Chapter 17- The Development of the West
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Chapter 17- The Development of the West



AP World

AP World
Stearns Ch 17
Unit 4 - Europe



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Chapter 17- The Development of the West Chapter 17- The Development of the West Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 17The Transformation of the West 1450 - 1750
  • Italian RenaissanceChallenge of medieval values and stylesBoccaccio and Petrarch promote values in their writing that is contrary to medieval logic and theologyNiccolo Machiavelli – The Prince – political theory, discussed realistic ways to seize and maintain power.Humanism – focus on human kind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor  Religion isn’t attacked, but is no longer the dominant focus
  • Niccolo MachiavelliThe PrincePublished in 1513Combined personal experience of politics with his knowledge of the past to offer a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power“The end justifies the means” (do what you gotta do)Ruthless power politics, use whatever methods necessary to achieve goalsControversy? - some see this as an excuse to be corrupt and deceitful politicians
  • Influence?Commerce – merchants improve banking techniques, b/m more openly profit-seekingPolitical – leaders rule with emphasis on what they could do to advance the well-being and glory of their city  Develop professional armies  Sponsored cultural activities
  • Italian City-States  Florence, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Rome, Naples, etc.  Because Italy was the center of the Roman Empire, Italy was a natural place for the birth of the Renaissance.  Merchant class – wealthy and powerful, promoted cultural revival. Stressed education, individual achievement, and lavishly supported the arts.
  • PatronsMerchant class -
  • Northern Renaissance Albrecht Durer – “German Leonardo”  Studied in Italy  Wide-range of interests, painted and created engravings  Engravings – artists etches a design on a metal plate with acid and uses the plate to make prints Flemish painters – develop oil paint, which survives time more successfully Hubert van Eyck  Paintings of townspeople and religious scenes, realistic details Pieter Bruegel  Vibrant colors to portrayal lively scenes of peasant life Peter Paul Rubens  Enormous paintings of pagan figures from the classical past
  • Albrecht Durer – Praying Hands
  • The Rhinoceros
  • Jan van Eyck – The Arnolfini Marriage
  • The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin
  • Books from Alibris
  • Pieter Bruegel – Peasant Wedding
  • The Peasants’ Dance
  • Children’s Games
  • Northern Humanists Erasmus –(Desiderius)  Thought Bible should be translated to vernacular  The Praise of Folly – uses humor to expose ignorant and immoral behavior by limiting church to Latin it is as if “the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it” Thomas More’s Utopia  Ideas society in which men and women live in peace and harmony, no one is idle, all are educated, justice is used to end crime  Utopian “ideal society”
  • Writers for a New Audience  Shakespeare – England  Renaissance playwright and poet  1590-1613 – wrote 37 plays  Increases vocab of the English language – over 1,700 words (bedroom, lonely, generous, gloomy, heartsick, etc)
  • Printing Revolution 1456- Johann Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany Developed movable type Created first printing press and the first complete edition of the Bible By 1500 over 20 million volumes were printed Cheaper and easier to produce Literacy rates increase Broad range of knowledge
  • Martin Luther Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God Nails his Ninety-five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany on All Hallows Eve, 1517  Protests sale of indulgences (“Heaven Insurance” for you and your loved ones – dead or alive!)  Salvation by faith alone; he opposed the Catholic Church’s beliefs in penance and good works  Bible is the only authority for Christian life; Pope is a false authority  Priesthood of all believers – each person should have an individual relationship with God and should read/interpret the Bible for him/herself  All people are equal in the eyes of God
  • Wrote many books, essays, and letters – which are quickly printed and spread throughoutLuther was not easily silenced – he ideas shake Europe
  • Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recantedLuther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfirePope excommunicates Luther
  •  Charles V – HRE 1521 – summons Luther to the Imperial Diet at Worms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas,  “Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. Amen.” Charles V replies –  “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic” Charles V issues Edict of Worms – declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic
  •  Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony, protects Luther in his castle for the first year after the Diet of Worms  Spends the year translating the New Testament into German Luther’s ideas were practiced – priests began leading worship in German, calling themselves “ministers” People give up on trying to reform the Catholic Church and become a group known as Lutherans
  • Changing Views of the Universe Copernicus  Heliocentric theory – sun is center of universe, Earth revolves around sun  On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Tycho Brahe  Evidence to support Copernicus’s theory Galileo  Assembled astronomical telescope  Sees Jupiter with moons rotating around it, like Copernicus’s claim of the Earth around the sun  Condemned for challenging Christian teachings that the heavens are fixed, unmoving and perfect  Tried before the Inquisition, was threatened death if he didn’t rescind his claims (he gives in)
  • Absolute monarchies“Reality checkers” – Parliament/Estates General
  • Extending Spanish Power  Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire  Inherits huge empire – Spain and the Austrian Hapsburg Empire  Reign of continual conflict  Protestant Reformation  Ottoman empire and Suleiman – up to Vienna  Charles V divides his empire, gives up his titles, and enters a monastery in 1556  HRE lands to bro- Ferdinand  Spain and Netherlands to his son, Philip (Philip II)
  • King Philip II of Spain 1556-1598 Hard-working Devout and ambitious 42 year reign Made his own power absolute Claimed divine right Saw himself as guardian of the Catholic Church and worked to strengthen it  Enforced religious unity  Spanish Inquisition against Protestants and heretics
  • Netherlands viciously revolted for freedom from Spain’s reign  Revolts in the 1560’s, 1581 – Dutch Netherlands (they’re Protestant btw), not official til 1648Queen Elizabeth I of England is the archenemy (she and England are Protestant)  Queen Elizabeth secretly, then openly supported the Netherlands efforts for freedom  Encouraged Sea Dogs (English privateers) to plunder Spanish treasure ships  British navy defeats the Spanish Armada  Spanish had 130 ships 20,000 men and 2,400 artillery  Long term effects of this event!!!
  • 1600s Spain’s power and prosperity begin to declineLack of strong leadershipEconomic issues  Overseas wars drain wealth  Treasure from the Americas caused imbalance – Spain neglected their agriculture and commerce  Expulsion of Muslims and Jews caused a deficit of skilled artisans and merchants  American gold and silver caused soaring inflation
  • France under Louis XIV Huguenots – French Protestants  Catholicism is majority in France St. Bartholomew’s Day, August 24, 1572 –  Huguenot and Catholic nobles gather to celebrate a royal wedding  Violence erupts and 3,000 Huguenots are massacred  Many more Huguenots are slaughtered during the next few days  St. Bart’s Day Massacre becomes a symbol of a complete deterioration of order in France
  • Henry IV Huguenot prince who inherits the French throne in 1589 “Paris is well worth a Mass” Edict of Nantes – 1598  Officially tolerated Huguenots, allowed them to fortify their own towns and cities “a chicken in every pot”  Attempt to mend peasant life  Improves roads, builds bridges, revives agriculture **by reducing role of nobles, he lays groundwork for absolutism
  • Richelieu Henry IV killed by an assassin Louis XIII (his son) becomes king and appoints Cardinal Armand Richeleiu as his chief minister Richelieu – cunning, capable leader, spends his time strengthening the central government  Tries to destroy nobles’ power  Smashes the walls of Huguenot cities and bans formation of Huguenot armies  Defeated private armies of nobles and destroyed their fortified castles  Handpicks his successor – Cardinal Jules Mazarin
  • Louis XIV,the Sun King Became king at very young age (5 yrs old), Mazarin essentially rules for him The Fronde – uprising of nobles, merchants, peasants, and urban poor rebel, rioters even drive Louis out of the palace (even as a young boy) Mazarin dies 1661 “L’etat, c’est moi” – I am the State – Louis XIV takes responsibility for his reign and becomes an absolute monarch. The Sun – becomes his symbol of absolute power  Sun is the center of the universe and I am the center of the nation “I am the State”  Doesn’t call up the Estates General during his reign (so his power isn’t checked)  From 1614-1789 The Estates General isn’t called up
  • Colbert  Intendant system – royal officials who collect taxes, recruit soldiers, and carry out king’s policies in each province  Army becomes Europe’s best – state paid, fed, trained and supplied up to 300,000 soldiers  Jean Baptiste Colbert – brilliant finance minister  High tariffs on imports, encouraged overseas colonies, export to colonies  Becomes wealthiest state in Europe
  •  Built in the countryside near Paris  Spared no expense  Became the king’s home and seat of governmentVersailles  Housed 10,000 people from nobles and officials to servants  Elaborate ceremonies and rituals “levee”  **Controlling the nobles by luring them to Versailles**
  • Triumph of Parliament in England Tudors Line of Successors –  While the Tudor rulers believe in divine right, they also gave Parliament consideration King Henry VIII  Asked Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy – when they do, the monarch of England becomes the head of the Church of England  Parliament becomes used to being consulted Edward VI Mary I Queen Elizabeth I – 1559-1603  Consulted Parliament when needed, made her a very popular ruler  Forbade Parliament to meddle with the concept of her marriage (or lack of)
  •  When Elizabeth dies in 1603, no direct heir Stuarts – ruling family of Scotland, closest relative King James I  Butted heads with Parliament  Actually dissolves Parliament and collects the taxes he wants on his own  Dissenters – Puritans wanted to “purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices  Call for simpler services and a more democratic church (no bishops)  K. James tells them to leave or he’ll “do worse”  King James version of the Bible emerged in 1611
  •  Charles I – inherits throne in 1625 Behaved like an absolute monarch Imprisoned people without trial and squeezed nation for money 1628 needed to raise taxes again and has to summon Parliament  Won’t approve taxation til K. Charles signs the Petition of Right (prohibits king from taxing without Parliament’s approval, and prohibits imprisonment for unjust cause) Signs it, but dissolved Parliament in 1629 Rules for 11 years without them Creates bitter enemies – especially the Puritans 1637 – tries to impose the Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Calvinists They revolt, Charles summons Parl. To pay for the army needed to take care of the revolt
  • The Long ParliamentMet on and off from 1640-1653Parliament tried and executed the King’s chief ministersDeclare Parliament can’t be dissolved without their own consentCharles I lashes backLeads troops into the House of Commons to arrest its most radical leaders  They escape through the back door and flee to form their own armies
  • English Civil War 1642-1649 Cavaliers v. Roundheads Charles I and supporters v. Parliament and supporters – country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers, and Puritan clergy Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell  Skilled general  New Model Army  By 1647 the king was in the hands of Parliamentary forces
  •  Parliament puts King Charles on trial Condemned to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy” January 1649 “I am a martyr of the people” Says a prayer and then signals the executioner ***Implications in Europe?***
  • Shockwave through EuropeKings had been assassinated or killed in battle but never tried and executed by their own peopleIn England – no ruler can claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law
  • The CommonwealthThe House of Commons abolishes the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Church of EnglandDeclares England a republic, called the CommonwealthOliver Cromwell will serve as their leader
  • Puritan Influence  “rule of saints” – social revolution  Sunday set aside for religious observance  Anyone 14 or older caught “profaning” the Lord’s Day could be fined  Theatres, lewd dancing, taverns, and gambling are all restricted/closed down  Education is highly encouraged so both boys and girls can read the Bible  Encourage marriage to be based on love to encourage fidelity  Cromwell allowed religious freedom to other Protestants, and even welcomed Jews back into England (after 350+ yrs of exile)
  • Lord protectorOliver can’t get along with the Rump Parliament either  House of Commons wants to disband Cromwell’s 50,000 man army  So he disbands Parliament1653 – Declares himself Lord Protector  Imposes Puritan prohibitions  Creates the first written constitution for his “republic”…de facto dictatorship  Dies 1658, son Richard succeeds him, but England has had enough
  •  Cromwell dies 1658 Puritans lose grip on England 1660 – Parliament invites Charles II to take his rightful place as King Monarchy is restored and the people warmly welcome him Reopened taverns and theatres Restored Church of England, tolerated other Protestants
  •  James II inherits throne 1685 Flaunts his Catholic faith – even appoints Catholics in high office positions English Protestants really worried James II will reinstate Catholicism Parliamentary leaders ask James II’s daughter, Mary and her husband William to become the rulers of the throne
  • Glorious Revolution William and Mary come over from the Netherlands James II flees to France Bloodless overthrow of leadership called a “glorious revolution” King William III and Queen Mary II are not crowned until they recognize SEVERAL of Parliament’s conditions  English Bill of Rights – requires monarch to summon Parliament regularly and gives the House of Commons “power of the purse”  Bars Catholic monarchs  Restates traditional rights of English citizens (trial by jury)  Abolishes excess fines, cruel or unjust punishment  Habeas corpus – no person can be held in prison without first being charged a specific crime  Toleration Act 1689 – limits religious freedom to Puritans, Quakers and other dissenters (not Catholics yet); but, only CofE can hold gvt positions
  • EnlightenmentEarly Philosopher –Thomas Hobbes  Humans are flawed and need strong, harsh leadershipJohn Locke  Natural rights  Tabula rasa  Social contractEnlightenment Philosophers  Rousseau – “Social Contract”  Montesquieu – checks and balances
  • Status CheckSpainFranceEnglandHREItalyThe Church
  • Chapter 18 – Russia!Russia: the third Rome?Ivan IIIIvan IV  Time of Troubles  oprichnikiMichael Romanov
  • Peter the GreatHis Focus (the 3 W’s)WesternizationWindow to the West  Building St. PetersburgWarm water ports  Needs to acquire them
  • Selective BorrowingToured all over Europe incognitoShipbuilding from HollandBallet from FranceChristmas trees from Germany
  • St. Petersburg“Window to the West”Built in 1703Built on a marshCapital from 1703-1918
  • Organizes military in Western styleFirst navy for RussiaEstablishes secret policeContinually extended territoryBuilds up industry  Some serfs sent to mines and the industrial jobs
  • Forcing WesternizationForced on aristocracyBeardsWedding whips (p. 408 Stearns)Western clothesSpeaking French
  •  Marries Peter IIICatherine the  Prussian princess, converted toGreat Orthodoxy once her marriage is arranged  Becomes main ruler and helps develop a strong central state  Pugachev Rebellion  Claims Alaska  Fights Ottomans, wins Crimean Sea  Partition of Poland – split between Austria, Russia, and Prussia