A group of German officers and civilians concluded in July that getting rid of Hitler offered the last remaining chance to end the war before it swept onto German soil from two directions. On July 20, 1944 they tried to kill him by placing a bomb in his headquarters in East Prussia. The bomb exploded, wounding a number of officers-several fatally-but inflicting only minor injuries on Hitler. Afterward, the GESTAPO (q.v.) hunted down everyone suspected of complicity in the plot. One of the suspects was Rommel, who committed suicide. Hitler emerged from the assassination attempt more secure in his power than ever before. http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaselector/check/player/nol/newsid_6660000/newsid_6662600?redirect=6662661.stm&news=1&nbram=1&bbram=1&bbwm=1&nbwm=1
World War II Part 2
World War II Part II
Strategies Britain took advantage of a new technology: radar Air raid sirens Blackout curtains Bomb shelters Fire Fighters* Blitz lasted for 57 nights
Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few. Most intense bombing occurred between June 10 – Oct 31 Lasted through May 1941, when Germany turned towards Sovietshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclipslibrary_clip19.ram
So to recap… April 9, 1940 – Hitler takes Denmark and Norway May 10 – Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France to British Channel June 10 – Fr govt flees June 14 – Germans take over Paris Aug 1940 – Luftwaffe hits London hard British Royal Airforce, Chamberlain – “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”
Operation Barbarossa Hitler’s attempt to conquer the Soviet Union 3 million Germans pour into the Soviet Union – Blitzkrieg attacks Soviets initially lose about 2.5 million soldiers (caught off guard – missing their purged generals)
Scorched Earth Policy Soviets destroyed their own crops, farm equipment and factories to prevent the Germans from using them General Winter slows German advancement September 1941 – siege of Leningrad begins
Total War What does a war like this mean for the civilian population?
America’s Involvement Lend-Lease Act FDR persuades Congress to sell or lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the US” Atlantic Charter – goal for the war – “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny” “A day that will live in infamy” Pearl Harbor is bombed December 7, 1941 – United States declares war on Japan the next day Germany and Italy declare war on US Allies meet and agree to target Europe, then Asia
North Africa Campaign http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_north_africa_camp German forces led by Erwin Rommel the “Desert Fox” Hitler wanted Suez Canal Access to ME’s oil fields Cut off the India-Britain supply line Axis and Allies battle back and forth through 1940 and 1941 1942 – Rommel aggressively takes N. Africa October 23, 1942 – 2nd Battle of El Alamein – led by British General Bernard Montgomery
2 Battle of El Alamein nd October 23, 1942 – 2nd Battle of El Alamein – led by British General Bernard Montgomery Allied troops provide reinforcements N. Africa liberated by Allies, victory May 13, 1943
American tank destroyers in Tunisia pass a farm on their way to battle Erwin Rommels Afrika Korps in 1943
Onto Italy http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo Allies invade Italy on July 10, 1943 Described as the “Beginning of the End” in Anne Frank’s Diary
Meanwhile… Battle of Stalingrad Hitler is determined to capture Stalin’s namesake city; Stalin determined to defend Germans surround the city, Russians encircle the Germans… Winter sets in Germans surrender early 1943 and lose over 300,000 men; one of the costliest battles of the war Red Army launches a counter attack immediately after and pushes the Germans out of the Soviet Union – the retreat begins
D-Day http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch June 6, 1944 The 5000-vessel armada stretched as far as the eye could see, transporting over 150,000 men and nearly 30,000 vehicles across the channel to the French beaches. Six parachute regiments -- over 13,000 men -- were flown from nine British airfields in over 800 planes. More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over coastal Normandy immediately in advance of the invasion.
Fun Facts Compliments of BBC War planners had projected that 5,000 tons of gasoline would be needed daily for the first 20 days after the initial assault. In one planning scenario, 3,489 long tons of soap would be required for the first four months in France. By nightfall on June 6, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore, securing French coastal villages. And within weeks, supplies were being unloaded at UTAH and OMAHA beachheads at the rate of over 20,000 tons per day. Captured Germans were sent to American prisoner of war camps at the rate of 30,000 POWs per month from D-Day until Christmas 1944. Thirty-three detention facilities were in Texas alone.
Success of D-Day Paris is liberated on August 25, 1944 All of France is freed
Soviets Begin Advancing East After Battle of Stalingrad, Germans began to continually lose ground
Closest attempt on Hitler’s Life: July 20, 1944
10 minute challenge – go! Use pages 966-972 Create a propaganda poster that illustrates one of the concerns of France, Germany, Britain, or Russia during WW II *Insert Class Discussion of Domestic Challenges during the War here*
Bombing Germany For two years the Allied forces mercilessly bombed German military bases, factories, railroads, oil depots, and major cities Hamburg – 10 day bombing nearly levels the city Dresden – 135,000 people killed February 1945