72.5 yrs.• Work force (27.43 million): By occupation--services 47.1%; agriculture 26.5%; industrySkinner and Beth Hill- construction 7.5%. 18.9%; and Property of OutoftheBoxIntl
  • 7. The Rise of Turkey• Independence: October 29, 1923. Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.• Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years.• Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.• Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (327 seats), Republican Peoples Party (CHP) (135 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (52 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (29 seats), and seven independents. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFnNGdHei_s&feature=related Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 9. The Rise of Turkey• Government is a Republic.• The Turkish state has been officially secular since 1924.• Approximately 99% of the population is Muslim.• Most Turkish Muslims follow the Sunni traditions of Islam, although a significant number follow Alevi and Shiite traditions.• There are at least 12 million Turkish citizens who assert a Kurdish identity, making them the largest ethnic minority in Turkey.• The role of religion in society and government, the role of linguistic and ethnic identity, and the publics expectation to live in security dominate public discourse. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 10. The Rise of Turkey President of the Republic--Abdullah Gul Prime Minister--Recep Tayyip ErdoganMinister of Foreign Affairs--Ahmet DavutogluAmbassador to the United States--Namik Tan Ambassador to the UN--Ertugrul Apakan Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 11. The Rise of Turkey• In the June 2011 parliamentary election for Turkeys 61st government, the AKP captured 49.9% of the total votes, and Recep Tayyip Erdogan became the Prime Minister of a single- party government for a third consecutive term. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 12. The Rise of Turkey• The rise of Turkey in the 21st century.• Turkey is a key strategic partner for the U.S.• The relationship has been strained at times, but Turkey remains an essential ally for the U.S.• Obama / Erdogan are said to be in regular communication Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 13. The Rise of Turkey• Abdullah Gül is the president of Turkey. He became the 11th president of Turkey on August 28, 2007, making him the first Muslim president of modern Turkey. He was also the Prime Minister of Turkey from 2002 November 18 to 2003 March 14. HEAD OF STATE Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 14. The Rise of Turkey• More than 70% of Turkeys population lives in urban areas that juxtapose Western lifestyles with more traditional ways of life.• Turkey is a large, middle-income country with relatively few natural resources. Its economy is currently in transition from a high degree of reliance on agriculture and heavy industry to a more diversified economy with an increasingly large and globalized services sector. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 15. Geo-Strategic Opportunity in the 21st Century Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 16. The Rise of Turkey• Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks.“• Today Turkey is a powerful nation state.• It has been a member of NATO since 1952 playing a key role many times for US forces; particularly for the Air Force.• Turkey is a UN member and held a non-permanent seat on the Security Council from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 17. The Rise of Turkey• Then President Turgut Ozal began to open up the economy in the 1980s.• There has been a customs union with the European Union since 1995.• In the 1990s, Turkeys economy suffered from a series of coalition governments with weak economic policies, leading to high-inflation boom- and-bust cycles that culminated in a severe banking and economic crisis in 2001.• Turkeys economy recovered strongly from the 2001 recession thanks to good monetary and fiscal policies and structural economic reforms made with the support of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 18. Istanbul, Turkey The Rise of Turkey Osher – 2012 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 19. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is a unique mix of politics, culture, society, and religion.• Although poised for geo-political influence, Turkey is not without its problems. – The Kurdish problem – The Armenian problem – The EU problem – The Israeli problem – The Syrian problem The Iranian problem) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 20. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is an ancient people and civilization dating back to a prehistory of 500,000 B.C.• In 2012, Turkey is a confluence of cultures, geography, civilization, and politics.• Turkey is poised to become a primary nation-state in the coming decades.• Turkey represents a form of democracy aligned with an Islamic nation-Muslim and secular• Many consider it an example for the Arab states.• Model might be an overstatement, but Turkey is certainly an example. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 21. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey has sought to be a member of the EU, but has repeatedly been denied membership.• One of the key stumbling blocks to opening new chapters is that Turkey has yet to fully implement the Ankara Protocol, which requires normalizing bilateral relations with EU member Cyprus, which Turkey has said it will not do until the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island are reunited.• We’ll discuss Cyprus in coming weeks. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 22. Turkish Republic created / born out of wars• 1911-1923• 1808-throughout 19th century• Ataturk established the modern nation- state of Turkey with the decided purpose for peace.• He recognized that ideology and rhetoric were mercurial• Survival is predicated upon stability, economic growth, and sustainability of government / social institutions Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 23. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is keenly aware of the perils of war• Peace and security are the leitmotifs for the for geopolitical strategy• One look at Turkey’s borders and it becomes clear• Not only asymmetric challenges but the neighborhood is fraught with threats to stability Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 24. Istanbul• The largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 25. Istanbul• The Bosphorus is the strait that connects the Mediterranean and the Black Sea• SeparatesEurope and Asia• Shipping route Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 26. The Republic of Turkey• Turkey is a Eurasian republic in Asia Minor and the Balkans; achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1923• Ankara is the capital city aka angora for the angora goats that gave rise to the city• At the time it was declared the capital, the population was est. 70,000• Now, it is est. 4,000,000 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 27. Where are the Balkans? Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 28. The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is a state that moves toward confidence-building measures• This is at times counter to U.S. foreign policy.• Cultural relations are an imperative• Its heritage as a mix of cultures and ethnicity result in a more flexible approach to foreign relations. (Syria) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 29. The Rise of Turkey• 16th largest economy?• Part of G-20• Partner in the fight against terrorists• Moving from traditional agrarian society/economy to industrialized/globalized• Newly industrialized nations often see a heavy toll in the lives of those who cannot retrain Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 30. The Rise of Turkey• Attila the Hun – 48-216 CE• White Hun Empire – 420-552 CE• Gokturk Empire – 552-743 CE• Avar Empire – 562-796 CE• Hazar Empire – 602-1016 CE• Uygur Empire – 740-1335 CE• Karahan Empire – 932-1212CE Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 31. The Rise of Turkey• Gazneli Empire – 962-1183 CE• Seljuk Empire – 1040-1157 CE• Harzemshah Empire – 1077-1231 CE• Golden Horde – 1224-1501 CE• Timur Khan Empire – 1369-1501 CE• Babur Empire – 1526-1858 CE• Ottoman Empire – 1299-1922 CE Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 32. What is Turkey• The Turkish people represent an amalgam of peoples that range from northern, central and western Asia, northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe.• The term Turkic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people including existing societies such as the:Turkish, Azerbaijani, Chuvashes, Kazakhs, Tatars, Kyrgyzs Turkmens, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Bashkirs, Qashqai, Gagau zs, Yakuts, Crimean, Karaites, Krymchaks, Karakalpaks, karachavs, Nogais• Includes civilizations that no longer exist:Gokturks, Kumans, Kipchaks, Avars, Bulgars, Turghes, Khazars, Seljuk Turks, Ottoman Turks, Mamluks, Timurids, Khotons, possibly the Huns Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 33. History of Turkey• Göktürks-From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership bound together the nomadic Turkic tribes into an empire, which eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts.• Göktürks is said to mean "Celestial Turks". This is consistent with "the cult of heavenly ordained rule“• According to Chinese sources, the meaning of the word Tūjué was "combat helmet”. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 34. History of Turkey• The nation of Turkey represents a people who have Turkic lineage, but have also undergone cultural assimilation.• The Oghuz Turks are those who moved west from the Chinese region. (9th c)• The term Oghuz was gradually supplanted among the Turks themselves by Türkmen, Turcoman, from the mid tenth century on, a process which was completed by the beginning of the thirteenth century. (tribe) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 35. History of Turkey• In general they were a herding society which possessed certain military advantages that sedentary societies did not have, particularly mobility.• Alliances by marriage and kinship, and systems of "social distance" based on family relationships were the connective tissues of their society.• In Oghuz traditions, tribal bonds were the strength and thus society was the result of the growth of individual families. But such a society also grew by alliances and the expansion of different groups, normally through marriages. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 36. History of Turkey• The militarism that the Oghuz empires were very well known for was rooted in their centuries-long nomadic lifestyle. Militarism ensured survival.• The terms "Turkmen" and "Turcoman" were often used as a designation for the Muslim- Oghuz Turks (Azerbaijanis, Turks of Turkey, Central Asian Turks) in periods of history.• Today (in Turkey) the word "Turkmen" refers to nomadic Turkish tribes (all Muslims), some of whom still continue this lifestyle.• Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 37. History of Turkey• The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Oğuz Turks• In the 11th century, the Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became a new homeland of Oğuz Turkic tribes.• The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire and to some Turkish principalities, mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia which were vassals of or at war with Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 38. History of Turkey• The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.• First to convert to Sunni Islam (end of 10c)• 1038: The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.• 1042: The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.• 1073: Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 39. History of Turkey• The Battle of Manzikert in 1071 where the Seljuks and Byzantines met played a key role in undermining the Byzantine Empire.• A chain of events led to the collapse of the Empire.• The stage for expansion of the Seljuks territory was set. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 40. History of Turkey• The impact of the victory was much more than a simple morale boost for the armies. It was one of the most glorious moments in Seljuk history, a moment of pride that would last for generations. Not surprisingly, the support for the Seljuq Sultan grew immediately.• The burden grew heavier on the Byzantine Empire as more and more soldiers joined the enemy army and gradually it could not contain the masses of warriors thrown against the capital city of Constantinople. Manzikert was naturally cast as not merely a geo-political struggle but also religious, and it was the source of much propaganda for the cause of the Seljuq Turks who were not only boosted by the victory but were also boosted by the new aura of their leader.• Sources from both sides exaggerate the details of the battle. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 41. What is Turkey• At present, there are six independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and TURKEY.• There are also several Turkic national subdivisions in the Russian Federation- Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic, Kabardino-Balkara, and Karachayevo- Cherkessiya.• Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 42. The Rise of Turkey• Hobbesian reality / Kantian peace• Why talk to Iran?• The actions of peace can only begin with talking• Turkey is a state that is committed to dialogue Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 43. Turkey and its Region• Stability is the objective: –Black Sea –Southern Caucus –Wider Middle East –Fragility of EU economy –(export dependant) –Iran –Arab Spring Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 44. The Rise of Turkey• Secularism – Separation of church and state – Current politics evidence a power struggle between nationalists, Islamists, secularists• Thriving economy – Edogan is credited with the economic progress – Progressives want to retain liberal freedoms• Economic security is a force within Turkey• Religion is a counter point for those who fear that secularism is eclipsing the Islamic history Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 45. The Rise of Turkey• Still struggles with human rights issues.• Economic problems• Problems with diverse populations• Nationalistic movements threaten democratic character.• Air Force base in SE Turkey has been used for years.• Was the central base during the Iraq War.• Remains important to U.S. today. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 46. The Rise of Turkey Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 47. The Rise of Turkey• Today Turkey is a nation-state contending with internal struggles.• Before Edogan and his party won in 2002, Turkey had spent years under weak coalition government. The military was the powerful actor and political parties had been servile.• Turkey had also undergone several economic crises, leading to a weak presence on the world stage.• Erdogan brought a vision with clear steps to counter the army’s political power.• Through the consolidation of a strong single-party government, Erdogan transformed Turkey into an economic powerhouse.• It’s presence on the world stage is now apparent and growing. It is a major force in the Middle East, the Caucasus, the Balkans,ofNorth Africa, and beyond. Property OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 48. The Rise of Turkey• By the 1970s, Turkey had become the most Westernized of Muslim countries.• Threats arose to Ataturk’s vision as rapid urbanization was changing Turkeys cities, and a free market economy had increased inequality.• Voters were frustrated at what they saw as corruption within the political system.• Many Muslims began to question Ataturks belief that Islam should be removed from politics.• Pro-Islamic politicians promised to correct the corruption and inequality. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 49. The Rise of Turkey• Today with an economy growing at 6% + (2010/11) some fear overheating.• Others fear that Erdogan’s renewed power will lead him to anti-democratic excesses.• There is also a new source of uncertainty, emerging from the Arab Spring countries.• For the last several years, Turks have pursued the foreign policy goal of “zero problems with neighbors.”• In recent months they have been forced to realize that they cannot, after all, be friends with everyone in the neighborhood. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 50. The Rise of Turkey-Linguistics• Khan-Turkish for Emperor• Sultan-Arabic for Ruler• Shah-Persian for King• Mehmet-Holy Roman Emperor• Universal ruler: Suleyman (after Solomon)Under Suleyman the Empire reached its apex. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 51. Ottoman Empire• It replaced the Byzantine Empire as the major power in the Eastern Mediterranean.• The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-66), when it expanded to cover the Balkans and Hungary, and reached the gates of Vienna.• The Empire began to decline after being defeated at the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and losing almost its entire navy.• It declined further during the next centuries, and was effectively finished off by the First World War and the Balkan Wars.• One legacy of the Islamic Ottoman Empire is the robust secularism of modern Turkey. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 52. Ottoman Empire-at its peak the following modern states• Turkey • Jordan• Egypt • Lebanon• Greece • Syria• Bulgaria • Parts of Arabia• Romania • Much of the coastal• Macedonia strip of North Africa• Hungary• Palestine Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 53. Ottoman Empire• Constantinople was the heart of the Byzantine Empire.• Became the capital of the Ottoman Empire when it was conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II.• Necessary for the success of the Ottomans due to location. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 54. Ottoman Empire• Mehmet slaughtered many of the population and forced the rest into exile, later repopulating the city by importing people from elsewhere in Ottoman territory.• Mehmet renamed Constantinople Istanbul – the city of Islam - and set about rebuilding it, both physically and politically, as his capital. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 55. Ottoman Empire• Istanbul became not only a political and military capital, but because of its position at the junction of Europe, Africa, and Asia, one of the great trade centres of the world.• Another important city was Bursa, which was a centre of the silk trade.• Some of the later Ottoman conquests were clearly intended to give them control of trade routes. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 56. Ottoman Empire• There were many reasons why the Ottoman Empire was so successful:• Highly centralized• Power was always transferred to a single person, and not split between rival princes – The Ottoman Empire was successfully ruled by a single family for 7 centuries. – The Sultan was the key to its success. – The role of the Janisseries was also indicative of its sustained power. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 57. Ottoman Empire• State-run education system Religion was incorporated in the state structure, and the Sultan was regarded as "the protector of Islam".• State-run judicial system Ruthless in dealing with local leaders promotion to positions of power largely depended on merit created alliances across political and racial groups united by Islamic ideology• Ottoman warrior code with ideal of increasing territory through jihad• United by organizational and administrative structures• Highly pragmatic, taking the best ideas from other cultures and making them their own• Encouraged loyalty from other faith groups , private power and wealth were controlled• Very strong military strong slave-based army (loyalty)• Expert in developing gunpowder as a military tool• Military ethos pervaded whole administration Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 58. Ottoman Empire• The economic strength of the Empire also owed much to Mehmets policy of increasing the number of traders and artisans in the Empire.• He first encouraged merchants to move to Istanbul. ( some were forced)• He also encouraged Jewish traders from Europe to migrate to Istanbul and set up in business there. Later rulers continued these policies. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 59. Ottoman Empire• In diplomatic circles it was often referred to as the Sublime Porte or simply as the Porte, from the French translation of the Ottoman name Bâb-i-âlî "high gate", due to the greeting ceremony the sultan held for foreign ambassadors at the Palace Gate.• This has also been interpreted as referring to the Empires position as gateway between Europe and Asia.• In its day, the Ottoman Empire was also commonly referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, though it should not be confused with the modern nation- state of that name. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 60. Ottoman Empire• In the 17th century, the Ottomans were weakened both internally and externally by costly wars, especially against Persia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia and Austria-Hungary. There was a long succession of sultans who were not as good as the generation of Mehmed II, Selim I and Suleyman I.• The scientific advantage the Ottomans had over the other European countries also diminished. While the Ottomans were stagnating in a stalemate with their European and Asian neighbor countries, the European development went into overdrive. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 61. Ottoman Empire• Eventually, after a defeat at the Battle of Vienna, in 1683, it was clear the Ottoman Empire was no longer the sole superpower in Europe.• In 1699, for the first time in its history the Ottomans acknowledged that the Austrian empire could sign a treaty with the Ottomans on equal terms, and actually lost a large territory which had been in Ottoman possession for two centuries.• Through a series of reforms, the empire continued to be one of the major political powers of Europe.• The banking system was reformed and the guilds were replaced with modern factories.• The Janissaries were disbanded, and a modern conscripted army was formed. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 62. Ottoman Empire• Ottoman Empire was Sunni in expression, but certainly not in a strict sense.• Leaders could be given rule based on meritocracy, not blood line.• The Ottomans were conquerors, not religious ideologists.• Safavid Empire was Shi’a and believed that leaders must have direct lineage to the Prophet Mohammad.• Their sense of being Muslim was a basis of consolidation within the ranks. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 63. Ottoman Empire• Externally, the empire ceased going into conflicts alone, and started entering alliances like the other European countries.• There was a series of alliances with countries such as France, Holland, Britain and Russia. A prime example of this was the Crimean war in which the English, French, Ottomans and others united against Russia.• By the end of the 19th century the empire was weakened to a great extent.• The advent of nationalism and the yearning for democracy was making the population restless. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 64. Ottoman Empire• The Ottoman Empire was an imperial power that existed from 1299 to 1923 (634 years), one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the Mediterranean Sea.• At the height of its power, it included Anatolia, the Middle East, part of North Africa, and south- eastern Europe. It was established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanlı dynasty. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 65. Success of the Ottoman’s• Europe was struggling with internal issues• The Reformation created a fracture that prevented consolidation on many fronts• The Ottomans were a plunder machine and shared generously with those who were successful• The Christian message was aligned with the righteousness of suffering and authorities elevated the holiness of poverty• Only those at the “top” were well bestowed with the largess of wealth Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 66. Success of the Ottoman’s• The preoccupation of the European powers with dynastic and religious rivalries permitted the Ottoman Empire to remain strong• The Islamic sense of bonds between kinsman maintained a relatively stable system• Ability to fully utilize ports through naval superiority at key trading locations• Bureaucratic administration (paperwork/docs)• Dragomans who maintained ties to differing peoples Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 67. Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• The success of the Ottoman sultans: – Leadership that inspired – Economic power – Ongoing conquests/pillages that fueled the needs of the soldiers…the family systems….the hierarchy – The administrative state…power tightly controlled – The contiguous use and strength of the Islamic religion/law code – People like to be ruled by a “winner” – The poll tax (jizya) on Jews and Christians• Weaker leaders/sultans led to a multitude of ills within the Empire. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 68. Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• Jews and Christians were referred to as dhimma. they were allowed to hold certain senior-level positions, such as financial advisers or physicians.• Always required to hold only those positions subordinate to their Muslim counterparts. They were even sometimes subjected to restrictions in dress, or were harassed by certain officials and neighbors.• There were locations where social segregation between Muslims and non-Muslims was the norm.• Stereotypes categorizing Christians and Jews were often utilized in proliferating the gap between them. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 69. Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• The European states had countered many of the strengths of the Ottoman’s therefore removing the advantage – Population began rising in 16th c – Agricultural investment was increasing – Technological improvements – Productivity in textiles and extractive industries – French Revolution and seeds of “democracy” Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 70. Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• In the latter stages of the Empire, many of the administrative structures had become fossilized• The sultans were lacking in vision, leadership, and the ability to contend with the changing world around them• Emergence from multi-ethnic empires in 18thc to nation states in 19c• Nation states use the state as an instrument of national unity, in economic, social and cultural life (not the ruler)• Successive wars and regional battles had weakened the Empire• Failure to adapt to new revenues• World War I and the defeat of the Central Powers Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 71. Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• World War I exposed the frozen conflicts as well as the untenable power of the Ottomans• The strength of the Ottoman military had declined in the absence of revenues• Janissaries were not as cohesive or as loyal. Had become a weakened institution• Religious conservatism became a fall back position (fight for Allah and Islam)• New fighting techniques (30yr war) and strategies using highly mobile field artillary• The end of the Great War resulted in the carving up of the once expansive Ottoman Empire Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 72. Kurds and Kurdistan• The condition of the Kurds continues to pose a threat to ongoing stability in Turkey and Iraq.• At the present, there is a relative stalemate• A strong central government in Iraq is in the interests of Turkey.• Territorial integrity is of great concern to Turkey.• A divided Iraq, with shared oil revenues, is not what Turkey will support.• Turkey would not like to contend with another economic force-the Kurds. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 73. Kurds and Kurdistan• The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) is the leading front of the effort to establish a nation state for the Kurdish people (formed in 1978)• The US and the EU have stated that the PKK is a terrorist organization• Is involved with drug, arms, and human trafficking• Has strong ties to Cyprus• Has it’s own satellite TV channel Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 74. Kurds and Kurdistan• Death toll attributed to the Kurdish / Turkish conflict: 32,000 PKK members have been killed and 14,000 have been captured alive 6,482 Turkish soldiers and security officials have been killed. 5,560 civilians have been killed. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 75. Kurds and Kurdistan Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 76. Kurds and Kurdistan Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 77. Kurds and Kurdistan Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 78. Kurdistan-what the region fears Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 79. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Born in 1881 in Salonika (now Thessaloniki) in what was then the Ottoman Empire. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 80. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Under Ataturk, Friday was no longer a public holiday.• Western legal codes were adopted to replace the form of Sharia law that had been used.• Islamic scholars were forced under state control.• Arabic script was replaced by the Latin alphabet.• European dress was required for both men and women. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 81. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 82. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• A product of his time and responded to the social milieu• Well-educated (secular institutions)• Envied the ascendency of Europe• Feared the power of Europe to diminish the Ottoman Empire• Wanted to see secularism as a means of modernizing the people (before the end of the Empire)• Wanted to see secularism as a condition of the new state (after the fall of the Empire) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 83. Seeds of Secularism• The Tanzimât period was a time of internal attempts at reforming the Empire.• Began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876].• The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire.• The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to bring religious and nationalist movements under a shared identity.• The reforms also attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire.OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Property of Skinner
  • 84. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• From his diary dated July 6, 1918, “…raising the people to the level of the elite instead of reducing the elite to the level of people”. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 85. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Europe was a growing industrial power• European powers controlled parts of Africa, Asia, and parts of every continent• Ataturk recognized that the Ottomans must modernize, but there was a resistance within the structures• One area that was addressed (and rebuked) was the role of religion• His support of secularism was a result of years of thoughtful consideration Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 86. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk-quotes• “Moses was a man who strove for the emancipation of the Jews, who had been groaning under the lashes of the Egyptians”• “Jesus was a person who comprehended the absolute destitution of his time and turned the reaction against the pains of his age into a religion of love”• *Islam had not+ “arisen as a result of the national evolution of the Arabs, but as a consequence of the emergence of Muhammad” [a figure of leadership and charisma] Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 87. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• As a member of the military elite he felt a keen sense of pride in his Turkish heritage• But he also witnessed the decline of his nation as the power structures languished in outdated practices• By the 19th century, the Ottomans had fallen well behind the rest of Europe in science, technology, and industry.• Nationalism was also threatening the Empire as ethnic groups sought to have state identity (which brought political legitimacy) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 88. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• The Balkan War of 1913 illustrated the importance of the region• Ottoman Empire lost territory on the European front• Russia lost territorial strategic positioning in the warm seas• Set the stage for WWI• End of WWI – left the region divided in to Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania – Kingdom of Serbia was renamed Yugoslavia Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 89. Balkan region-ethnicities in 1911 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 90. World War I• The triple alliance (Italy, Germany, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire) set the stage for the end of the Ottoman Empire• Russia and France countered the triple bloc in 1894• Britain remained isolated and benefitted from the wars between its competitors• Yet at the spark of the war, Russia came to the defense of the Serbs and thus the system of alliances laid the ground for the Great War Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 91. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Ataturk saw the dangers in not crafting a nation-state that was a modern construction• He also recognized the history of ethnic and religious wars• Ataturk was a reformist for years.• It was opportunity at the end of WWI that allowed him to actualize ideas that had been forming in his mind for years• Ataturk emerged as a leader in the midst of the carving of the Empire. (spoils of war go to the winner) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 92. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Creation of the modern state of Turkey was a brilliant assessment of the way forward• The War of Independence May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923• Republic of Turkey was declared in October 1923• Rather than allow yet another war ensue, the strategy of a modern nation-state was a solution that would set the stage for Turkey in the 20th century• The alternative was a nationalist based conflict that could have destroyed any/all resources and result in a further deterioration of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire (Think Iraq) Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 93. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Ataturk was a reformist for years.• It was opportunity at the end of WWI that allowed him to actualize ideas that had been forming in his mind for years• Ataturk had an excitement as the new leader of Turkey and determined to craft a state that would be able to contend with the modern world• “Gentleman, sovereignty has never been given to any nation by scholarly disputation. It is always taken by force and with coercion.”• Read “The Turkish Ordeal” –Halide Edib Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 94. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• He likewise crushed the Islamic ulema who sought power in the new state• Many saw the state as an extension of the caliphate.• Ataturk saw different, “Turkey is a state governed by a republican form of government”.• He abolished the caliphate, the sultanate, Ottoman Ministry of Religious Endowments, closed the sharia courts, shut down mosque colleges, madrassas, and established a public education system. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 95. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Ataturk’s actions drove a wedge between the progressives and the traditionalists.• The Sunni Muslim Kurds were most offended.• The Shiites in E. Anatolia were suspicious of a “secular” government led by mostly Sunni persons• Nationalism was not familiar, but Ataturk pushed forward and overwhelmed all challenges.• It was established that, “…accomodation between the ideas of constitutional democracy and individual liberty and religious devotion.” Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 96. Atatürk-The making of a nation-state Sweeping reforms• Dervish houses permanently closed• Ridiculed the fez and reportedly called it the “headwear of a barbarous, backward people”.• Denounced the long black outer shawl and veil women had been wearing for several years as a religiously conservative symbol.• Stated of the new state that there was a need to make use of all its human potential, including women, “two kinds of human beings, called men and women…in order to progress, the nation needed the involvement of both.” Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 97. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• On December 26, 1925, the international 24- hour clock was established in Turkey.• On the same day, the Western calendar , the calendar of advanced nations replaced the Islamic calendar.• Arabic script was retired and Roman script was adopted.• His focus was on literacy.• Encouraged industry as an economic base. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 98. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Ataturk and his allies would not be stopped by “religious backwardness”• The new state must emphasize science, modernization, and national identity.• An assassination attempt on Ataturk’s life (1926) resulted in government tribunals called the Independence Tribunals to ensure that pockets of dissent were dealt with quickly. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 99. Cyprus• The EU accession of Cyprus has complicated the image that Turkey likes to cultivate.• Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes.• A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan Peoples Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish militarys attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 100. Turkish-Cypriot Conflict Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 101. Turkish-Cypriot Conflict• Between September 1570 and August 1571 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, starting three centuries of Turkish rule over Cyprus.• 1878 Congress of Berlin resulted in the Cyprus Convention, a secret agreement granting Great Britain administrative control of the island.• Yet, it was to remain an Ottoman possession.• WWI, Britain reneged & in 1925 it was declared to be a colony of the crown.• Riots ensued on the island. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 102. Turkish-Cypriot Conflict• The island developed a “split” people• Those who preferred the Ottoman/Turkic/Islamic way of life and religion• Those who preferred the Greco/Christian way of life.• Treaties have held and been broken.• Threat of civil war have periodically arisen.• Turkey invaded in 1974.• Attempts to create a United Cyprus have failed. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 103. Turkish-Cypriot Conflict Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 104. Turkey and the EU• The binary interpretation of Turkey’s foreign policy as well as domestic decisions evidence that unwillingness of the U.S. and the EU to relinquish particular powers. (not referring to necessary powers)• The relationship with the EU is colored by the past and the prospect of the present. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 105. Human Rights Issues A matter of interpretation? Based on which law code?• Impunity of military elite• More independent judiciary• Freedom of political parties (Islamists and separatist outlawed)• Civil law fully adhered to: women, children, torture, journalists, and ethnic groups Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 106. Turkey and EU• 2002-2007 – 230-660billion GDP – 36-125 billion exports – 14%-1% budget deficit• EU accession process gave investors confidence• Germany and France were against Turkey as a member of the EU• Turkey membership was stalled• Cyprus became a signature reason Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 107. Human Rights Issues-Orhan Pamuk• In 2005, Orhan Pamuk was put on trial in Turkey after he made a statement regarding the Armenian Genocide and mass killing of Kurds in the Ottoman Empire. His intention, according to the author himself, had been to highlight issues relating to freedom of speech (or lack thereof) in the country of his birth.• The ensuing controversy featured the burning of Pamuks books at rallies. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 108. Human Rights Issues • In the interview, Pamuk stated,"Thirty thousand Kurds have been killed here, and a million Armenians. And almost nobody dares to mention that. So I do.” Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 109. The Rise of Turkey-present• Turkey represents the movement from a unipolar world to the inevitable global shift toward multipolarity.• Turkey’s rising independence and more muscular stance in global affairs is the outcome of a range of strategies.• The AKP (Justice and Development Party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has managed the economic rise of Turkey• Erdoğan inherited a debt of $23.5 billion to the IMF, which has been reduced to $6.1 billion in 2010.• He decided not to sign a new deal. Turkeys debt to the IMF will be completely paid off in 2013 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 110. Region Problems Radiate• Throughout the course of human history international borders have been realigned by war, strife, and political jostling.• This often results in the separation of similar ethnic groups, tribes, and families.• There have also been times however when ethnic groups are incapable of living together and redraw national borders because of strife between the sides.• This is the case regarding the nations of Georgia and South Ossetia. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 111. The Rise of Turkey-present• 2007 saw a rise in tensions between secularists and Islamists.• On 9/27/2007 Ergogan publically stated that, “antisemitism is a crime against humanity.”• He followed up with, “Islamophobia is also a crime again humanity.”• The head scarf has become a political symbol.• Edorgan does not want to encourage this.• Military sees itself as protector of the state and Ataturk’s vision• Secularism is to be a form of governance that remains equidistant from all expressions of religion. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 112. Turkey and the Arab Spring• Has played critical role through out the revolutionary movements nominally referred to as the Arab Spring.• Poised to capitalize on the changes in the Arab States from an economic standpoint.• Has balanced Iran’s position.• Serves as a model for other Islamic states in crafting a more advanced progressive form of government. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 113. Turkey and Syria• Turkey has long served as the sole “go- between” for Syria and Israel• Shuttle diplomacy for indirect negotiations had been the contribution that Turkey played• Both countries have/had trust with Turkey• Borders, territories, security, water, normalization….remain the core of the conflict• Turkey’s fractured relationship with Israel following the flotilla incident in 2010 has negatively impacted the ability of Turkey to serve a constructive role in the region Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 114. Turkey and IsraelMay 18, 2012 at 2:23 PM• NICOSIA, Cyprus, May 18 (UPI) -- The dispute between Turkey and Israel over major natural gas fields under the eastern Mediterranean escalated sharply after Ankara scrambled F-16s to intercept an Israeli aircraft over Turkish-controlled northern Cyprus, where Ankara has started exploratory drilling.http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy- Resources/2012/05/18/Turkey-warns-Israel-over- airspace-violations/UPI-78551337365388/ Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 115. Turkey and Israel• Turkey and Israel have maintained a strong alliance for decades.• Not just the governments but the people.• Shared in common were a democratic form of government, partnerships with the west, restraint for religious influence at the state level, and a mutual respect for one another in the midst of the Middle East tensions.• The military to military relationship was solid with the sharing of intel and resources.• For the U.S. this relationship has been a base of Middle East stability during the era when Turkey and Israel (Egypt) were allied. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 116. Turkey and Israel• Israel’s December 2008 offensive in Gaza strained relations as Turkey took an increasingly public stance on the crackdown. (Turkey along with many other nation states).• Erdogan outburst at Davos 2009• The response of the U.S.-Jewish lobby to back Armenian efforts to have the 1915 incidents recognized as "genocide" as a result of the public confrontation between the Turkish prime minister and Israeli president in Davos raised tensions. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 117. Turkey and Israel• May 2010 saw a further deterioration of relations between these two key states when Israeli soldiers boarded a vessel owned by the Turkish nongovernmental organization.• The Humanitarian Relief Foundation (IHH) was part of a six-ship flotilla sailing to Gaza with the declared intention of breaking Israel’s naval blockade, and killed eight Turkish citizens and a Turkish-American.• Turkey immediately recalled its ambassador in Tel Aviv. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 118. Turkey and Israel• The flotilla incident in 2010 fractured relations between the two democracies in the Middle East.• The Erdogan –Netanyahu relationship is tense, which is an undesirable state of affairs.• The region has long been steadied by the alliance between the two democratic states in the midst of autocratic regimes. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 119. Turkey and Israel• On September 2, 2011 the release of the UN secretary general’s panel of inquiry report on the Gaza flotilla crisis last year contributed to the breakdown in Turkey/Israel relations citing excessive use of force.)• Turkey (Erdogan) stated that it wanted a public apology from Israel (Netanyahu). Netanyahu refused.• Their relationship is representative of a tick-up in the rhetoric.• But there are breaks in the tension. (10/2011 earthquake) First time to talk in 10 months.• Few weeks earlier Peres & Netanyahu condolences to Erdogan after the death of his mother. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 120. Turkey and Israel• Events in the Middle East change…and often.• Turkey has been at the forefront of the Syrian crisis.• Relations with Israel could also change quickly given the circumstance that necessitates these two influential nation states to cooperate and combine resources.• The Middle East region remains attentive to the tensions between Turkey and Israel. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 121. The Rise of Turkey -today• There is an uneven view of Turkey today.• The EU, Israel, Armenians, Kurds, along with groups in the US are wary of the rise of Turkey.• Some say that there is an Islamist agenda to rival the powers in the Middle East.• It would be naïve to gush over Turkey as some have done.• But its future, given the ability to deal with domestic issues is promising. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 122. The Rise of Turkey-today• However, Turkey’s strength is fully weighted on its macro-economic strategy.• While working at the moment, its weaknesses threaten Turkey’s rise.• The domestic issues and financial insecurities, if not addressed and remedied may challenge the growing power of Turkey• As Erdoğan contends with the growing internal struggles, his maneuvers to balance the international with the domestic could fail. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 123. The Rise of Turkey-challenges• 1996 saw the rise of the Turkish Islamic party.• The Turkish Islamic party gained enough popularity to win over 20 percent of the national vote and came to power in a coalition government.• In response, secular officials clamped down on Islams most visible symbols, among them the head scarf.• While Turkey has a future that continues on the highway of rising power, its past may prove to be an impediment.• Unless Turkey can summon the confidence to face it past, the fractures, and the nationalist movements that challenge its power. Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 124. Recommended readingTurkey: A Short History. Roderic H. Davison Portrait of a Turkish Family. Irfan OrgaThe Emergence of Modern Turkey. Bernard LewisCrescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds. Stephen Kinzer Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner
  • 125. Recommended readingFrom the Sultan to Ataturk: Turkey: The Peace Conferences of 1919-23 and Their Aftermath (Makers of the Modern World). Andrew MangoThe Ottoman Empire and the World Around It (Library of Ottoman Studies). Suraiya Faroqhi Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill- Skinner

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