Chapter 9 Civilizations in Eastern Europe


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Byzantine Empire
AP World

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  • Theodora – circus trainer’s daughter – actress and prostitute. Strong willed and intelligent, gave Justinian much guidance, convinced him to squash a revolt against him and then encouraged him to campaign to recapture the West.
  • Chapter 9 Civilizations in Eastern Europe

    1. 1. Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern EuropeByzantium and Orthodox Europe
    2. 2. Constantinople Originally Byzantion, a market town/fishing village on the Bosporus Strait Constantine named it Constantinople and made it the capital of the E. Roman Empire  City kept its name from 340 CE – 1453 CE Crossroads – access to Anatolia, SW Asia, SE Europe, etc.
    3. 3. The Byzantine Court Caesaropapism – emperor rules not only as a secular lord, but also plays prominent role in ecclesiastical affairs Heavily jeweled crowns, silk robes of dark, rich purple (the color reserved for imperial use) Latin = language of the court; Greek = language of the people
    4. 4. Justinian (527-565 CE)  “the sleepless emperor”  Theodora  Construction project thoroughly remade the city  Hagia Sophia – one of world’s greatest examples of Christian architecture  Gold, silver, gems, precious stones, and healing pwrs  Justinian Code  Systematic review and improvement of Roman law  Makes Greek official language  Unsuccessfully tries to expand the empire
    5. 5. Hagia Sophia
    6. 6. Belisarius General employed by Justinian to recapture the Roman Empire  Gains N Africa and parts of Italy  Want N Africa b/c of its grain production  Can’t maintain Rome against Germanics  Ravenna – home of gorgeous Christian mosaics  Will lose what they gained pretty quickly
    7. 7. New external pressures Focus on defending the eastern empire What group is about to debut?  They attack 717-718 CE and the Byzantines have a secret weapon…
    8. 8. So cool… When Muslims tried to invade Byzantium, the Byzantine forces used a weapon called “Greek fire” – basically ancient napalm – against the fleets and ground forces Greek fire even burns as it floats on water – very hazardous to wooden ships
    9. 9.  Byzantine empire loses some landholdings, but still maintains Managing the Anatolia, Greece, and Balkans “Theme” system – imperial province Empire (theme) under jurisdiction of a general  Assumes responsibility for military defense and civil admin.  Enabled quick mobilization  Byzantine empire expands as each theme’s military can gradually spread outward  Basil the Bulgar Slayer – blinded 15,000  The blind leading the blind….ha ha….  Supposed sight of the massacre causes the Bulgarian king’s death  Helps gain control of the fiesty Bulgarian kingdom
    10. 10. Trade Crossroads for Eurasia Commercial links between manufacturers and merchants between central Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, northern Europe, and lands of the Black Sea and Mediterranean basin Bezant – Byzantine gold coin Very wealthy from control of trade and levying of custom duties  China  India  Persia  Western Europe  Russia and Scandinavia – timber, furs, honey, amber, and slaves Banks, business partnerships, loans for business ventures  Pool resources and limit risks
    11. 11. Iconoclasm Icons – particularly popular in Byzantine churches  Inspired the popular imagination and encouraged reverence for holy personages  Emperor Leo believed veneration of religious images was sinful  726 orders iconoclasm – breaking of icons Also disagree over  Sacrament of communion  Whether priests should be allowed to marry  Use of local languages in church
    12. 12. 1054 – Great Schism
    13. 13. Thesis Practice On your own paper respond to the following prompt: Compare and contrast the rise and roles of Constantinople and Mecca Compare and contrast the split in the Christian Church and Islam
    14. 14. Effects of the Crusades  During 4th Crusade Constantinople is attacked  Plundered and burned  Ruled for 50 years  Empire never quite recovers, Venetian merchants gain upperhand
    15. 15. Istanbul v. Constantinople 1453 – Ottoman forces ch?v=Mv- take over KcF3Rkv8&feature=related Ancient Christian city is overturned  Istanbul becomes capital of Ottoman Empire  Hagia Sophia is turned into a mosque and turets are added
    16. 16. Arts Mosaics Icons Greek, Roman, Persian, and other Middle Eastern styles blend together
    17. 17. The Rise of Russia HUGE Borders both Europe and China, touches the Baltic Sea and the Pacific Ocean Is Russia part of Europe or Asia? Northern forests – poor soil, cold, snowy climate South – band of fertile land, attracted farmers (modern day Ukraine) Southern steppe – open, treeless grassland, nomadic people, herds and horses Dnieper and Volga River – major trade routes
    18. 18. Kievan Rus’ Slavs expand into southern Russia Varangians (Russian word for Vikings) – trade with Slavs, Kiev becomes a midpoint between Scandinavia and Constantinople Cyril and Methodius  Missionaries from Constantinople, adapt Greek alphabet to Slavic language – develops Cyrillic (still used in Ukraine and Russia) Byzantine Christianity Onion domes from Byzantium
    19. 19. Kievan Rus’ First ruler – prince Rurik Russia is coined by the Scandinavians, could be from Greek word for “red” Vladimir I (r. 980-1015)– converts to Christianity on behalf of all his people  Organizes mass baptisms for his subjects, forced conversions  Russian Orthodox Church soon develops
    20. 20. Yaroslav the Wise 1019 – 1054 Improved code of law Arranged marriages between his kids and the royal families of Western Europe
    21. 21. Eastern Europe  Roman Catholicism and Latin alphabet reach Czech and Hungarian areas  Magyars (Turkic people) take over Hungary 9th c.  1334 Casimir III the Great – openly welcomes the Jewish population to move to Poland
    22. 22. Mongol Conquest A young leader united the nomadic Mongols of central Asia Overrun lands from China to Eastern Europe – dubs himself “Genghis Khan” – “world emperor”
    23. 23. The Golden Horde 1236-1241 – Batu, Genghiz’s grandson leads Mongol armies into Russia “Golden Horde” because of the color of their tents Also called Tatars in the Russian tradition Loot and burn Kiev and many other Russian towns “no eye remained to weep for the dead” Rule from a capital on the Volga for the next 240 years  ***This is Russia’s dormant/stagnant period***
    24. 24. 240 Years of Mongol Rule  Women become especially subservient to their husbands. (Husbands can even sell their wives into slavery to pay family debts)  Absolute power Mongols have will serve as an inspiration for Russian rulers later on  Mongols severed Russian ties to Western Europe at a time when Europeans were making rapid advances in the arts and sciences
    25. 25. Moscow Steadily becomes a political and spiritual center  Princes in Moscow slowly gain pwr against Mongols  Became the capital of the Russian Orthodox Church
    26. 26. Ivan the Great Ivan III – 1462-1505 Brought much of N. Russia under his rule Built the framework for absolute rule Worked to limit the boyars powers  Boyars – Russian, land-owning nobles Adopted the rituals of the fallen empire’s traditions to emphasize Russia’s role as the heir to Byzantine power  Double-headed eagle symbol Titles himself Czar (Russian for caesar)  “the czar is in nature like all men, but in authority he is like the highest God”