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  1. 1. Imperialism 1800-1914
  2. 2. AP Euro Bellringer <ul><li>Define… </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>New Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>(Chapter 25) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>New Imperialism and Its Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers need access to natural resources (petroleum, rubber, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need market to sell factory goods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rationale for Imperialism <ul><li>Political and military interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ we’re SO better than YOU” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land = prestige </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rationale for Imperialism <ul><li>Humanitarian Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerners feel concern for the “savages” beyond the seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries, doctors, colonial officials, etc, want to spread blessings of Western civilization; including medicine, law, and Christian religion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rationale for Imperialism <ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European races are superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were nature’s way of improving the human species </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Success of Western Imperialism <ul><li>During 1870-1914 Imperialists gained much more control over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Western Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness of Nonwestern States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman, Mughal, and Qing empires were declining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade had drained much of W Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong economics, well organized gvts, pwrful armies and navies, improved medical knowledge, military technology </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians and Africans often resisted domination and fought back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticism at Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism immoral? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism hypocritical? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy v. imposition of power </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Forms of Imperial Rule <ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France – use direct rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends officials and soldiers from France to administer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal? Impose French culture on colonies and then into French provinces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain – use indirect rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use sultans, chiefs/local rulers, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage children of rulers to get education in Britain (to groom a new Westernized generation of leaders) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Protectorates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local rulers were left in place, but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers (Puppet and satellite relationship) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spheres of Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside power claims exclusive investment/trading privileges with an area (US claims Latin Am.) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Scramble for Africa
  13. 15. Berlin Conference, 1884 <ul><li>European powers meet to carve up Africa while avoiding bloodshed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t claim a country unless you set up a government office there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines are drawn without regard to ethnic groups or tribal territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopians resist Italy’s attempts to take over; B. of Adowa; Ethiopians are victorious </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. The Middle East <ul><li>Suez Canal – commissioned by France, but Egypt will fall into Britain’s hands; </li></ul><ul><li>Iran dealing with Russian and British quests for the Iranian oil fields </li></ul>
  15. 19. India <ul><li>in Britain’s hands, Britain’s most beneficial colony; Indians often discontent, Sepoy Rebellion, will form Indian National Congress in 1885 </li></ul>
  16. 20. China <ul><li>Britain gets many hooked on opium and causes great turmoil within the country; </li></ul><ul><li>China bans the drug, Britain refuses to stop selling it; </li></ul><ul><li>struggles in China as to how much “modern” and “Western” influence to allow – results in many rebellions and great instability within the country </li></ul>
  17. 21. Japan <ul><li>opened trade to the US and others after 1854 and begins to modernize extremely rapidly </li></ul>
  18. 22. Australia <ul><li>originated as a “ditching” area for British convicts, will eventually be recognized as an independent state </li></ul>
  19. 23. Canada <ul><li>gained by Britain in 1763 from France; Upper-Canada (English speaking) and Lower-Canada (French speaking), Canada rebels, achieves self-rule, but keeps close ties </li></ul>
  20. 24. The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire
  21. 25. Long Term Effects of Imperialism <ul><li>Age of Imperialism = emergence of a global economy </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial nations benefit (US, Germ. Brit, and Fr.) </li></ul><ul><li>Less-developed nations provide agricultural goods, raw materials, and cheap labor (Asia, Africa, Latin Am) </li></ul>
  22. 26. New Economic Patterns <ul><li>Money Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barter system replaced by money economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Dependency (depend on industrial nations products) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as – economic subjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern banking system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canals! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 27. Cultural Impact <ul><li>Westernization – gvt, ideas, technology, and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resented or embraced? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools and Hospitals – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built by missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced vaccines and hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries and Christian faith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Western Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New foods, art, architecture, sculptors, etc </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Political Effects <ul><li>Early 1900’s – Africa and Asia – Western educated elites begin organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between industrial nations=extra tension </li></ul>