Nation by Nation


Published on

Unit V 1750-1914 - Europe

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nation by Nation

  1. 1. Chapter 23 –State by State,Nations EmergeThe age of –isms and -izations
  2. 2. Defining an IndependentCountry While the terms country, state, and nation are often used interchangeably, there is a difference.A State (note the capital "S") is a self-governing political entity. The term State can be used interchangeably with country. A nation, however, is a tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture. A nation-state is a nation which has the same borders as a State.
  3. 3. States and Independent Countries Has space or territory which has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK). Has people who live there on an ongoing basis. Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money. Has the power of social engineering, such as education. Has a transportation system for moving goods and people. Has a government which provides public services and police power. Has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the countrys territory. Has external recognition. A country has been "voted into the club" by other countries. Examples of entities that are not countries include: Hong Kong, Bermuda, Greenland, Puerto Rico, and most notably the constituent parts of the United Kingdom. (Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England are not countries.) “state” spelled with lower case is an internal entity of a federal State (ex.- USA and FL)
  4. 4. Nations and Nation-States Nations are culturally homogeneous groups of people, larger than a single tribe or community, which share a common language, institutions, religion, and historical experience. When a nation of people have a State or country of their own, it is called a nation-state. Places like France, Egypt, Germany, Japan, and New Zealand are excellent examples of nation-states. There are some States which have two nations, such as Canada and Belgium. Even with its multicultural society, the United States is also referred to as a nation-state because of the shared American "culture." There are nations without States. For example, the Kurds are stateless people.
  5. 5. Population Revolution After 1730 – Western Europe’s population mushroomed Britain and Prussia 100%, France 50% Border policing – reduced mvmt of disease bearing animals POTATO! – reduced death rate! Results?  More competition for gvt and church positions  Rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing in W. Europe and US
  6. 6.  Bastille, Austria,France Prussia, and Britain, Robespierre, etc.  Napoleon Bonaparte – 1799  Converts revolutionary republic to authoritarian empire  Napoleonic Code – all men are equal and have natural rights  Public education, centralized secondary schools and universities  And, expansion
  7. 7.  1802 – Crowns himself Emperor 1804 – begins Outward expansion Gains majority of Europe in the years leading up to 1812 General Winter – Napoleon’s first failure 1814 and 1815 Napoleon beaten back Battle of Waterloo – Napoleon returns from Elba and tries with one last hurrah. Britain fights, Prussia arrives, Napoleon is done.
  8. 8.  Napoleon replaced many of the governments he overthrew with family or friends France’s invasions had two effects in Italy and Germany:  Whetted appetites for greater national unity as French invasion helped people realize their loyalties to their own nations  Local governments had been disassembled…
  9. 9. Congress of Vienna - 1815 Reestablished balance of power Tweaked borders to ensure that stronger powers surrounded France (gains for Prussia and Italy)  Realignments facilitated national unification 100 years of Inter-European Peace  But not domestic peace Restoration of monarchies
  10. 10. Nationalism Replaced older loyalties to church or locality (Go Germany…NOT Go Mecklenburg!) National Symbols  France is the first to coin their national anthem  US flag during the Revolutionary War, France’s flag, etc.
  11. 11.  Conservatives – defined themselves as ones who opposed revolutionary goals Liberals – want to limit state interference in individual life and urge representation of propertied people in government  Constitutional rule and protection for freedoms of religion, press, assembly, etc. Radicals –accept liberal demands, also want wider voting rights, even democracy
  12. 12. Revolutions of 1820s and 1830s Greek Revolution – 1820s 1830’s  France – different king and more liberal monarchy  Italy and Germany  Belgian Revolution – liberal regime and newly independent nation  Britain – Reform Bill 1832 – parliamentary vote to most middle class men  US – universal male suffrage (except slaves) France, Britain, Belgium, and US  Guarantee individual rights against arbitrary state action  Religious freedom (Judaism included)  Voting systems for all men
  13. 13. Revolutions of 1848 Bad harvests 1846 and 1847 Artisans want to restrain industrialization Peasants want to end manorialism Germanic and Italian regions – nationalism demands Women want right to vote Spreads like wildfire through Europe  Revolutions in France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria and Hungary
  14. 14.  Fires extinguished quickly Artisans and factory workers’ needs are disregarded Nationalist efforts fail for now France – Napoleon’s nephew replaces republic with authoritarian empire until 1870 ***Serfdom is fully abolished throughout Western Europe*** Many liberals and working-class leaders decide revolutions are too risky, gradual methods are better Improved transportation reduces food crises from recurring
  15. 15. Industrialization Railroads Canals Urbanization Sanitation  Louis Pasteur – 1880’s Birth rates and death rates  Children are source of emotional satisfaction and parental responsibility Rise of corporations
  16. 16. Italian Unification
  17. 17. German Unification – Otto vonBismarck
  18. 18. Social Changes ~1900 Civil Service Exam for Western Gvts Gvts extend control – inspect factory safety, monitor health of prostitutes, hospital conditions, papers/passports for travel, etc. Compulsory schooling  Up to age 12  US states beginning to require high school  W. nations expand to public secondary schools  Girls taught about the importance of women in the home  Nationalism is emphasized – taught superiority of nation’s language and history (often attacked immigrant or minority cultures) Literacy Rates – by 1900 about 90-95% of all adults in W. Europe and US are literate
  19. 19. Karl Marx Communist Manifesto – 1848 Class struggle Human perfectibility – set up exemplary communities where work and rewards would be shared and the evils of capitalism would end  Socialism
  20. 20. Feminists Movements Britain, US, Australia and Scandinavia Middle class women – want to vote!
  21. 21. Mass Culture – 1900’s White-collar labor force growing  Secretaries, clerks, salespeople Bicycle Fad  First true product craze  Middle-class families “have” to have it  Influences women’s dress Mass leisure culture  Sensationalist journalism  Shock and entertainment  Theatre  Comedy routines  Music halls  Vaudeville  Motion pictures  Vacation trips and seaside resorts, (Coney Island in the US) Team Sports  Soccer, American football, basketball  Olympic Games – 1896 (perfect for nationalist passions)
  22. 22. Science Charles Darwin – 1859  The Origin of Species Albert Einstein – theory of relativity  e=mc2 Sigmund Freud  Id, ed, ego  subconscious
  23. 23. Art and Literature Impressionism Pointillism Romanticism – intense passions and emotions, not rational thought  Beauties of nature, novelists want to move readers to tears – not evoke philosophical debate  By 1900 Art and Literature becomes increasingly abstract, continues to violate rules and expectations
  24. 24. George Seurat
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.