Chapter 6 – Emergence of   the Islamic World
• Beduins – nomadic herders who used  camels to cross the desert in search of  seasonal pasturelands and oasis towns  – Me...
Muhammad•   Born in Mecca ~570•   Shepherd for the Bedouins•   Caravanned across the desert, successful merchant•   Marrie...
• People rejected Muhammad’s ideas   – People worried about their business and     the pilgrim trade• Afraid of being murd...
• Medina welcomed him and many converted  – Muhammad seen as a ruler and lawgiver  – Thousands of Arabs convert and adopt ...
The Qur’an• Qur’an or Koran – sacred word of God as revealed to  Muhammad  – Final authority on all matters  – Teaches abo...
• Islam had no religious hierarchy or class  of priests• Emphasize equality of all believers,  regardless of race, sex, cl...
Views of Others• Islam is God’s final and complete  revelation• Jews and Christians are people of the  book – spiritually ...
Five Pillars of Faith• 1. Declaration of Faith “There is no God but  Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God”• 2. Pray 5 t...
Islam Spreads• Caliph - Muslim ruler – directed religious and  political affairs simultaneously• When Muhammad dies, a mee...
Sharia• Immense body of law interpreting the Quran and  applying its teachings to daily life• Islamic system of law design...
Caliph -- Theocracy• Muslim ruler – directed religious and political  affairs simultaneously• When Muhammad dies, a meetin...
Abu Bakr• Didn’t receive any financial backing from  Muslim community• Worked part time as a merchant while  fulfilling hi...
Forces to be Reckoned With• Bedouin camel and horse cavalry band together  and mount aggressive mobile offensives that  ov...
• Attacked Syria and Palestine, including  Damascus and Jerusalem• Rapidly demolished Persian Empire  – Many people in Mes...
•Swept across North Africa-Headed on up across Gibralter into Spain and ran forFrance-Battle of Tours – 732 -- Charles Mar...
The Split• Divisions arise concerning rules of succession  for the caliph• Sunni – caliph should be chosen by leaders of  ...
• Today  – 90% of world is Sunni  – Shiites are mainly in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen     • Shiite branch has split into...
Sufi• Muslim mystics – seek communion with  Allah through meditation, fasting, and  other rituals• Piety and miraculous po...
•   Ali is appointed caliph but is assassinated in 661, his son is killed soon    therafter•   Sunnis and Shiites battle f...
Islam• Plays a HUGE role in creating new, more intense  international contacts• Trade of luxury products intensifies   – S...
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Chapter 6 – Emergence of the Islamic World

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Rise of Islam

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Chapter 6 – Emergence of the Islamic World

  1. 1. Chapter 6 – Emergence of the Islamic World
  2. 2. • Beduins – nomadic herders who used camels to cross the desert in search of seasonal pasturelands and oasis towns – Mecca – market town at crossroads of two main caravan routes • Pilgrimage center – Arabs prayed to the Kaaba, the ancient shrine Muslims believe Abraham built, Kaaba also housed statues of local gods and goddesses
  3. 3. Muhammad• Born in Mecca ~570• Shepherd for the Bedouins• Caravanned across the desert, successful merchant• Married Khadija around 25• Visions at 40 – “Recite in the name of your God, the Creator, who created man from clots of blood”• Khadija encourages him, converts to Islam (which is Arabic for “submission”)• Muhammad devotes life to spreading Islam – Give up false gods and submit to Allah (Arabic word for God)
  4. 4. • People rejected Muhammad’s ideas – People worried about their business and the pilgrim trade• Afraid of being murdered, he left Mecca and traveled to Yathrib in 622 – Yathrib became Medina, meaning “city of the prophet” – 622 = turning point for Islam – becomes the first year on the Muslim calendar
  5. 5. • Medina welcomed him and many converted – Muhammad seen as a ruler and lawgiver – Thousands of Arabs convert and adopt Islam – Medina Muslims attack Meccan caravans and defeat them – Muhammad returned in triumph to Mecca in 630 and destroyed all the idols in the Kaaba – Works to unite the Arabs under Islam for next 2 years – Dies at 632
  6. 6. The Qur’an• Qur’an or Koran – sacred word of God as revealed to Muhammad – Final authority on all matters – Teaches about God – Provides guide to life – Emphasize honesty, generosity, and social justice – Harsh penalties for crimes like stealing and murder – Converts to Islam learn Arabic because they believe its original form is the direct unchangeable word of God – **shared language unites and binds Muslims
  7. 7. • Islam had no religious hierarchy or class of priests• Emphasize equality of all believers, regardless of race, sex, class, or wealth• So who is this going to appeal to?
  8. 8. Views of Others• Islam is God’s final and complete revelation• Jews and Christians are people of the book – spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers• People of the Book enjoyed religious freedom in early Muslim societies
  9. 9. Five Pillars of Faith• 1. Declaration of Faith “There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God”• 2. Pray 5 times a day, facing in the direction of Mecca• 3. Giving alms to the poor (charity)• 4. Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan• 5. Taking a hajj to Mecca at least once during your lifetime
  10. 10. Islam Spreads• Caliph - Muslim ruler – directed religious and political affairs simultaneously• When Muhammad dies, a meeting is called to determine Muhammad’s successor – Ali – main candidate, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad • Passed over because he’s too young to assume such responsibility and power – Abu Bakr – caliph 632-634 • One of Muhammad’s earliest followers and closest friends • Well versed in genealogy of bedouin tribes
  11. 11. Sharia• Immense body of law interpreting the Quran and applying its teachings to daily life• Islamic system of law designed to regulate moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community• Does not separate religious matters from criminal or civil law, but applies the Quran to all legal situations• Sharia also helped unite those who converted to Islam
  12. 12. Caliph -- Theocracy• Muslim ruler – directed religious and political affairs simultaneously• When Muhammad dies, a meeting is called to determine Muhammad’s successor – Ali – main candidate, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad • Passed over because he’s too young to assume such responsibility and power – Abu Bakr – caliph 632-634 • One of Muhammad’s earliest followers and closest friends • Well versed in genealogy of bedouin tribes
  13. 13. Abu Bakr• Didn’t receive any financial backing from Muslim community• Worked part time as a merchant while fulfilling his duties
  14. 14. Forces to be Reckoned With• Bedouin camel and horse cavalry band together and mount aggressive mobile offensives that overwhelm more traditional armies• Islam created common ground and unified many of the tribes into a unified state• Belief in Islam gave soldiers a feeling of certainty that they would reach paradise if they fell in a battle that carried the Arabs to victory
  15. 15. • Attacked Syria and Palestine, including Damascus and Jerusalem• Rapidly demolished Persian Empire – Many people in Mesopotamia welcomed reprieve from the Persian empire – Zoroastrians allowed to practice their faith but asked to pay a non-Muslim tax (same went to Christians and Jews)
  16. 16. •Swept across North Africa-Headed on up across Gibralter into Spain and ran forFrance-Battle of Tours – 732 -- Charles Martel gathers Germanictribes and defeats the Muslim charge -Halts Muslims advance into Western Europe
  17. 17. The Split• Divisions arise concerning rules of succession for the caliph• Sunni – caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community – Should be a pious Muslim – Caliph should be a leader, not a religious authority – Inspiration came from Muhammad’s example• Shiite – only true successors to the Prophet were descendants of Muhammad – Descendants of prophet were divinely inspired – Turn to Muhammad’s daughter and son-in-law Fatima and Ali
  18. 18. • Today – 90% of world is Sunni – Shiites are mainly in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen • Shiite branch has split into several factions
  19. 19. Sufi• Muslim mystics – seek communion with Allah through meditation, fasting, and other rituals• Piety and miraculous powers• Spread Islam through missionary work
  20. 20. • Ali is appointed caliph but is assassinated in 661, his son is killed soon therafter• Sunnis and Shiites battle for who will lead• Umayyad family sets up a dynasty that rules the Islamic world until 750 – Damascus = capital – Atlantic to the Indus Valley• Abbassids – take over after inviting Umayyad family to a banquet and killing all of them – Dominate until 1258 – End Arab dominance • Mawali (non-Arab Muslims) become more equal – Help make Islam a more universal religion – Move capital to Baghdad – Great urban expansion – Revival of Afro-Eurasian trading network • Trade with Tang and Song in China • Dhows – sailing vessels with lateen sails
  21. 21. Islam• Plays a HUGE role in creating new, more intense international contacts• Trade of luxury products intensifies – Silk, spices, porcelain, etc• China, India, the Middle East, and the Byzantine Emperor, Europe and Africa• Examples of how trade influenced everyone – Arabs adopted the Indian numbering system • Europeans copied it from the Arabs (so the concept of 0 and 1-10 gets out) – Compass travels from China to the Middle East • Europe gets it from the Middle East • Same with China’s invention of paper

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