The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era - AP European History

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French Revolution
Napoleonic Era
AP European History

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The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era - AP European History

  1. 1. The French Revolution AP European History Beth Hals
  2. 2. The Eve of Revolution • Pick up your next set of notes at the front of the room • In pairs, with a neighbor, read your Cahiers de doleances or account from Arthur Young • (cahiers de doleances were lists of grievances that were drafted throughout France while an election for the Estates General was occurring) – Write a sentence that summarizes the issues in France at the eve of Revolution – Choose one quote from your document that summarizes one of the most paramount issues – Be prepared to share with your classmates
  3. 3. The Estates • First Estate – clergy • Second Estate – noble families • Third Estate – everyone else – bourgeoisie – peasant farmers – **Overwhelming majority
  4. 4. 1 Estate st • • • • • • 1% of population (conservatives) Roman Catholic clergy 10% of French land Wealthy- arch/bishops Poor- parish priests No direct taxes (2% gift)
  5. 5. 2 Estate nd • • • • 2% of population Nobility (conservatives) 20% of French land Highest offices (sons of nobles) – Govt., church, army • Refuses to pay taxes – Cause of revolution
  6. 6. 3 Estate rd • 98% of population • Comprised of 3 economically different groups: – City-dwelling middle class (bourgeoisie) – Urban lower class – Peasant farmers
  7. 7. Bourgeousie • Power growing since MA • Many well-educated – Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality • Some as wealthy as nobles – Desired social status, political power equal to wealth • Paid much in taxes
  8. 8. Workers • • • • Poorer than bourgeoisie Wore sans-culottes (w/out knee britches) Most literate Often hungry (bread) – Spring 1789 bad harvest, prices doubled • Most supported revolution
  9. 9. Peasants • 80% of population • 50% of income paid in taxes – Feudal dues, tithe, taxes • Owed the corvee- tax paid w/ work on govt. roads • No Enlightenment ideals – Revolt against oppression
  10. 10. So Why Revolution? • All estates had reasons for hating Old Regime • Weak leadership at top – Louis XVI – Bourbon dynasty • Weak, indecisive • incompetent
  11. 11. • Marie Antoinette – Vain, unintelligent – Austrian • Elitist attitude toward the French – “Let them eat cake!”
  12. 12. Previous Advisors… • Rene Maupeou – Chancellor of Louix XV – Had tried to break apart parlement – Exiled parl. To different parts of the country – Tried to increase taxes on nobility – Reforms halted when Louis XV dies • Jacques Turgot – Louis XVI’s first minister – Removed restrictions on grain trade – Eliminated guilds – Changed corvee into money payments – Wants to tax nobility, but Louis XVI dismisses him b/c he wants noble’s support
  13. 13. • Jacques Necker – Director-General of Finances – Swiss banker; produced an overly optimistic report – Without American revolution govt. would have surplus • Charles Alexander de Calonne – Minister of Finance – 1786 (he’s more realistic) – Makes several bold proposals… (wait for it…)
  14. 14. Calonne’s Suggestions • Lower the “gabelle” (tax) on salt • Convert peasant service to monetary payments • Create new land tax applied equally to all people regardless of social status** – **would allow gov’t to abandon most other indirect taxes thus… – The need to consult parlement would be rare!
  15. 15. Calonne’s Plan… • Calonne meets with the Assembly of Notables to present his plan - 1787 – (members of clergy and aristocracy) • Surprise! – Clergy and Aristocracy reject it – Seek reappointment of Necker – Claim only the Estates General can approve new taxes • Why would they be okay with calling up the EG? – 2 to 1 vote…clergy and aristocracy continually dominate!
  16. 16. • Louis XVI replaces Calonne with Charles Lomenie de Brienne (Archbishop of Toulouse) – Brienne had opposed Calonne at the Assembly of Notables – But…when he looks at the books he realizes France is in really deep trouble – Recommends Calonne’s plan – Nobles and Clergy so mad they reduce the “don gratuit” • Contribution they usually made to gov’t
  17. 17. So…1788 • Local Parlements calling for pre-Richelieu restoration of privileges • Urban food shortages from transportation problems • Most taxes fall on poorer population (peasants) • Gov’t bankrupt – Can we say Versailles? American Rev? Royal gifts to nobles? • Conflict between King, Nobility, and Bourgeoisie for political control • Peasants want to own land
  18. 18. Problems… • Desire to tax nobles - refused unless Estates General called – Had not met since 1614 – Called to Versailles May 1, 1789 • Invitation to revolution • Representatives show up with their cahiers de doleances (list of grievances)
  19. 19. New Demands… • 1789 3rd Estate demands all 3 estates meet together – Each vote count equally – 610 members in 3rd Estate – 591 members combined in 1st and 2nd Estates • King sides with nobles- follow old rules
  20. 20. • Can you list the 5 stages of Revolution?
  21. 21. New Demands… • 3rd Estate determined-gain power –Spokesman Abbe Sieyes –June 16, 1789 suggests 3rd Estate change name to National Assembly –National Assembly- pass laws, reform in people’s name
  22. 22. Closed for painting
  23. 23. We vow to remain until we ratify a Tennis Court Oath Constitution •Angered, 3rd Estate declares themselves a National Assembly on June 17, 1789 •They meet on a nearby tennis court and vow to remain until a Constitution was established (by Jacques Louis David)
  24. 24. National Assembly • Formed June 20,1789 – Tennis Court Oath – Cahiers- list of grievances and desired reform • End to absolute monarchy • Representative govt. • 1st deliberate act of revolution
  25. 25. Louis’ Reaction… • Make peace with 3rd Estate – All estates meet together • Swiss mercenaries ordered to Paris – Did not trust loyalty of French soldiers • Bourgeoisie fear end to Assembly • Mobs riot over price of bread
  26. 26. Storming of the Bastille • July 14, 1789 • Want gun powder to defend Paris and National Assembly
  27. 27. No Dice • • • Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 peasants sweep through and attack nobility and feudal institutions
  28. 28. Long-term Causes • People of Paris were hungry • High unemployment • High prices
  29. 29. Storming of the Bastille – The Big Picture • Significance: – Militarily- Louis gives up use of troops – Politically- kings power reduced, National Assembly saved – Symbolic- act of revolution people ready to fight
  30. 30. The Great Fear
  31. 31. The People • Still in MA – No education – No news- rumors only of Bastille and killing • Fear of violence spreading • Worried King will get even with them – Violent, superstitious, ignorant • Grouping together for 1st time
  32. 32. The Beginning… • Rebellion from Paris spread to countryside • Rumors Include that the… – Nobles have hired brigands to terrorize – Royal troops were being sent into rural districts • Great Fear breaks out
  33. 33. Great Fear • Reaction: peasants hide but no brigands – Peasants become brigands – Upset soldiers do not come- fight each other • Break into nobles houses– Tore up legal documents binding them to the land/feudal dues – Houses burned – Try to retake food supplies and land they think is rightfully theirs
  34. 34. Reforms of the Assembly
  35. 35. Why Reforms? • Great Fear & Paris mobs • National Assembly – August 4th – liberal nobles and clergy rose to renounce their feudal rights, dues, and tithes, an act that was more symbolic than real since they would probably have lost them anyway – most of these aristocrats would receive some compensation for their losses – this dramatic session led to all citizens being subject to the same and equal laws
  36. 36. Accomplishments • • • • End of Old Regime End feudalism & serfdom End church tithes End social privileges – Nobles & clergy • End sale of offices • Opening of public offices
  37. 37. “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality” • Aug. 27, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen – Men born and remain free – Limited monarchy (constit.) – Begin drafting a Constitution • Law making assembly created – Legislative Assembly (1791) – Replace Provinces with 83 local “departments” – State controlled church • Cath Ch loses its land and independence • Church officials and priests to be elected by the public and paid as state officials
  38. 38. Declaration of the Rights of Women • 1791 by Olympe de Gouges – Revolutionary radical • Applied Dec. Rights of Man to women • Women also citizens w/ property rights
  39. 39. Mary Wollstonecraft • Early feminist • 1792 A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Women and men do NOT have definite spheres
  40. 40. New Problems • Church issue divides peasants and bourgeoisie – Peasants will oppose other revolutionary changes • Don’t mess with salvation!
  41. 41. King’s Response • King reluctantly approves Constitution and Declaration • June 1791 Louis and family try to flee to Austrian Netherlands – Caught and returned to Paris – Louis discredited and plan for constitutional monarchy – Radicals’ influence increased
  42. 42. Change… • Sept. 1791 new constitution completed – Legislative Assembly replaced National Assembly
  43. 43. • King and his family taken to Paris so the 3rd Estate Revolutionaries can keep him out of the way • National Assembly establishes the nationstate as the source of all sovereignty or political authority
  44. 44. • Marie Antionette – sister of the Emperor of Austria • Austria and Prussia invade France • French revolutionaries hold them back • French leaders meet, new constitution • Convention – new ruling body – abolished monarchy, proclaimed France a republic
  45. 45. Dun, dun, dun…. • • • Jacobins lead the Convention Imprison royal family Behead king for treason in 1793
  46. 46. Marie is killed in October
  47. 47. Reign of Terror • • • • • Prussia and Austria regroup Britain and Spain join in Convention worried about foreign threats Throw out constitution, AGAIN, Committee of Public Safety – led by Maximilien Robespierre – an all-powerful enforcer of the revolution – Murders any with antirevolutionary tendancies Guillotine: between 18,000 and 40,000 people were executed during the Reign of Terror
  48. 48. Robespierre • Controls anarchy • Beheads tens of thousands of French citizens • Creates strong national military
  49. 49. Symbols of France • • • • Tricolor – red, white, blue Le Marsellaise – national anthem Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite Viva la nation! – Long live the nation!
  50. 50. • Guillotine for Robespierre • New constitution, 1795 • Directory in charge (five man gvt) – builds up the military
  51. 51. Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the Directory in 1799 – Legitimizes actions with popular vote – Declares himself the First Consul under the new constitution – (…the FOURTH new constitution…)
  52. 52. Improving life • Domestic Reforms – Agriculture, infrastructure, and public education – Works things out with the Cath. Ch. • Napoleonic Codes – 1804 – recognized equality of French citizens – Big step for human rights law – But not very good for women or children
  53. 53. Emperor • Crowns himself emperor in 1804 • Literally crowns himself, shows he owes his throne to no one but himself
  54. 54. • • • • Building an Empire Valued rapid movements and effective use of large armies New plan for every battle Presence “worth 40,000 troops” The Grand Empire – – • Dissolves the HRE – • • annexes areas of France, the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany Creates 38-member Confederation of the Rhine Cuts Prussia in half; turns old Poland into the Duchy of Warsaw Controls Europe by placing relatives and friends on thrones of conquered nations
  55. 55. • • Sold Louisiana land to the USA – 1. Money to fund his army – 2. So Britain couldn’t access the Mississippi Failed to acquire Britain – Battle of Trafalgar • Led by Br. Admiral Horatio Nelson • Napoleon turns his sights to Russia
  56. 56. Effects of Nationalism • • • • France has new found sense of nationalism Nationalism – tremendous pride and devotion in and to your country But, nationalism in conquered countries inspires revolts against France, too Spain loses holdings in the Americas b/c colonies revolt against Spain’s weakened control
  57. 57. Russia • In 1812 Napoleon invades Russia with 600,000 French soldiers • Scorched Earth Policy • General Winter – Gives up in October – Only 100,000 survive
  58. 58. Coalition Against Napoleon • Russia, Britain, Austria, Sweden and Prussia become allies to take out Napoleon • 1813 – Battle of the Nations at Leipzig – Napoleon is defeated
  59. 59. Exiled • Napoleon abdicated • Victors exile him to Elba • Recognize Louis XVIII as king of France (brother of Louis XVI) – Restoration not a smooth one – King accepts Napoleonic Code and honors land settlements – But, people nervous and fear
  60. 60. He returns! • Napoleon escapes island exile and returns! • Soldiers flock to him • Citizens cheer, king flees, • March 1815, Napoleon reenters Paris
  61. 61. • • The Final Showdown June 18, 1815 opposing armies meet head to head in Waterloo, Belgium Br Duke of Wellington; Pr. General Blucher – Lead the attack and crush France (Wellington at Waterloo)
  62. 62. This time it really is the end… – Napoleon forced to abdicate again – Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
  63. 63. Fixing Europe • The Congress of Vienna – 1814 to 1815 • The principal negotiators were: • Austria -- Prince Klemons von Metternich • Prussia -- King Frederick William III • Russia -- Czar Alexander I • Great Britain -- Castlereagh • France -- Prince Talleyrand
  64. 64. Congress of Vienna Work to restore order to Europe – Recognize balance of power • 5 nation-states • Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France – Gain power at expense of smaller states • Austria took some Italian territories • Russia took most of Poland • Britain added territories in Asia and the W. Hemisphere • Prussia too Rhine River land in W. Germany • Create Kingdom of Netherlands by joining Belgium and Luxembourg together with Holland
  65. 65. Congress of Vienna cont. • Return to Status Quo – Restored old monarchies of Europe • Bourbons on throne in France and Spain • Holy Roman Empire – Reduced from 300+ independent states to 39 separate German states • Established a stable Europe which tried to prevent war • Very successful; peace in Europe for the next 100 years • Conservative; Tried to prevent domestic change in Europe
  66. 66. Fini

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