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Revolution in China
 

Revolution in China

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    Revolution in China Revolution in China Presentation Transcript

    • Revolution in ChinaRevolution in China
    • Heading towards revolution inHeading towards revolution inChina…China… 1800s1800s– The Opium WarsThe Opium Wars– Open Door PolicyOpen Door Policy– The Boxer RebellionThe Boxer Rebellion The Republic of ChinaThe Republic of China– Formed in Nanjing March 12, 1912Formed in Nanjing March 12, 1912 Sun Yat-sen is President, Yuan Shikai quicklySun Yat-sen is President, Yuan Shikai quicklyreplaced him, but not a smooth transitionreplaced him, but not a smooth transition May Fourth Movement, 1919May Fourth Movement, 1919 Civil War DevelopsCivil War Develops– Kuomintang Party (Nationalist) – Sun Yat-sen (diesKuomintang Party (Nationalist) – Sun Yat-sen (diesfrom cancer in 1925), then Chiang Kai-shekfrom cancer in 1925), then Chiang Kai-shek– Communist Party – Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)Communist Party – Mao Zedong (Tse-tung) Most famous event occurs when the NationalistsMost famous event occurs when the Nationalistschase the Communists on thechase the Communists on the Long MarchLong March andandthe Communists retreat and establish a base in athe Communists retreat and establish a base in aNorthwestern section of ChinaNorthwestern section of China
    • Japan Invades ChinaJapan Invades China The Manchurian Incident – September 1931The Manchurian Incident – September 1931– Japanese railway is attacked, Japanese claimJapanese railway is attacked, Japanese claimChinese dissidents are to blame, use it as an excuseChinese dissidents are to blame, use it as an excuseto invadeto invade Japanese invade Manchuria, name it ManchukuoJapanese invade Manchuria, name it Manchukuo 1933 – Japanese attack the Great Wall region1933 – Japanese attack the Great Wall region July 7, 1937 - full scale invasion of ChinaJuly 7, 1937 - full scale invasion of China– Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing all fallBeijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing all fall– Rape of NanjingRape of Nanjing China will be on the allies side in WW IIChina will be on the allies side in WW II Japanese will surrender their Chinese holdings inJapanese will surrender their Chinese holdings in1945, once they surrender to the US1945, once they surrender to the US
    • Chinese RevolutionChinese Revolution Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist) v. MaoChiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist) v. MaoZedong (Comm.)Zedong (Comm.) China unites to fight Japan (1930s – 1945)China unites to fight Japan (1930s – 1945) During WW II, United States pumped $During WW II, United States pumped $into Guomindang partyinto Guomindang party WW II ends, Chinese Civil War for fourWW II ends, Chinese Civil War for fouryearyear
    • Chinese Civil War EndsChinese Civil War Ends By 1949 – Mao Zedong has millions of peasantsBy 1949 – Mao Zedong has millions of peasantsin N. Chinain N. China Mao’s forces head South, chasing theMao’s forces head South, chasing theGuomindangGuomindang Guomindang (Nationalists) flees to the island ofGuomindang (Nationalists) flees to the island ofTaiwan and establishes the Republic of ChinaTaiwan and establishes the Republic of China Communists and Mao take over mainland ChinaCommunists and Mao take over mainland Chinaand call it the People’s Republic of Chinaand call it the People’s Republic of China
    • Which one is the “Real” China?Which one is the “Real” China? Both claim they are theBoth claim they are thetrue Chinatrue China Taiwan developsTaiwan developsindustrially, becomes anindustrially, becomes aneconomic powerhouseeconomic powerhouse Taiwan’s credibility takesTaiwan’s credibility takesa blow when the Uniteda blow when the UnitedNations and the UnitedNations and the UnitedStates recognize theStates recognize thePeople’s Republic ofPeople’s Republic ofChina as China in 1973China as China in 1973 Taiwan refuses to unifyTaiwan refuses to unifywith China todaywith China today ““One China” PolicyOne China” Policy
    • Mao’s ReformsMao’s Reforms Collectivization of agriculture andCollectivization of agriculture andindustryindustry– Increases productivity, especiallyIncreases productivity, especiallysteelsteel Late 1950’s – Great Leap ForwardLate 1950’s – Great Leap Forward– Huge communes created as a way ofHuge communes created as a way ofaccelerating the creation of a trueaccelerating the creation of a trueMarxist stateMarxist state Reality check – production quotas areReality check – production quotas areVERY highVERY high Local governments can’t produce theLocal governments can’t produce theridiculous quotas, so out of fear of beingridiculous quotas, so out of fear of beingpunished, they lie and say the quotas arepunished, they lie and say the quotas arebeing metbeing met– ~30 million Chinese people starve to~30 million Chinese people starve todeathdeath– Truly a Great Leap Backward.Truly a Great Leap Backward.
    • Great Leap BackwardGreat Leap Backward Mao’s previous success is erasedMao’s previous success is erased Soviet Union withdrew supportSoviet Union withdrew support– Soviets realize China isn’t following orders…Soviets realize China isn’t following orders… Mao turns focus to military (If Soviet’sMao turns focus to military (If Soviet’saren’t with China, they’re against China)aren’t with China, they’re against China)– Elements of capitalism introducedElements of capitalism introduced– 1964 – China tests its first atom bomb1964 – China tests its first atom bomb
    • Cultural Revolution - 1966Cultural Revolution - 1966 Mao – purist, upset his country is straying fromMao – purist, upset his country is straying fromcommunismcommunism Revolution discourages development of aRevolution discourages development of aprivileged classprivileged class– Erases all traces of Western-influenced knowledgeErases all traces of Western-influenced knowledge– Closes universities for four yearsCloses universities for four years– Sends students, professors, doctors, lawyers, andSends students, professors, doctors, lawyers, andclassical musicians to collective farms for “culturalclassical musicians to collective farms for “culturalretraining”retraining”– Political dissidents imprisoned or killedPolitical dissidents imprisoned or killed
    • New CurriculumNew Curriculum Once reopened, curriculum is adjusted toOnce reopened, curriculum is adjusted toinclude only communist studies and vocationalinclude only communist studies and vocationaltrainingtraining Little Red Book – Mao’s teachings onLittle Red Book – Mao’s teachings oncommunism – becomes popular symbol forcommunism – becomes popular symbol forforced egalitarianismforced egalitarianism Cultural Revolution prevents China fromCultural Revolution prevents China fromadvancing economically or sociallyadvancing economically or socially– By early 1970s, China opens back up to WesternBy early 1970s, China opens back up to Westernideasideas
    • 1976 – Deng Xiaoping1976 – Deng Xiaoping Mao dies, Deng Xiaoping steps upMao dies, Deng Xiaoping steps up Changes education policyChanges education policy Changes Economic policies –Changes Economic policies –– From strict command economy to including elementsFrom strict command economy to including elementsof free-market capitalismof free-market capitalism– Allows limited business and property ownership toAllows limited business and property ownership toencourage hard workencourage hard work– Chinese gvt enters joint ventures with foreignChinese gvt enters joint ventures with foreigncompaniescompanies– Still strictly communist in political senseStill strictly communist in political sense
    • Tiananmen Square MassacreTiananmen Square Massacre June 1989 – about 1 million demonstratorsJune 1989 – about 1 million demonstratorsmet on Tiananmen Square calling formet on Tiananmen Square calling fordemocratic reform, bring in a statue – thedemocratic reform, bring in a statue – theGoddess of Democracy and FreedomGoddess of Democracy and Freedom Chinese government reacts violently –Chinese government reacts violently –sends troops into open fire, hundreds ofsends troops into open fire, hundreds ofpeople are killedpeople are killed
    • The bodies of dead civilians lie among mangled bicycles near Beijings Tiananmen Square early JuneThe bodies of dead civilians lie among mangled bicycles near Beijings Tiananmen Square early June4, 1989. Tanks and soldiers stormed the area overnight, bringing a violent end to student4, 1989. Tanks and soldiers stormed the area overnight, bringing a violent end to studentdemonstrations for democratic reform in Chinademonstrations for democratic reform in China
    • A rickshaw driver fiecely peddles the wounded people, with the help of bystanders, to aA rickshaw driver fiecely peddles the wounded people, with the help of bystanders, to anearby hospital Sunday, June 4, 1989. PLA soldiers again fired hundreds of roundsnearby hospital Sunday, June 4, 1989. PLA soldiers again fired hundreds of roundstowards angry crowds gathered outside Tiananmen Square at noontowards angry crowds gathered outside Tiananmen Square at noon
    • Hong KongHong Kong Fell under British rule after Opium WarsFell under British rule after Opium Wars 1949, received many refugees from the Chinese1949, received many refugees from the ChineseRevolutionRevolution Functioned under British control until 1997Functioned under British control until 1997– HK prospers from tradeHK prospers from trade Especially textiles and electronicsEspecially textiles and electronics Britain turns Hong Kong over to ChinaBritain turns Hong Kong over to China– -Beijing agrees not to change HK’s social or economic-Beijing agrees not to change HK’s social or economicsystem for 50 yearssystem for 50 years– HK’s people have self-governmentHK’s people have self-government