Imperialism
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Imperialism

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AP European History

AP European History

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    Imperialism Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • Imperialism 1800-1914
    • AP Euro Bellringer
      • Define…
      • Imperialism
      • New Imperialism
      • (Chapter 25)
      • New Imperialism and Its Causes
        • Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
        • Economic interests
          • Manufacturers need access to natural resources (petroleum, rubber, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery)
          • Need market to sell factory goods
    • Rationale for Imperialism
      • Political and military interests
        • Rise of nationalism
        • “ we’re SO better than YOU”
        • land = prestige
    • Rationale for Imperialism
      • Humanitarian Goals
        • Westerners feel concern for the “savages” beyond the seas
        • Missionaries, doctors, colonial officials, etc, want to spread blessings of Western civilization; including medicine, law, and Christian religion
    • Rationale for Imperialism
      • Social Darwinism
        • Racial superiority
        • European races are superior
        • imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were nature’s way of improving the human species
    • The Success of Western Imperialism
      • During 1870-1914 Imperialists gained much more control over the world
      • Reasons for Western Success
        • Weakness of Nonwestern States
          • Ottoman, Mughal, and Qing empires were declining
          • Slave trade had drained much of W Africa
        • Western Advantages
          • Strong economics, well organized gvts, pwrful armies and navies, improved medical knowledge, military technology
    •  
      • Resistance
        • Asians and Africans often resisted domination and fought back
      • Criticism at Home
        • Imperialism immoral?
        • Imperialism hypocritical?
        • Democracy v. imposition of power
    • Forms of Imperial Rule
      • Colonies
        • France – use direct rule
          • Sends officials and soldiers from France to administer
          • Goal? Impose French culture on colonies and then into French provinces
        • Britain – use indirect rule
          • Use sultans, chiefs/local rulers, etc
          • Encourage children of rulers to get education in Britain (to groom a new Westernized generation of leaders)
      • Protectorates
        • Local rulers were left in place, but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers (Puppet and satellite relationship)
      • Spheres of Influence
        • Outside power claims exclusive investment/trading privileges with an area (US claims Latin Am.)
    •  
      • http://www.historydudes.com/news/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/scramble_for_africa.jpg
    • The Scramble for Africa
    • Berlin Conference, 1884
      • European powers meet to carve up Africa while avoiding bloodshed
        • Can’t claim a country unless you set up a government office there
        • Lines are drawn without regard to ethnic groups or tribal territories
        • Ethiopians resist Italy’s attempts to take over; B. of Adowa; Ethiopians are victorious
    •  
    • The Middle East
      • Suez Canal – commissioned by France, but Egypt will fall into Britain’s hands;
      • Iran dealing with Russian and British quests for the Iranian oil fields
    •  
    • India
      • in Britain’s hands, Britain’s most beneficial colony; Indians often discontent, Sepoy Rebellion, will form Indian National Congress in 1885
    • China
      • Britain gets many hooked on opium and causes great turmoil within the country;
      • China bans the drug, Britain refuses to stop selling it;
      • struggles in China as to how much “modern” and “Western” influence to allow – results in many rebellions and great instability within the country
    • Japan
      • opened trade to the US and others after 1854 and begins to modernize extremely rapidly
    • Australia
      • originated as a “ditching” area for British convicts, will eventually be recognized as an independent state
    • Canada
      • gained by Britain in 1763 from France; Upper-Canada (English speaking) and Lower-Canada (French speaking), Canada rebels, achieves self-rule, but keeps close ties
    • The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire
    • Long Term Effects of Imperialism
      • Age of Imperialism = emergence of a global economy
      • Industrial nations benefit (US, Germ. Brit, and Fr.)
      • Less-developed nations provide agricultural goods, raw materials, and cheap labor (Asia, Africa, Latin Am)
    • New Economic Patterns
      • Money Economy
        • Barter system replaced by money economy
      • Economic Dependency (depend on industrial nations products)
      • Also known as – economic subjugation
      • Modernization
        • Modern banking system
        • Transportation networks
          • Railroads!
          • Canals!
    • Cultural Impact
      • Westernization – gvt, ideas, technology, and culture
        • Resented or embraced?
      • Schools and Hospitals –
        • Built by missionaries
        • Taught literacy
        • Introduced vaccines and hygiene
      • Religion
        • Missionaries and Christian faith
      • Impact on Western Culture
        • New foods, art, architecture, sculptors, etc
    • Political Effects
      • Early 1900’s – Africa and Asia – Western educated elites begin organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule
      • Competition between industrial nations=extra tension
    •